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Full text of "Job evaluation methods"

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JOB EVALUATION 
METHODS 



By 
CHARLES WALTER LyTLE, M.E. 

PROFESSOR OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING, NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 



SECOND EDITION 



THE RONALD PRESS COMPANY ^ NEW YORK 






Coypright, 1954, by 
The Ronald Press Company 



Copyright, 1946, by 
The Ronald Press Company 



All Rights Reserved 

The text of this publication or any part 

thereof may not be reproduced in any 

manner whatsoever without permission in 

writing from the publisher. 



Library o£ Congress Catalog Card Number: 54-7648 

PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



PREFACE 



Everyone in industry today, from top management down through 
the rank and file, needs to know about job evaluation. The methods 
and the results of job evaluation significantly affect policy making, 
public relations, collective bargaining, the day-to-day operations 
of business concerns, and, of course, all phases of industrial rela- 
tions on all levels before and after hiring. 

This volume — like the first edition of 1946 — presents its subject 
analytically according to the functional steps that comprise the 
evaluation procedure. Each chapter is confined to a single phase of 
the whole procedure. Thus successive phases such as policies, 
methods, measuring scales, etc., are treated one at a time so that 
each can be investigated thoroughly, comparatively, and impartially. 
The analytic approach followed in this volume has several impor- 
tant advantages. It gives a sound, logical, and easily understood 
presentation. It makes possible the comparison and selection of 
appropriate measures to fit any particular set of conditions. And 
finally, this approach fully stands the test of practical use in devising 
job evaluation plans and in making or modifying installations. 

Since the first edition of this book, job evaluation has become far 
more widespread and experience with its methods has matured. 
This Second Edition takes into account all the new applications 
and successful procedures. For example, job evaluation has been 
applied to many jobs previously "exempt," such as supervisory, 
technical, and high-level executive positions, and many of the recent, 
well-known cases are described and compared step by step. Much 
material has been added to the treatment of rate structures for solv- 
ing the problems peculiar to this field; and numerous combinations 
are worked out both in table and chart form to show the effects 
of assignable variables. The discussion of merit rating (which may 
or may not supplement job evaluation plans in actual practice) now 
includes the findings of psychologists who worked during World 
War II to establish more reliable man-rating. A wholly new chapter 
which high-spots the principles of wage incentive methods has also 
been added. Many other changes have been made throughout the 
text to insure accuracy and a detailed, up-to-date exposition. 



iv PREFACE 

The job evaluation manuals of various companies and the numer- 
ous journal articles have unquestioned value, but these are almost 
entirely confined to single installations or to case history and ex- 
planations of particular plans. While such material should be 
carefully studied, case studies alone are not sufficient for the require- 
ments of the serious student. Something more is needed — namely, 
a comprehensive and systematic survey of the subject — and this the 
author has undertaken to provide. He has written the book for the 
reader who wants to explore the field thoroughly by first learning 
the principles and fundamentals before proceeding in more detail to 
the exact ways in which plans are devised, set up, and made to oper- 
ate smoothly. Thus, the analytic approach and the thorough pres- 
entation make this book readily adaptable for use in senior or 
graduate courses in colleges of engineering and commerce. 

A few words should be said about the nature of job evaluation 
as it is understood in this book. Care, judgment, flexibility, and 
imagination, rather than an exhaustive technical knowledge or 
training, are the prime requisites in undertaking job evaluation. 
Obviously a plan will follow previous patterns and practices as 
to fundamental provisions, but each installation should be hand-cut 
as to details to fit the special conditions and needs of the individual 
company. This point is constantly stressed throughout the book. 
There is such a thing as going too far in copying existing installa- 
tions because there are limitations in all such plans, working con- 
ditions vary in different companies, and no two groups of manage- 
ment and worker representatives see exactly alike on all points. 
Even after installation, plans usually need modification or additions 
from time to time. Employer's and employee's interests must be kept 
equally in mind at all times, and hence the author advocates a 
reasonable degree of participation on the part of unions in setting 
up and operating a job evaluation plan.- 

While the principles for an analytic approach to job evaluation 
do come from the study of previous experience, any temptation to 
present the material as an exact science or as a collection of stand- 
ardized patterns has been steadfastly resisted by the author as not 
in keeping with the true nature of the subject. However, liberal 
use of forms, tabulations, charts presenting graphically the setup 
of rating curves, and illustrative case material from well-conceived 
and successfully operating installations help the reader to grasp and 
visualize the subject in its entirety. 

Acknowledgment and thanks are due the managements of our 
progressive companies, large and small, whose manuals and exam- 
ple have provided much valuable information; to the consultants 



PREFACE V 

Specializing in this field; and to the associations which have given 
special attention to job evaluation, particularly the American Man- 
agement Association, the National Electrical Manufacturers Asso- 
ciation, the National Metal Trades Association, and the National 
Industrial Conference Board. To each of these the causes of better 
job evaluation and better labor relations, as well as this book, are 
much indebted. 

Finally, special appreciation is expressed to members of the 
author's advanced classes of graduate engineers who have not only 
stimulated his observation but also rendered timesaving assistance 
in sifting the best material out of a very ample unbound literature. 

Charles W. Lytle 
Philipse Manor 
April, 1954 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER PAGE 

1 A Minor Function Becomes a Major One . . 3 



2 Policy and Organization 

3 Methods and Techniques 

4 Choosing Job Characteristics 

5 Selling the Project .... 

6 Setting Up Measuring Scales 

7 Job Analysis — Describing and Specifying 

8 Rating the Jobs 

9 Classifying the Jobs .... 



10 Locality Surveys — Setting th ^ Genera i Wage 

Level 



1 1 Building the Rate Structur^b- 

12 Operating and Adjusting .... 

^13 Merit Rating 

14 Applying Evaluation to Office and Supervisory 
Positions 



15 Applying Evaluation to Executive and Profes 

signal Positions ..... 

16 Incentives Vital to Man — Job Unit Control 
Index 



15 

36 

56 

74 

89 

127 

172 

206 

236 
259 
294 

327 

374 

421 
470 
491 



Vll 



J oh Evaluation 
Methods 



1 



A MINOR FUNCTION BECOMES 
A MAJOR ONE 



Questions relating to the amount of work which labor should 
accomplish and the amount of wages which labor should receive 
are at the bottom of most grievances. 

— John W. Nickerson 

Job Requirements Are Not Simple. What the employer requires 
of the employee in work and what the employee requires of the 
employer in wages have always been delicate questions. Either 
party has often got the better of the other party. Collective bar- 
gaining is democratic and helpful but by itself does not assure cor- 
rect answers. This fact is evident from the frequent demands for 
rebargaining. In fact, we can hardly expect correct answers from 
unaided bargaining if we consider how many variables are involved. 
Bargaining done in ignorance on both sides is always a needlessly 
slow, costly process, and when the conditions of the bargain keep 
changing, so that it must be done over every year or every six 
months, it may give little improvement over old-time unilateral 
guesswork. 

We do not find it necessary any longer to haggle for hours over 
the price of an automobile. Why should we find it necessary to 
haggle over the most vitally important commodity of all — a human 
service? The answer is that it is not necessary to bargain on each 
individual job. Job evaluation is merely a convenient name for sys- 
tematic preparation for pricing in the labor market, closely com- 
parable to modern pricing of merchandise. The latter is made 
possible by adequate cost analysis, the former by adequate job 
analysis. 

Job evaluation, then, is neither more nor less than an effort to 
apply sound principles of measurement to determine what each job 
in an organization is really worth. That is not what the management 
thinks it ought to pay, nor what the worker, or his union, thinks he 



4 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

ought to get, but the fair share, to which a satisfactory performance 
of a job should entitle the man who performs it, of the profitable 
result to which his performance contributes. To make job analysis 
adequate for job evaluation it is necessary to think beyond the con- 
cept "amount of work" because that implies only the quantitative 
part of the employee's contribution. That part is tangible and can be 
positively checked by comparing the units produced per period of 
time with set tasks as is done for incentive payment. Less tangible, 
and hence more difficult, is the qualitative part which involves skill, 
effort, responsibility, and working conditions, not to mention the 
many possible subordinate considerations that are covered by these 
four major considerations. 

This qualitative part of the employee's contribution is a matter of 
guessing in old-fashioned "rate setting" and is but incidentally con- 
sidered in that part of job study known as "motion and time study." 
Hence a separate and different kind of job study must be made with 
the specific purpose of measuring the qualitative contribution. Such 
further study begins with job review or "job analysis," carries 
through "job description-specification," "job classification," and 
ends with "evaluation." This foundation should underlie every job 
rate whether for time payment or for incentive payment. Despite the 
fact that a wage rate is important to the employee as the limit of his 
"take home," to the employer as an influence on costs, and to both 
as a basis of harmony, job rating has been the last management 
problem in this field to get professional attention. Modern job 
analysis and its recent extension, job evaluation, are now solving this 
long neglected problem impersonally and objectively. These terms 
may be defined as follows: 

Jo b analysis is the review study of definite jobs to ascertain what 
kind and what degree of man-qualities are necessary to make man- 
job units operate satisfactorily. 

Job evaluati on is the extension of job analysis to ascertain reliably 
the relative worth of jobs, to transform these appraisals into a struc- 
ture of adequate rates, and to provide standard procedures for all 
additions to, and adjustments in, the rate structure. 

Job Evaluation, One of a Group of Controls. Labor efficiency 
or man-productivity is the variable effect of, or response to, plant 
conditions and practices which are variable causes. The latter varia- 
bles can largely be controlled, for better or for worse, by the policies, 
plans, and activities of management which create the jobs, or more 
accurately, the man-job units. Graphically we can picture man-job 
unit productivity as the resultant of five or six job-control com- 



A MINOR FUNCTION BECOMES A MAJOR ONE 



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6 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

ponents} Obviously, if we wish to change the direction or increase 
the magnitude of the man-job productivity resultant we must begin 
by installing, building up, or correcting the job-control components, 
not just one or two of them, but all of them. 

Let us suppose, for instance, that two like-sized factories, A and 
B, make identical improvements in one component, say wage incen- 
tives. That would be building up one of the job controls and each 
factory might achieve the same man-job unit productivity gain in 
percentage. But if A, because of the weakness of other job controls, 
had been below B in productivity before the change, it would con- 
tinue to be below B after the change. The weakness of A's other 
controls would not be corrected by the addition or strengthening of 
the single component and the resultant productivity would not be as 
much improved as it could have been if all components had been 
re-aligned. From the fact of equal percentage gain A would seem 
to be improving as much as B. Actually A might still be far below 
its rightful potential. 

Of the five or six components constituting job control the most 
fundamental are the standardization of conditions and the stand- 
ardization of operations (see Figure 1 ) . The former — development 
of equipment, that is, the design or selection of the most expedient 
equipment, jigs, tools, gauges, and the like — establishes the physical 
potential for quality of product. The latter — job standardization, 
that is, motion and time study - — establishes the physical potential 
for efficient operating. The first can largely be purchased from with- 
out while the second must be developed almost entirely from within. 
When these two components of job control have been fully devel- 
oped the factory will have attained improved, standardized jobs. 
The tasks or amounts of work per hour which derive therefrom can 
be used as bases for much of the planning and controlling, for effi- 
ciency measurement, for extra-financial incentives, and the like. 
But all this, as already explained, does not bring parity of wage 
rates; by itself it increases disparity of rates! 

Prerequisites of Job Evaluation. Concurrent with the adoption 
of extra-financial incentives, or even in lieu of them for many jobs, 
should come the components of job review-analysis and job evalua- 

' C. W. Lytle, "Job Evaluation— A Phase of Job Control," Personnel XVI, No. 
4. Also Roland Benjamin, Jr., "The Dynamics of Job Evaluation," The Manage- 
ment Review, XLII, No. 4. 

^ Developed directly from the works of Taylor and Gilbreth with the objective 
of determining the least costly methods of utilizing the physical assets. References 
recommended: Ralph M. Barnes, Motion and Time Study (New York: John 
Wiley & Sons, 1948); Production Handbook (New York: The Ronald Press Co., 
1953). 



A MINOR FUNCTION BECOMES A MAJOR ONE 7 

tion. Like the arrangement of an incentive these components should 
follow, never precede, job standardization, because they presuppose 
the existence of definite and reasonably stable jobs. If jobs are defi- 
nite and stable, because of automatic machinery, then perhaps 
further job standardization may be omitted, but we can scarcely 
imagine any kind of practical work which cannot be improved by 
an appropriate apphcation of motion and time study. Extra-finan- 
cial incentives are positively dangerous if not preceded by these and 
other preparatory controls. Job review-analysis and evaluation can 
be used more peremptorily but usually should not be. Certainly 
management must have gained labor's confidence in its general 
competence and fairness before attempting to build the component 
review-analysis and evaluation. When management has achieved 
the prerequisites it can gain a more complete confidence by creating 
a systematic and analytic job evaluation. 

Primary Purposes of Job Evaluation. In brief we may state the 
primary purposes of job evaluation as follows: 

1. To establish a general wage level for a given plant which will 
have parity, or an otherwise desired relativity, with those of 
neighbor plants, hence with the average level of the locality. 

2. To establish correct differentials for all jobs within the given 
plant. 

3. To bring new jobs into their proper relativity with jobs previ- 
ously established. 

4. To accomplish the foregoing by means of facts and principles 
which can be readily explained to, and accepted by, all con- 
cerned. 

Job evaluating can become a control of importance because: 

1. By reducing all essential job facts to convenient form it enables 
a management to implement policies of fairness. 

2. By adopting sound principles and impartial techniques it trains 
the supervisory force to be more nearly objective. 

3. By clarifying lines of authority and responsibility it obviates 
misunderstanding. 

4. By substantiating confidence it lessens grievances and simplifies 
wage negotiations. 

Conformity to sound principles makes possible consistency in job 
rating and the latter is the cornerstone of mutual fairness. If man- 
merit rating can be added as a top layer to all base rates, then pay- 
ment by time can have a limited but important incentive effect (see 



8 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Chapter 13). If any manager, not yet using job evaluation, thinks 
that rates set otherwise are already consistent let him examine the 
statistical picture shown in Figure 2. This figure may show a worse 
case than his own but it represents about the usual situation before 
completing job evaluation. 

Secondary Purposes of Job Evaluation. In this text we will not 
dwell on the use of job analysis as an aid to hiring, the sole aim of 
many managements in adopting job analysis between 1914 and 
1937. All such assistance and more can come from extending job 
analysis on through job evaluation. Certainly a: unified rate struc- 
ture embracing all jobs is important to any employment department. 
We will say here that, either for hiring or for transferring and pro- 
moting, even for demoting and discharging, a set of job description- 
specifications is considerably more valuable when consistent base 
rates or rate ranges are affixed to them. 

The secondary purposes are well indicated by the following out- 
line of a job evaluation program. 

1. To determine qualities necessary for a job when hiring new employees. 

2. To determine qualifies necessary for a job when making promotions. 

3. To determine if the system of advancement in a particular plant is from 
the job of lowest order toward the job of highest order. 

4. To determine qualities necessary when bringing back men who have been 
laid off or have been on leave for war service. During the interval 
there may have been changes in job content. 

5. To support explanations to employees as to why a particular man would 
not be suitable for a given opening. Many seniority clauses give 
preference to length of service only after the requirements of the job 
in the way of experience, etc., are satisfied. If the job rating has been 
made up by an independent agency and the entire plant has been rated 
there is likely to be less stress on mere seniority. 

6. To determine if men now occupying various jobs have qualifications 
required by the specifications. 

7. To determine if all men are placed to best advantage in respective jobs 
available, also to guide the revamping of jobs for skill conservation. 

8. To analyze hourly rates and to determine if they are in Une with rating 
given. 

9. To compare periodically wage rates with those for similar occupations 
at other local plants. 

10. To point out where greatest opportunities lie for development of auto- 
mafic equipment and improvement of working conditions, removal of 
hazards, etc. Any plant where job ratings are very high, indicating a 
predominance of highly skilled labor, usually is a plant where there are 
very few automatic operations. High ratings indicate places where it is 
most likely that improvements in equipment can be justified. 



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10 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Primarily job evaluation is not concerned with improvements in tools 
and methods but such possibilities are sometimes brought to light during 
the analyst's review studies, in which case a report should be made to 
the industrial engineering department. 

11. To train new supervisors. Specifications outlining duties of each man 
are useful in starting a new foreman on the job. Even an old foreman 
may have a wrong conception of job content and worth. 

12. To facilitate explanations to an employee of the fact that any improve- 
ment in working conditions theoretically should mean a reduction in 
his wage rate. For example, if a worker is located in a poorly heated 
building and better heating is installed, the installation of heating equip- 
ment, an improvement in working conditions, lowers his job classi- 
fication. Theoretically the base rate for the job should be lowered 
accordingly. Actually, poor working conditions rarely carry high ratings. 

It is not advocated that better working conditions be provided for the 
express purpose of lowering workers' rates. However, if an employee is 
shown that he is paid a higher rate because his working conditions are not 
the best, he will probably be better satisfied with his job.^ 

Collectively job evaluation facilitates the making of safe plans 
for the rearrangement or replacement of large numbers of workers. 
Only by such means is it possible to enter bargaining negotiations 
without fear or fumbling. Without it decisions are often influenced 
(1) by the favoritism of a supervisor, (2) by the advertising ability 
of an employee, (3) by bad guesses regarding the ratio of demand 
to supply, or (4) by precedents previously influenced by any of the 
foregoing. Job evaluation can eliminate all these extraneous influ- 
ences. The first two are precluded and the third, that of demand- 
to-supply ratio, can be kept from being confused with the relative 
worth of jobs by measuring the relative worth in terms of abstract 
points regardless of money rates. The supply-demand influence 
should be left to bargaining. In short, job evaluation completes the 
phases of job study and makes possible a rate structure which is 
independent of off-side, disrupting influences. Naturally this con- 
dition aflows a management to proceed with confidence and should 
do much to gain and keep the complete confidence of workers. This 
advantage alone will usually justify whatever costs are involved. 
It was, in fact, the exposure of this need that plunged management 
into the movement during the latter half of the prolonged depression, 
1935-1940. 

Transfoimation of "Rate Setting." The original purpose of job 
analysis was to classify jobs in order to correct the setting of job 
rates. Various attempts at job classification were made by Civil 

^^ Eugene Caldwell, "Job Rating," The Iron Age, CXLIV, No. 10. 



A MINOR FUNCTION BECOMES A MAJOR ONE 11 

Service reformers, beginning with the Civil Service Commission of 
1871. But modern job analysis was started in 1909 by a require- 
ment of the Civil Service Commission of Chicago and the subsequent 
work of the Commonwealth Edison Company of that city. No doubt 
inspiration for this step came from Taylor's practices: his further 
specialization of jobs, his "science of work" studies, his more careful 
selection and placement of operatives, and his examples of increasing 
unit labor cost to reduce unit total cost. Apparently Taylor and 
other engineers were too busy with the improvement of methods ^ to 
go far into this, the last step of job study. In fact, these pioneers, in 
developing better shop management, were putting most jobs on 
incentive payment and were content to work backward from total 
earnings to derive the base rates. Time-paid workers were left to 
supervision and "functionalized foremanship" was supposed to solve 
supervision. Furthermore, Taylor had little union contact until after 
1912. Thus the personnel men developed job analysis, as they 
named it, and for several years it remained mostly in large offices 
(see Chapter 7). 

World War I gave impetus to this personnel function. From that 
time on its use spread wherever there was a functionalized personnel 
staff. It seems, however, that the rate-setting function in factories 
was held jealously by line executives and they paid little attention to 
the new personnel files of job description-specifications. In fact, the 
techniques of job analysis were only then emerging from the experi- 
mental stage. Foreman-made descriptions were tried. Then the per- 
sonnel staffs made their own. Ranking or grading whole jobs was 
the usual method of determining their relative worth. A few indus- 
trial engineers were beginning to analyze work on basic "character- 
istics" but even in such experiments no one attempted to use weighted 
points to measure the relative worths. In 1924, Merrill R. Lott tried 
out the first thorough-going plan for weighting separate work char- 
acteristics. His fifteen characteristics included three that are now 
considered extraneous and others that were not well related but he, 
and those who followed, did get the pioneering done in time for a 
more urgent need. 

Pressing Need Had Developed by 1937. Meanwhile, jobs had 
been getting more specialized and more individualized. This out- 
come was the natural consequence of the many choices in equip- 
ment brought into being for various scales of operation and of many 
special solutions to "the one best way" which motion study was be- 

■* By this procedure he reduced unit labor cost without reducing employee 
earnings. 



12 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

ginning to effect. No longer was it safe to assume that jobs bearing 
the same titles in different factories were identically the same jobs. 
Employers could use only the relatively few key jobs for rate com- 
parisons, and even these needed to be checked by personal inspec- 
tion. Thus the "going rate" for any class of jobs in a community 
became less evident, and more undependable, as a basis for informal 
rate setting. This lack of reference points meant that the manage- 
ment of each plant had to work out its rate structure more inde- 
pendently of interplant comparisons. 

By 1937 another force, that of the unions, was pressing to the 
same storm center. Organized labor had long advocated "standard 
rates" and numerous states had passed minimum wage laws. The 
National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933-35 put the latter on a 
federal scale and the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 intensi- 
fied the activity of the unions. After the Supreme Court sustained 
that law in 1937 the two-year-old CIO was able to increase its 
membership by large numbers of unskilled and semiskilled workers 
and to exert a power never before wielded by American employees. 
Wage rates for large groups were set by collective bargaining and 
pushed upward frequently. Hours came down and, in not a few 
cases, efficiency per man-hour fell off alarmingly. In short, bargain- 
ing became as unbalanced in favor of employees as it had ever been 
unbalanced in favor of employers. Many a manager found it diffi- 
cult to defend his base rates. Where that occurred the higher-ups in 
management became interested and demanded some kind of "job- 
pictures" to help them get a grasp of the whole situation. Thus the 
few companies which had learned how to build a stormproof rate 
structure were stormed by their less farsighted neighbors asking for 
help. Soon the National Electrical Manufacturers Association, the 
National Metal Trades Association, and other employer associations 
were deep in the new business of job evaluation.^ 

Peace-to-War, War-to-Peace Conversion Benefited. It may not 

have been appreciated at the time but it can be seen now that it was 
fortunate to have thoroughly reliable methods of rate setting pushed 
into being before the war expansion began in 1941. As the Amer- 
ican machine tool industry benefited from its depression-completed 
redesigning and tooling, so American management benefited from 
its depression-completed development of job evaluation. The rate 
structure of many a plant was more free from "out-of-line rates" 
than ever before. New jobs could be fitted quickly into the structure. 
New thousands of employees could quickly be assigned high but 

■' In 1938, of 63 companies questioned, 32 were found to be doing job evaluation. 



A MINOR FUNCTION BECOMES A MAJOR ONE 13 

consistent rates. New demand-supply requirements could be ad- 
justed without upsetting any of the weighted values. Hence these 
prepared companies were better able to meet the demands of war 
without undue rate confusion and without loss of confidence on the 
part of unions. 

Many managements that were not prepared in this respect at the 
time of conversion lost no time in getting prepared for the reconver- 
sion. They realized that when wage and salary controls were eased 
or relinquished there would be a great commotion wherever man- 
agement failed to develop a program of job analysis and job evalua- 
tion. Much confusion, distress on the part of top management, and 
in many cases actual strikes were avoided where this preparation 
took place. A mature program of job control perhaps does not 
insure perfect calm, but it can do a great deal to smooth out the 
agitation. Job evaluation and all it connotes provide a factual basis 
for decision and for negotiation. It implements policy and wins 
confidence, and these advantages are always helpful when manage- 
ment is confronted with difficult problems. 

Here are only a few of the job evaluation problems which needed 
attention during post-war years. Some jobs had been split to make 
one skilled job for a woman and one heavy job for a man, neither 
of which rated as high as the original job. As women withdrew 
from industry or as the scale of operations shrank, it became neces- 
sary to recombine some of these narrowed jobs and put the more 
general job into a higher classification. Other jobs were upgraded 
on responsibility resulting from certain war conditions. Such jobs 
needed to be re-evaluated and reclassified downward. Many jobs 
were hastily put on incentives, without an evaluated base. In fact, 
the extension of evaluated bases for incentive jobs had barely begun 
at the end of the war and that had to be undertaken without delay 
in plants where it had thus far been neglected. We assure top man- 
agement that it will now save itself much trouble by installing job 
evaluation where no steps have been taken in that direction. In 
fact, it will also save itself much time for other matters. 

Surveys Indicating Present Use. A survey made by the Na- 
tional Industrial Conference Board in 1948, covering 3,498 com- 
panies, showed that 59 per cent of them had job evaluation applied 
to nearly all hourly paid jobs. Over half of these companies applied 
job evaluation to salaried jobs, one third to supervisory jobs, and 
one eighth to executive jobs. About the same time the Bureau of 
Labor Statistics reported that unions were participating in these 
plans at 50 per cent of the plants making metal parts, assemblies 
made of metal, and the like. 



14 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

A later NICE survey reported that 70 per cent of the plans in use 
were point systems, 10 per cent factor comparison systems, 14 per 
cent combinations of the foregoing, 4 per cent mere classification, 
and 2 per cent other unnamed systems. 

Recently The Dartnell Corporation of Chicago surveyed 96 
companies ^ regarding their use of job evaluation. All but 8 of the 
companies had installed their plans since 1940. Of these plans, 74 
used weighted points, 8 comparison of characteristics, 8 character- 
istics comparison combined with weighted points, and 6 ranking. 
Only 38 companies brought in consultants for installation. Only 
12 companies were nonunion, but 41 did not include the matter in 
their union contracts; 43 did. Fourteen companies did not apply 
it to the office force; 82 did. Only 12 companies had training pro- 
grams for preparing their supervisors, but 85 held meetings with 
their supervisors. All but 16 companies held meetings with their 
employees and most of them used the employee magazine plus bul- 
letins to explain what was coming. 

® See Report No. 605 (Chicago: Dartnell Personnel Administration Service). 



2 



POLICY AND ORGANIZATION 



Sound personnel administration means so organizing and treating 
people at work that they will utilize their maximum individual 
capacities, thereby attaining maximum personal and group satis- 
faction and rendering their maximum service to the enterprise 
of which they are a part. 

— Thomas G. Spates 



What Labor Wants. Elmo Roper, conductor of Fortune's poll, 
has stated labor's real wants or basic needs as: 

1 . Full employment at reasonably high wages 

2. A chance to advance 

3. Just to be treated like people 

4. A feeling of dignity and responsibility 

Other pollsters have reported much the same basic wants but 
have added: "a feeling of belonging — of being on the team," 
"a greater guarantee of security," and the like. These writers 
believe that the other wants — seniority rights, compulsory union 
membership, and the like — are devices for getting the real 
wants. Regardless of how these basic needs may be expressed, 
management should sincerely try to meet all of them and the best 
way to meet them is to anticipate them through its policies, which 
should stem from primary long-term determinations made by the 
most able and responsible officers, that is, by top management. In 
such planning evaluation can contribute much toward the fulfill- 
ment of the real wants of labor. And what are the wants of man- 
agement? Primarily the same, because these basic needs of labor 
have become the prerequisites of sound personnel relations; when 
sound relations are achieved management's greatest need — full 
cooperation — can be expected to follow. 

First in importance both to employee and to employer are, there- 
fore, the achievement of steady work and just individual remunera- 

15 



16 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

tion. Regularization of employment is beyond the scope of this text, 
if not beyond the reach of any text, but there is hope because em- 
ployers are now thinking in terms of "finding work for men" along 
with "finding men for work." Just remuneration is within our scope 
and is always possible if a management will approach the problem 
intelligently and fairly. Not only must the management believe that 
it is being fair, but the rank and file of employees must believe it, 
and to that end they should be informed on the poHcies that concern 
them.^ Furthermore, the policies must be implemented by standard- 
ized procedure and by adequately trained staffs, supervisors, facili- 
tating services, and any other help necessary. The standard pro- 
cedures must also be open to scrutiny. 

Wage Determination in General. In a free society there are 
many influences that affect wages. Reynolds of Yale University 
expresses the employer limits - as "maximum shutdown point," that 
wage level above which a company could not go for lack of abihty 
to pay, and "minimum shutdown point," that wage level below 
which a company would fail to attract labor. Actually "ability to 
pay" does not often enter the discussion, probably because profits 
have been badly cramped by taxes. WiUingness to pay is very much 
an issue. The "wage pattern," or the precedents set by "wage 
leaders," has undoubtedly had influence, but in the opinion of 
Ernest Dale it has been exaggerated. There are certainly such trends 
as the willingness to take fringe benefits in lieu of unattainable wage 
increases. The most interesting of these modern concessions has 
been the granting of "productivity increases." Unlike the cost-of- 
living adjustments, they are one-way movements, and hold out the 
expectation of continued gains. Labor is resistant to downward 
adjustments even if real wages remain constant and in fact is fearful 
of any arrangement that might tend to freeze the present standard of 
living.^ Most important of all the economic considerations is that 
of the prevailing or "going wage rate." This is fortunate because 
both management and labor can get facts on prevailing prices pro- 
vided the jobs to be priced are known definitely as to content and 
relative worth. 

^ Many American companies have published their personnel policies. Excellent 
examples of these may be obtained from The American Rolling Mill Company. 
The American Smelting and Refining Company, Dennison Manufacturing Com- 
pany, General Electric Company, General Motors Corporation, Procter & Gamble 
Company, Socony-Vacuum Oil Company, and others. 

^ L. G. Reynolds, Labor Economics and Labor Relations (New York: Prentice- 
Hall, Inc., 1949). 

^ See Management News, October, 1952. 



POLICY AND ORGANIZATION 17 

Practical Objectives. If the whole management is just and rea- 
sonable, free from discrimination or favoritism, and withal faith- 
fully consistent and patient, employees are bound to return 
confidence. To retain confidence indefinitely there must be adher- 
ence to full, incontestable facts, and to sound principles for their 
use. Job evaluation is the means of establishing the incontestable 
facts on relative job worth and that is the part we are concerned 
with. The following discussion is therefore focused on describing, 
rating, and pricing jobs. Within this boundary several questions 
must be answered at the very beginning. Is the general objective to 
rearrange the money rates in better relation without altering the 
existing average wage? Is it to elevate the whole rate structure to 
the prevailing general wage level? Under government regulations, 
is it to achieve as many increases as are permitted? Or is it only 
to eliminate existing violations of regulations? When the general 
objective is settled the more specific questions can be considered. 

Specific Considerations. The practical considerations regarding 
base rates emanate from management aims, which usually are: 

1 . Adoption of wage and salary levels which will meet competitive 
costs and assure stability. 

2. Establishment of correct differentials between jobs. 

3. Establishment of proper hours of work. 

4. Anticipation of requirements for overtime and shift work. 

5. Cooperation with employees as to grievances and adjustments. 

6. Measurement and recognition of individual merit. 

1. Within the so-called general wage level there are numerous 
wage and salary levels in each plant. A just level means, therefore, 
the one prevailing in the community for similar work, that is, for 
work requiring the same kind and degree of work characteristics. 
Facts of this sort must be gathered through locality surveys and 
analyzed for numerical distribution, not merely averaged. It is 
impossible to ascertain these levels correctly without the use of 
accurate job description-specifications. In peace times it is common 
for the more prosperous companies to exceed these levels, but in 
any case the actual going rates must be known and checked period- 
ically (see Chapter 10). The practice of putting women on lower 
wage levels than men has been under attack from many directions. 
Considerations of justice are overwhelmingly against it and yet it 
continues to a surprising degree. The pros and cons of this com- 
plex question are of considerable importance; they are treated 
brieflv later in this chapter. 



18 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

2. A differential means the difference in rate, or in rate range, 
midpoint to midpoint, also floor to floor and ceiling to ceiling, be- 
tween successive job or occupational classes. Under good job 
evaluation these differentials are freed from chance and favoritism. 
They are worked out as parts of a whole rate structure according to 
policy. Enhghtened employees want this practice followed as much 
as their employers do and one of the main sources of dissatisfaction 
is removed when it is done on an impersonal and orderly basis. 
Union objections to systematic derivation of differentials invariably 
mean a lack of confidence in the management, not a preference for 
opportunism. 

During World War II, P. F. Brissenden, Vice Chairman of the 
Second Region, National War Labor Board, made a vivid picture 
of this opportunism or lack of policy and system. 

These intermediate minimums are likely to resemble the chaotic hodge- 
podge of wage rates which is characteristic of factories in which the manage- 
ment has allowed its wage structure to develop by chance and as the uneven 
impact of various pressures may have dictated. It is necessary, therefore, 
to build up, not a hodge-podge of bracket minimums but a balanced, sym- 
metrical pattern of such minimums. For this purpose it has been possible, 
fortunately, to capitalize upon the experience of employers who, by careful 
evaluation and classification, have substituted order and design for chaos and 
disorder in their wage structure. 

Putting the matter positively, the policy and its implementing 
procedures should have as their objective the derivation of differen- 
tials which can be shaped into an orderly and stable rate structure 
(see Chapter 11). 

3. Both the amount of work per hour or task and the number of 
hours are related to the amount of pay. Hence these quantities are 
coming increasingly into the scope of bargaining. Tasks are de- 
rived, however, through technical studies and, if carried out accord- 
ing to acceptable policies, are usually left to management except 
for the right of appeal through grievance procedure (see Chapter 
12). Hours may also be left mainly to management but certain 
ramifications of the hours question, particularly those affecting the 
number of employees, are sure to be drawn into bargaining. For 
instance, in states where an unemployment compensation law pro- 
vides a "merit rating," a choice arises between the use of overtime 
during seasonal peaks and the hiring of extra employees. In such 
cases a general policy can dispel fear but this plan may not be 
practicable. If a temporary policy is developed it should be ex- 
plained as such. Whenever shorter hours are in prospect the man- 



POLICY AND ORGANIZATION 19 

agement should give the employees enough of the facts for them to 
gain a true view of the situation. 

4. The payment for overtime, in excess of 40 hours per week, was 
fixed at time and one half by the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 
and the Wage-Hour Act of 1940. Since these laws apply only to 
manufacturers or others engaged in interstate commerce, those em- 
ployers who believe they are exempt from these provisions of law, 
because they engage only in intrastate commerce, should obtain a 
ruling from the Wage-Hour administrator in their district before 
adopting any basic work week in excess of 40 hours. This pro- 
cedure is recommended to reduce the possibihty in borderline cases 
of having the courts rule and order back pay plus penalties. There 
remain the questions of extra pay for Sundays and holidays, and 
also for extra shifts. These matters are always covered by bargain- 
ing if there is a union but there is a choice of policy as to method of 
compensation. For extra shifts an hourly differential may be estab- 
Hshed, such as 6 cents for the second shift and 9 cents for the third, 
or a percentage, usually between 5 per cent and 12^/^ per cent, may 
be added to regular earnings. It is best to apply the percentage after 
base earnings are calculated rather than to change the piece rate or 
base hourly rate to include such "bonus." This method minimizes 
the possibility of complaints that wages have been reduced, when 
the extra amount is removed, in cases where employees are trans- 
ferred from a night shift to the regular day shift. 

5. With the extension of staff services and union in-shop activ- 
ities, practices pertaining to adjustments and operation have be- 
come so varied as to discourage any general comment. Always 
management must be prepared for adjustments and can obviate in- 
consistent practices by formulating a blanket policy and a set of 
standard practice procedures. As an end procedure there is usually 
what is called the machinery for settlement of grievances. This 
"machinery" is arranged jointly with the union and provides for 
bilateral informal hearings at several levels. If a grievance passes 
up through the highest level without reaching a mutually satisfactory 
settlement it must be mediated or arbitrated. For this purpose the 
bargaining agreement may provide an impartial chairman, on a 
temporary or a yearly basis. This step may be accomplished directly 
by the joint selection of a disinterested outsider or indirectly by 
calling in the State Mediation Board, American Arbitration Asso- 
ciation, or other similar group. Both parties agree to continue work 
during the hearings and to abide by whatever decision is handed 
down. There is no doubt that these practices have prevented strikes 
and lockouts. On the other hand, there has been a tendency to over- 



20 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

work the idea. Employee expression need not run wild. Union 
leaders should discourage all unnecessary resort to this outside set- 
tlement. A little two-way conciliation at the source will save both 
sides money and unnecessary irritation. If, for instance, an em- 
ployee has devised some improvement which substantially reduces 
the time required for his operation, the management should rec- 
ognize this development as ingenuity and pay that employee a lump 
sum amounting to the net saving for six months. The operation can 
then be studied and a higher task set for all doing the operation. 
The latter without the former is likely to create a grievance. 

6. If in the bargained agreement * arrangements for seniority 
have not precluded recognition of merit by means of rate increases, 
it is highly desirable to develop a policy which will give substantial 
rewards to the variegated and ever changing abilities and perform- 
ances of individual employees. This recognition is important as a 
matter of justice and as a matter of human satisfaction, both of 
which underlie morale. The procedure must provide for systematic 
measurement of merit, for payment of individual differentials on top 
of base rates, and for promotion when opportunity arises, all based 
on facts and sound principles. Management is grossly derehct in 
its responsibility if it has no policy here. 

Unions Also Have Policies. Not later than at step No. 9 (see 
steps at end of this chapter), preferably at step No. 3, discuss the 
plan with responsible union representatives and put all cards ojj the 
table.^ 

Toward job evaluation, as toward most management tools, there 
is no single union attitude. Partly because union officials must be 
politic and partly because they deal with different kinds of manage- 
ment, the attitudes of two locals of the same union may be widely 
different and the attitude of any one local may be different tomor- 
row from today. This is opportunism rather than inconsistency. 
Top union policy is more constant over a period of time. The 
variation there is largely a matter of general strategy. There seem 
to be three of these strategies ^ as follows : 

^ See Personnel Policy Board, Department of Defense, Report of Subcommittee: 
"Development and Recommendation of a Department of Defense Wage Policy," 
Oct. 1, 1949; National Industrial Conference Board, Studies in Personnel Policy 94, 
Union Contracts Since the Taft-Hartley Act; American Management Association. 
Personnel Series 136, "Wage Policy and Problems in a Preparedness Economy"'; 
General Electric Corporation, "Supervisors' Guide to General Electric Job In- 
formation." 

^ E. N. Hay, "How We Established Written Employee Policies," Personnel, 
XVIII, No. 2. 

^ C. W. Lytle, The Setting for Job Evaluation (Controllers Institute of America, 
Current Compensation Problems, 1947). 



POLICY AND ORGANIZATION 21 

1. Complete opposition. Job evaluation has evolved as a man- 
agement tool and management is always out to get the better of a 
union. Furthermore job evaluation is likely to be a rigid system 
and can fortify whatever worths emerge from the system. This is 
likely to lessen the scope of bargaining if it does not actually freeze 
the status quo. Therefore we will have a better chance to win our 
demands if no such system is in existence. 

2. Toleration plus veto. Although it is a management tool, this 
particular management has been honest and we may gain by the 
objective treatment. All we fear is some specific case in which we 
may want to fight for more than the system allows. We will not 
therefore oppose this plan but will accept no share of responsibility 
in its creation or in any advance determination. We can then op- 
pose any particular result and correct it at the time of negotiating 
or by registering a grievance. 

3. Limited approval through participation. The rate of pay is 
legally within our bargaining rights. Job evaluation is the con- 
structive way to derive relative worths. Therefore we insist that 
participation equivalent to bargaining be allowed us from the start. 
In this way our experience enters into the pooled judgment and we 
will be more sure to get justice all along the fine. Final bargaining 
is available anyway for the translation into money rates and we 
can resort to grievance machinery — arbitration — whenever we are 
not satisfied. 

Under the first strategy it may be inexpedient for management 
to attempt any kind of job evaluation or at best to confine the at- 
tempt to a crude form of job classification. 

Under the second strategy the union may seem acquiescent at 
first and make a lot of trouble later or it may order its locals to 
take no step toward acceptance until the top union officials are in 
possession of all facts as to proposed characteristics, job descrip- 
tions, measurement scales, and the like. This means delay and 
revision, but if both parties are willing to compromise there may 
be a very satisfactory outcome. 

Under the third strategy there will be need for many exchanges 
of views from the beginning and a heavy expenditure of time for 
committee work, but the results are likely to be excellent and of a 
lasting nature. We think this possibility is particularly hopeful in 
the newer industries where there are no historical precedents and 
where job contents are not as well stabilized as in older plants. 

The Question of Rates for Women's Jobs. Job evaluation deals 
with jobs impersonally and is not concerned with the race, creed, 



22 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

color, age, or sex of the employee. Equal pay for equal work is the 
very essence of job evaluation. Nevertheless many companies con- 
tinue to retain differentials between comparable jobs on the basis 
of sex only. Also, many companies pay lower hiring rates to women 
than to men. Doubtless the custom of having different job classifica- 
tions for male and female arose from the fact that male and female 
operators did not often work on identical jobs. In both World Wars 
women did take many kinds of jobs and after each war a large 
number of women remained on men's jobs, often doing as well as, 
or better than, the men. In fact a study reported by our Department 
of Commerce indicated that 23,350,000 women had work experi- 
ence in 1950. Of these 36.8 per cent held year-round, full-time 
jobs while 17.9 per cent held part-year, full-time jobs and 45.3 per 
cent held intermittent or part-time jobs. The permanent role of 
women in our labor force is indicated by the increasing proportions 
of married women and of older women holding or seeking jobs. 
About 51 per cent of these women are married, 33 per cent are 
single, and 16 per cent are widowed or divorced. About 25 per 
cent of our women job holders have children under 18 years of age. 

Claims for Equal Pay. The women's arguments for equal pay 
are many and are addressed in every direction. 

To working women: Equal pay is a matter of simple justice. It 
insures women's receiving what they are entitled to for the work 
they do. It will help the women meet the present high cost of living 
by removing any wage disparities. The great majority of women 
have to work to support themselves and one or more dependents 
and are not working for "pin money." 

To housewives: Wage differentials based on sex are unfair to 
men (husbands) also because they sometimes drag down men's wage 
standards. Equal pay means more economic security for house- 
wives and their children, for it protects the wages of male heads of 
families. 

To working men: Equal pay affords men greater wage and job 
security. It discourages employers from hiring women for less 
money, or as sometimes happens, from replacing men with women 
at lower rates. 

To the industry: Equal pay protects fair employers from the un- 
fair competition of those who attempt to use women as undercutters 
of men's wages. 

The equal pay policy reduces friction over rates. It improves 
employee morale. The women's attitude toward their w^ork im- 



POLICY AND ORGANIZATION 23 

proves and their efficiency increases. An equal pay system is easier 
to administer than a dual rate structure based on sex. 

Other claims for "equal pay" are: The practice of equal pay for 
women is essential to a healthy economy because by protecting wage 
levels of all workers it sustains consumer purchasing power. This 
fact is better understood after consideration of the results of wage 
discrimination against women — that is, unequal pay — a situation 
that bears a close analogy to the principle of Gresham's Law, that 
bad money drives out good. It is an axiom of wage theory that 
when large numbers of workers can be hired at lower rates of pay 
than those prevailing at any given time, the competition of such 
persons for jobs results either in the displacement of the higher paid 
workers or in the acceptance by them of lower rates. 

That the practice of wage discrimination against women on any 
large scale in the United States can very seriously affect the wage 
structure is evident from a consideration of the importance of the 
woman labor force in the country's economy. At the time of writ- 
ing twelve of our more highly industrialized states have already 
passed "equal pay" laws. 

Policy Determination. We might summarize the matters needing 
policy determination as follows: 

1. Accessions and Separations 

Hiring from within and from without 
Minimum and maximum age requirements 
Restrictions on employment of women 
Restrictions on employment of relatives 
Restrictions on absence, conditions of reinstatement 
Conditions of simultaneous outside employment 
Order of layoff, effect on service record, seniority 
Terms of dismissal and severance compensation 
Causes for discharge 

2. Payment 

Allowances for sickness absences 
Vacations with pay and pay in lieu of vacations 
Terms of payment for holidays 
Arrangements for bonuses or premiums 
Time and method of paying wages earned 

3. Standard Practice as to Rates 

Hiring rates 

Leamees' rates 

Level for base rates, trend, and limit lines 



24 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Number and width of job classes 

Range of rates per job class 

Classification and reclassification of employees 

Conditions of transfer and promotion 

Conditions of guarantees 

Conditions of change from incentive work to time-paid work 

Determination of earnings when two time rates are involved 

4. Hours 

Normal hours of work day and week, lunch period, etc. 

Rules for registering in and out 

Rules regarding tardiness 

Rewards for attendance 

Rules for eating, smoking, rest periods, etc. 

5. Work Beyond Regular Shift 

Conditions of overtime payment 

Choice between overtime and further hiring 

Terms for shift work 

6. Grievance and Adjustment 

Procedures for change of rates (or tasks) 
Breakage of tools, spoilage of material, etc. 
Furnishing of work clothes, etc. 
Progressive steps for settlement of grievances 

7. Promotion 

Use of systematic merit rating 
Follow-up of personnel staff 
Preplanned paths of promotion 
Training in preparation for promotion 
Medals and nonfinancial recognition 



Example of Wage and Salary Policy 
THE SMITH MANUFACTURING COMPANY, INC." 

ACTION TO BE TAKEN 

1. Have Executive Committee review and approve. 

2. File such forms with Treasury as may be required to authorize any parts 
of the policy statement. 

3. Make such modifications as are required by Treasury rulings on specific 
applications. 

4. Present to Executive Committee in final form for adoption. 

5. Establish a stated schedule of review periods at which this policy is to be 
carefully reviewed and revisions drawn up for Executive Committee's 
approval. 

"^ Courtesy of a clock manufacturer in Connecticut. 



POLICY AND ORGANIZATION 25 

6. Appoint an officer to assume the responsibility for review, revision, and 
submission to Executive Committee at proper date. 

Statement of Wage Policy 
THE SMITH MANUFACTURING COMPANY, INC. 

1. In order to clarify our thinking and to stabilize and standardize our 
methods of paying salaries and wages, and in order to insure compliance 
with Law, Rulings, Executive Orders, General Orders, etc., we are reciting 
herein our wage and salary policy. 

2. This is a statement of policy, written for the purposes mentioned. It 
is not to be construed as an employer-employee agreement. It is not a plan 
for increases and advancement. It is not to be submitted to any group outside 
our company for approval. 

3. It is subject to acceptance by the Executive Committee. It is subject 
to revision and amendment as new regulations or the needs of the company 
may dictate, provided that all such changes be approved by the Executive 
Committee. 

4. The company will compensate some of its employees on a wage basis, 
some on a salary basis, and it will pay rates as good as, or better than, the 
weighted average prevailing in the locality for classes of labor for which 
there is a supply and demand in the local market. 

5. Wages means compensation for personal services, which is computed 
on an hourly or daily basis, a piecework basis, or any other comparable 
basis. 

6. Salary means compensation computed on a weekly, monthly, annual, 
or comparable basis. 

7. For compensation purposes, the company classifies all personnel into 
the following groups: 

a) Officers 

b) Executive employees 

c) Administrative employees 

d) Operators 

e) Shop clerical employees 
/) Office employees 

8. Officers are the corporate officers, as shown in the company's corporate 
statement. These officers are paid a salary on an annual basis. Some of these 
are paid a salary in two parts — one part is drawn each week and the other 
part is drawn each quarter. Others draw their salary every month. 

9. The Board of Directors has delegated to the Executive Committee sole 
jurisdiction over officers' salaries. Therefore, any change in an officer's 
compensation must be authorized by the Executive Committee before sub- 
mission to the Treasury Department for approval. 

10. In the case of the Smith Manufacturing Company, Inc., the salary 
of any officer should not be increased or decreased without approval of the 
Treasury Department. 



26 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

11. In the case of the Smith Manufacturing Company, Inc., it is advisable 
to obtain Treasury approval of any reclassification of an officer to another 
office if any salary change is involved. 

12. Officers shall not be required to observe specific working hours nor 
any fixed vacation period. They are selected for their special value to the 
company and should be free to deliver the best at their command and not be 
circumscribed by narrow limitations. Vacations should be arranged by agree- 
ment among the officers themselves. During the present emergency, it is 
suggested that officers limit their vacations to two weeks in each calendar 
year. 

13. Executive Employees are those who qualify as Executive Employees 
under Treasury Department regulations and the Wage-Hour Act. They 
shall be paid a salary on a weekly basis. Some of these may draw their salary 
on a weekly drawing while others may draw part of their salary weekly and 
part of it quarterly. 

14. In the case of the Smith Manufacturing Company, Inc., any change 
in an Executive Employee's salary for any reason should be submitted to the 
Treasury Department for approval. 

15. While the emergency lasts, the vacations of all employees under the 
rank of officer will be limited to one week. All Executive, Administrative 
and Office Employees who are in the employ of the company on June 1st and 
who have been in the company's employ for a period of one year previous 
to June 1st shall be allowed one week's vacation with pay during the vaca- 
tion period starting June 1st. All such employees who on June 1st have 
been in our employ less than one year shall be allowed 2 per cent of all the 
take-home earned by them in the period from June 1st to May 31st. 

16. For all employees whose wages are computed on the basis of 1/10 
hour and who are in the company's employ on June 1st, vacation pay shall 
be figured as 2 per cent of all the take-home earned during the immediately 
preceding period from June 1st to May 31st. 

17. If an employee, whose wages are computed on the basis of 1/10 
hour, is in our employ on June 1st of any year and has not due to layoff been 
absent more than a total of six months during the period from June 1st to 
May 31st, that employee shall not lose vacation credit for the time the em- 
ployee was laid off. In the case of such employees, the average take-home 
for all full weeks worked shall be computed and that average shall be allowed 
for every week the employee was laid off. The value of the weeks laid off, 
thus computed, shall be added to the value of the weeks actually worked in 
computing the vacation pay on the basis of 2 per cent of a 52-week period. 

18. The company reserves the right to make exceptions to strict interpreta- 
tion of its vacation policy in the case of old and faithful employees and in the 
case of employees who have rendered exceptional or unusual service. Old 
and faithful employees shall be those who have served satisfactorily for a 
total of 15 years or more. In the case of "exceptional or unusual service," 
exceptions will be made where the employee's extra efforts and consequent 
fatigue have caused absences which ordinarily would count against vacation 
credits. Such absences will not be counted. Also, the company reserves the 



POLICY AND ORGANIZATION 27 

right to order an employee to take a rest at full pay for any length of time 
that the company feels will help that employee to recover from unusual 
fatigue and permit that employee to resume and continue his usefulness to 
himself, the community, and the company. 

19. Any employee, absent without leave, shall be deemed to have resigned 
as of the date or time at which he first did not report for work as expected. 
Such employees may be reinstated on the company's payroll, at management's 
option, contingent upon satisfactory explanation of the absence. Employees 
who are not reinstated shall be subject to rehiring if they wish to resume 
work with the company. Reinstated employees shall not lose vacation credits. 
Rehired employees shall have all vacation credit prior to the absence can- 
celed. Their credit shall start again as of the rehiring date. It is understood 
that the company may accept the resignation implied or refuse to accept it, 
may reinstate or not reinstate, may rehire or not rehire, entirely at the 
company's option. Employees whom the company has decided to dismiss for 
any reason, or whom the company refuses to rehire, shall be given a release. 
Any employee who refuses to accept rehiring without credits as a basis for 
returning to work shall be deemed to have voluntarily resigned. In such 
cases, a release will not be issued. 

20. All vacation credits must be used up in the period in which they 
apply. They do not accumulate. 

21. Executive Employees and Administrative Employees shall be allowed 
during each year, starting June 1st and ending May 31st, one week's sick 
leave with pay. In the office such employees will be charged 1/11 of a week's 
salary for each half day of absence. In the shop, such employees will be 
charged 1/12 of a week's salary for each half day of absence. It is 
understood, of course, that no matter how charges are deducted, these 
employees must be paid for an entire week if they work any part of a work- 
week. 

22. The work-week shall be a period beginning at 12:01 A.M. Monday 
and ending at midnight on Sunday. 

23. In the office, the first half day begins at 12:01 A.M. and ends at 
11:55 A.M. The second half day begins at 12:48 P.M. and ends at mid- 
night. 

In the shop, the first half day begins at 12:01 A.M. and ends at 11:12 
A.M. The second half day begins at 11 :30 A.M. and ends at midnight. 

24. Operators are all those who perform manual work in the shop or 
who spend in the shop more than 20 per cent of their time during a normal 
work-week at work other than clerical which cannot be described as execu- 
tive, administrative, or professional. Operators shall be paid wages which 
shall be computed on the basis of 1/10 hour. 

25. All adjustments in the base rates of Operators must be made in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of the government or any amendment or substi- 
tute thereof or by virtue of the approval by the W.S.B. of an application 
for wage adjustment on suitable form. 

Any employee shall have access to his own rating file in the personnel 
office. All the employee need do is to speak to his foreman who will make 



28 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

an appointment for the employee. Foremen are instructed to make these 
appointments at the earliest opportunity. 

Rating files will be continuously reviewed and worthy cases will be further 
studied and ranked according to relative merit. 

These ranked cases will be placed in two separate files: (1) those eligible 
for reclassification, and (2) those deemed worthy of wage increases. Em- 
ployees whose rating papers are placed in these files will be known as 
Eligibles. 

As opportunities for advancement or increases arise, rewards will be 
distributed to those Eligibles. Those whose qualifications make them best 
fitted for available better jobs will be reclassified. Those most deserving of 
wage increases will be given increases. Advances and increases will be 
effected in accordance with government regulations. This process will con- 
tinue down the list until available benefits are exhausted or until all Eligibles 
are rewarded. 

In cases where two or more employees are equally deserving, they shall 
be rewarded in accordance with their length of service — the longest in service 
shall be the first considered. 

To safeguard the interests of all employees, the cases of those who do 
not "make" the Eligible Files will be given careful study. Every effort will 
be made to help build their effectiveness to the point where they can make 
progress in the company's service. 

26. Employees whose wages are computed on the basis of 1/10 hour 
may spend a week away from the shop on vacation or remain at work by 
arrangement with management. If they spend a week away from the shop, 
they will not be paid any wages during their absence. They will in any case 
receive their vacation pay as above. 

27. There shall be no sick-leave allowance for Operators. 

28. Shop Clerical Employees are those who work in the shop and whose 
work is largely mental in its aspects, even though a certain amount of manual 
activity may be involved, and who spend more than 20 per cent of their time 
during a normal work-week at work which cannot be described as executive, 
administrative, or professional. Shop Clerical Employees shall be paid wages 
computed on the basis of 1/10 hour. 

29. Adjustments in the wages of Shop Clerical Employees must be made 
in accordance with the provisions of the government. 

30. There shall be no sick-leave allowance for Shop Clerical Employees. 

31. Office Employees are those who work primarily in the office, whose 
work is largely mental in its aspects even though a certain amount of manual 
effort or activity may be involved, and who spend more than 20 per cent of 
their time during a normal work-week at work which cannot be described 
as executive, administrative, or professional. Office Employees shall be paid 
wages computed on the basis of one half day. 

32. Adjustments in earnings of Office Employees must be made in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of the government, or any amendment or sub- 
stitute thereof, or by virtue of approval of an application for wage adjust- 
ment on suitable form. 



POLICY AND ORGANIZATION 29 

33. Office Employees shall be allowed vacation with pay, as stated above 
in paragraph 15. 

34. Office Employees shall be allowed one week's sick leave with pay. 
Against this credit of one week's (11 half days) pay during each year, be- 
ginning June 1st and ending May 31st, they shall be charged one half day's 
pay for each half day's absence because of illness. 

35. The following days shall be observed as holidays: 

New Year's Day 
Good Friday 
Memorial Day 
Fourth of July 
Labor Day 
Thanksgiving Day 
Christmas Day 

36. If any of these days falls on a Sunday, the holiday will be observed 
the following Monday. 

37. Officers, whose salary is on an annual basis, are not affected by the 
holiday schedule. They may work or they may not work on the holiday and 
their compensation will remain unchanged. 

38. Executive and Administrative Employees, if they work on a holiday, 
shall be entitled to extra compensation as follows: 

In the case of Executive or Administrative Employees who work in the 
office, the extra compensation shall amount to 2/11 of their weekly salary 
for each holiday worked which does not fall on Saturday and 1/11 of their 
weekly salary for each Saturday holiday. 

In the case of Executive or Administrative Employees who work in the 
shop, the extra compensation shall amount to 2/12 of their weekly salary 
for each holiday worked. 

39. Operators who work on holidays shall be entitled to time and one half 
for all hours worked. If the holiday occurs after 40 hours have been worked 
in any work-week, the operator will still be paid time and one half for all 
hours worked and no greater amount by virtue of the fact that he is already 
entitled to time and one half on the basis of hours worked. Premium time 
cannot be pyramided; it can be collected on one basis only. 

40. Care should be exercised in figuring holiday time credits where the 
end of the 40-hour period falls sometime during the holiday. In this case, the 
effect of the holiday is to entitle the Operator to time and one half for all 
hours on the holiday worked before the 40-hour period expired. He gets time 
and one half for all hours over 40 anyway. 

41. Shop Clerical Employees shall benefit by holidays in same manner as 
Operators. See paragraphs 39 and 40. 



Other matters pertaining to policy are discussed in Chapters 5, 
11, and 12. 



30 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Sequential Steps in Organizing. We define organizing as: 

1. Determining and relating purposeful functions. 

2. Breaking the functions into duties; allocating these to specific 
jobs. (Size of plant affects this.) 

3. Delegating adequate responsibility and authority for each job. 

4. Selecting and training personnel to do each job. 

These respective steps are discussed in detail in the following 
paragraphs. 

Determination of Purposeful Functions. Obviously two kinds of 
functions are involved at the time of starting any new program, 
namely, research functions and operating functions. If the program 
is somewhat technical and in need of constant upkeep the research 
functions must be continued with the operating but usually on a 
reduced scale. In the case of job evaluation, 

Research functions include: 

1. Design and standardization of methods, techniques, and pro- 
cedures. 

2. Harmonization with practice of other functions. 

3. Classification of jobs and job titles, to build and maintain a rate 
structure. 

4. Arrangement of intercompany surveys. 

5. Preparation of data for policy appraisal. 

Operating functions include: 

1 . Interpretation and enforcement of policy. 

2. Maintenance of records. 

3. Recommendations for or against rate changes. 

4. Cooperation with work of other staff services. 

5. Cooperation with work of dispute committees. 

6. Facilitation service to line officers, foremen, etc. 

Organizing a Wage and Salary Division. With the foregoing 
determination of functions (see also Chapter 1, Figure 1) in mind 
it is now possible to define the duties involved, group them into jobs, 
write descriptions and specifications for each job, evaluate these jobs 
as to responsibility, select the man to head the division and perhaps 
help him to select his assistants — in short, to organize the nucleus of 
a new wage and salary division. 

The size of a company, of course, must be considered in group- 
ing the duties into jobs. In very small companies an assistant to one 
of the line officers might have to take on the whole set of duties or, 



POLICY AND ORGANIZATION 31 

in case there is already a personnel functionary, he would take 
charge, hiring a suitable assistant to relieve himself of subordinate 
duties in this or in other functions. All these staff functions are 
difficult for small companies to undertake but the amount of such 
indirect work that can be justified is often considerable. Com- 
panies having as many as five hundred productive employees can 
go into most of these functions if they avoid unnecessary detail and 
companies having a thousand or more productive employees can 
usually afford specialists for all genuine services. Although the work 
of wage and salary administration must be constantly coordinated 
with the work of a methods department, it is unusual to find these 
functions combined. In practice they have developed separately. 
Usually it is best to keep them separate provided each group is 
trained to cooperate as needed. In very large companies this co- 
operation may be accomplished through special liaison assistants. 

Another consideration which affects the organization is the extent 
of application of job evaluation. The nature of incentive work pro- 
vides a reverse process for deriving base rates and, while that is 
certainly not the ideal way of fixing rates, at least many manage- 
ments have seen fit to leave well enough alone, that is, they have at 
first chosen to apply job evaluation only to time-paid work. Fur- 
thermore, most companies have been content to stop below or just 
above the supervision level. Even so, it is well to consider at the 
beginning whether or not the plan to be adopted can later be ex- 
tended without radical change. Thus the question of what plan to 
follow must be decided very early in the development. This ques- 
tion is often answered by the higher management after seeking 
advice from a trade association or from a consultant. 

In any case someone already in the organization must be selected 
to father the project. Usually the chief personnel officer gets this 
assignment but sometimes another officer may volunteer or be 
drafted because he has acquired a longer and more intimate famil- 
iarity with a larger number of the jobs. In two such cases the 
treasurer was in charge of the new division until the creative work 
was completed. Two other large companies put the function directly 
under their general managers. Because no one executive is likely 
to be familiar with all jobs, it is customary to use the committee 
form of organization. A top steering committee might be composed 
of an assistant personnel director, to serve as chief wage and salary 
administrator, and the superintendents of the departments con- 
cerned, not more than six. All should have analytical abihty and 
be capable of maintaining a high degree of objectivity. This wage 
(and/or salary) administrative committee will then transfer or em- 



32 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

ploy a man as "chief rate analyst" to do much of the detail work 
between committee meetings. Eventually this specialist may be 
promoted to the position of Chief Wage and Salary Administrator. 
One of his important duties is to train an assistant analyst for each 
plant. This training is done by such means, among others, as con- 
ferences, rotation of assignments, and periodic visits. The aim is 
to achieve uniform practice. 

The Procter & Gamble Company uses a combination of perma- 
nent and temporary committee membership. For a department the 
superintendent is a permanent member and serves as chairman. In 
the factory an industrial engineer makes a second permanent mem- 
ber while in the office the office manager makes the second perma- 
nent member. These permanent members rate all jobs but are aided 
by three others who rotate, namely, the foreman or supervisor of 
each group being studied and two others who have had recent 
experience with or know the particular jobs. The Industrial Rela- 
tions Supervisor acts as secretary and under some agreements a 
union representative sits as an observer. 

Order of Steps to Be Taken. Before completing the new organi- 
zation it will be helpful to lay out a schedule of steps to be taken. 
They may be briefly stated as follows : 

1. Choose the most suitable method and the main techniques. 
2., Choose the major job characteristics, then the minor ones, and 
apportion limiting values if weighted points are to be used. 

3. Start selling the proposition to all concerned; seek suggestions. 

4. Build definitions, measuring scales, or comparison techniques, 
and assign relative values. 

5. Design forms or questionnaires and collect preliminary descrip- 
tions. 

6. Identify and evaluate key jobs, using one characteristic at a 
time but all of them in succession (keeping within limits of 
No. 2). 

7. Edit preliminary descriptions and establish grades. 

8. Evaluate remaining jobs on all characteristics (keeping proper 
relationship to key jobs), harmonize job titles, and grade. 

9. Now, if not sooner, be sure union representatives concur in 
job descriptions and weightings. 

10. Make intercompany survey on key jobs only, but try to find at 
least one per class or labor grade. 

11. Design a whole rate structure as a guide, using existing wage 
scale tentatively. 



POLICY AND ORGANIZATION 33 

12. Bargain as to new money scale (pricing). Fix new trend line 
and revise ranges. 

13. Readjust all rates relative to line; standardize and put into 
working form; finally fix all operating procedures. 

The order of these steps is logical but not sacred. Some steps may 
be taken simultaneously, some omitted according to which plan is 
adopted, but as a general treatment the succeeding chapters will 
adhere to this order. 

Should a Consultant Be Engaged? As this work has been devel- 
oped successfully with and without the aid of consultants it is evi- 
dent that there are pro and con conclusions on the subject. Further- 
more it is possible to use a consultant at the very start of the project 
and then apply it without a consultant. Perhaps the determining 
considerations are the size of the company and the resourcefulness 
of the local management. Certainly a consultant experienced in job 
evaluation can get right to work without any experimenting. He 
will usually have a plan which he knows thoroughly and will bring 
a staff, picked and trained for this particular kind of analytical 
ability. If the local company can match the consultant in such 
specialized ability and experience there is little need to bring in the 
outside service and none of the initial experience will be lost. This 
factor suggests a combination of consultant and company-employed 
staff, the former to direct and the latter to carry out the directions. 
The techniques can be acquired rapidly if the right personnel are 
assigned to the work, but progress will not be rapid unless the local 
men are relieved of other duties. Some think that the consultant 
will have superior prestige. This is often true but the local manage- 
ment must eventually carry on by itself and must sooner or later 
win employee confidence on its own account. If speed of installa- 
tion is important perhaps a consultant should be asked to do the 
whole work of installation; otherwise, we advise a large company 
to do everything itself and a small company to do all it can under 
the temporary guidance of a consultant. The matter of tailor-fitting 
is best served by those who have long known the company ways. 
Incidentally, the by-product of managerial training which accom- 
panies this kind of work is sufificient reason for a company to do as 
much as it can itself even if the time of completion is a little later. 

A recent NICE survey reports that 50 per cent of all companies 
employ a consultant, 20 per cent follow their trade association plan, 
6 per cent adapt known plans, and 24 per cent develop their own 
plans unaided. 



34 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Description of Analyst's Own Job. When a new program as far- 
reaching as that of modern wage and salary administration is to be 
installed it is necessary for top management to write and coordinate 
the new duties that each official must add to his existing duties. 
This will not mean much additional work for some officials who 
are to be involved, but each should know exactly what is expected of 
him and how far his authority and responsibility will be extended. 
The head of the new division will, however, have a job that must be 
set up correctly both as to his place in the chain and as to his rela- 
tionships with other executives. The Dartnell Corporation in its 
"Personnel Administration Service Report 65" reprints a job de- 
scription for a head analyst as follows : 

The position of job analyst has been established and is under the direct 
supervision of the personnel manager. The analyst will act as a technical 
coordinating head for the company-wide evaluation program. The re- 
sponsibility of the job analyst will include the following: 

1. Instructing and directing in the correct procedure all representatives 
of management who are called upon to prepare job descriptions. 

2. Supervising the development of job descriptions by department super- 
intendents. 

3. Reviewing all job descriptions. 

4. Evaluating the description of each applicable occupation within the 
company in accordance with accepted company policy and procedures. 

5. Reviewing and securing approval of all evaluations from the depart- 
ment superintendent of jobs within his line of authority. 

6. Contacting each department superintendent at regular intervals for 
the purpose of reviewing each job under his jurisdiction to determine and 
record any and all changes in job content that may have occurred since the 
preceding review. Any corresponding changes in evaluation which are re- 
quired are to be made concurrently.^ 

Cost of Doing Job Evaluation. As the writing of job descriptions 
is the determinant of the time needed to install job evaluation, so 
the number of distinct jobs, not the number of employees, is the 
main determinant of money needed to install it. There are, of 
course, other influences, such as (1) history of the case, (2) degree 
of confidence — attitude of union leaders, (3) number and size of 
plants, (4) extent of apphcation, and (5) thoroughness of the de- 
scriptions and specifications. Type of plan seems to make very little 
difference. 

The rate of progress runs at three to four jobs per day but may 
be slower if long preparation must be included. Thus the installa- 
tion time will take from three months to six months, usually between 

^ See also last paragraph in Chapter 5. 



POLICY AND ORGANIZATION 35 

three and four. At the Sperry Gyroscope Company, where a high 
degree of union participation was welcomed, 23,000 employees on 
426 jobs required 64 separate three-hour meetings; these extended 
over four and a half months. For 7,000 employees S. L. H. Burk 
found it necessary to employ permanently about eight analysts. 
Another company reports six analysts to maintain the work for 
4,000 employees, 1,000 different jobs evaluated. Still another re- 
ports a staff of 25 for 20,000 employees, 400 jobs. 

Installation costs are reported in various terms. Those who re- 
port it on a man-hour basis say it costs 3.5 cents to 5.3 cents per 
man-hour. On payroll basis 0.5 per cent of annual payroll has 
been reported repeatedly. On a job basis $50 has been reported, 
but some consultants say from $65 to $100. Naturally it costs more 
to hurry it through by means of consultant services. Certainly it 
will cost more proportionately for a small company or for one that 
extends it to supervisory, office, and professional jobs. 

The cost of rectifying inequities must also be considered and that 
is a matter that is likely to be large in some plants and small in 
others. A survey of representative New England companies indi- 
cated that from 21 per cent to 82 per cent of employees were rela- 
tively underpaid and it required from 1.8 per cent to 13.5 per cent 
increases in payroll to eliminate these inequities. 

There is better agreement on the cost of operating a program. 
Most reports say 0.1 per cent of the annual payroll. 



3 



METHODS AND TECHNIQUES 



It is necessary that the plan of job evaluation be so simple and 
so readily understood that an employee, after being given proper 
instructions, can evaluate his own job. 

— D. W. Weed 

Comparison of Methods. The first activity of the newly selected 
analyst will be to study the plans which seem most suitable, ascer- 
tain what companies similar to his own have done, estimate time, 
cost, and other factors, all of which he will report to the steering 
committee for decisions. The first decision should be on the extent 
of application and the second one on choice of method. We classify 
all methods into five types as follows: 

1. Ranking or Grading, sometimes called Labor Classification. 

2. Straight Point. 

3. Weighted-in-Money, advertised as ''the Factor Comparison 
Plan." 

4. Weighted-in-Points, without separate treatment of universal 
requirements. 

5. Weighted-in-Points, with separate treatment of universal re- 
quirements. 

Tvs^o Techniques of Measurementc The only techniques so far 
developed of measuring the characteristics are: 

A. Direct Comparison of Characteristics (outgrowth of Method 1). 

B. Indirect Comparison of Characteristics Against Predetermined 
Degree Definitions, with point allotments (outgrowth of 
Method 2). 

Either one is to be applied successively to each characteristic of 
a given job. Advocates of A claim that: 

1. It holds the analyst's attention to the true objective, that is. the 
worth of the characteristic required by a job in question rela- 
tive to the worth of the same characteristic in other jobs. 

36 



I 



METHODS AND TECHNIQUES 37 

2. It involves no fixed ceiling in point value. 

3. It insures against the danger of human let-down which is likely 
to accompany the use of many long and perhaps vague word 
measures. 

Advocates of B claim that: 

1. It forces the analyst to measure all the variables. 

2. It can provide much more definite gauging. 

3. It sets the gauges once for all and thereby insures against the 
danger of let-down in standards. 

In general, Technique A, Direct Comparison of Characteristics, 
may be likened to the hand fitting of parts as they are put into an 
assembly, while Technique B, Indirect Comparison of Characteris- 
tics Against Predetermined Degree Definitions, may be likened to 
the machining of parts within tolerance to fit a set of gauges, in 
consequence of which the parts are guaranteed to fit into the assem- 
bly without hand fitting. 

We reserve the term plan for a particular application of methods 
and technique, i.e., the Weed Plan originated at the General Electric 
Company, which combines Method 5 and Technique A, or the 
Kress Plan first applied by the National Electrical Manufacturers 
Association, which combines Method 4 and Technique B. Either 
of the techniques can be used in connection with Methods 2, 3, 4, 
and 5. It is true that Technique B has not been used in connection 
with Method 3, but it is also true that Technique A is frequently 
used in connection with Method 4 for assembling new jobs into a 
rate structure originally constructed by Technique B. 

The use of specific examples for measurement, as in Benge's lad- 
der scale or in Jones's picture illustrations, might be added as a 
hybrid technique, but it is more in the nature of an ideal to be kept 
in mind when setting up any kind of job measure. 

1. The Ranking or Grading Method. Under this method simple 
essay descriptions of jobs are made and sorted in the sequential 
order of their worth as whole jobs. The jobs most common to vari- 
ous plants are then checked as to the going rates in the community 
and the other jobs are rated by interpolation. 

Disadvantages: 

No one committee member is likely to be familiar with all the jobs. 
Appraising each job as a whole does not allow any analysis and cannot be •/ 
expected to give accurate measures of worth. 

The ranking is likely to be influenced by the magnitude of existing rates. 



/ 



J 



38 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

^ Equal differentials are sometimes assumed between adjacent ranks and 
that assumption is frequently incorrect. 
/ Very liberal range limits must be provided to correct bad guesses. 

Advantages: 

It is the simplest of all procedures and therefore takes little time or paper 
work; direct cost of the application is negligible, y 

It can eliminate personalities and thereby be superior to old-fashioned 
rate setting. 

If checked with outside standard job descriptions, it can give a practical 
but rough job classification. If that is the main objective, this is the quickest 
way to establish it. 

It is practical although crude and avoids any hypocrisy of seeming to be 
scientific. 
/ Some unions prefer it because it leaves more room for bargaining. 

Discussion of Grading or Ranking.^ A majority of the com- 
panies which use the grading or ranking method have a job analyst 
or a member of the personnel department interview each employee, 
and from that interview make a detailed description of each job or 
position on a job description form especially prepared for that pur- 
pose. Figure 3 is a guide or set of instructions used for this purpose 
by the American Rolling Mill Company. 

In ranking jobs the usual procedure is to select two key jobs 
because of their extreme difference in value and then to rank the 
jobs in each department between them. Some companies have a list 
of characteristics which they consider in making this ranking, such 
as the following list used by the Socony-Vacuum Oil Company: 

1. Difficulty of work. 

2. Volume of work. 

3. ResponsibiHty involved. 

4. Supervision required. 

5. Supervision of others. 

6. Knowledge, training, experience necessary. 

7. Conditions under which work is done. 

These are considered not specifically but generally, and the dif- 
ferent characteristics are not weighted or given any point value. In 
some companies this ranking is done by a job analyst especially 
selected and trained for that work; in others, by a committee, and 
in still others, by a member of the personnel department. The rank- 
ing is then reviewed by the superintendent or foreman of the depart- 

^ Selected from article by J. E. Walters in Mechanical Engineering, LX, No. 12. 



METHODS AND TECHNIQUES 39 



RECOMMENDATION FOR 
OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OR RECLASSIFICATION 

Occupation Name — Present Recommended 

Section Department Division 



Present Zone Recommended Zone Date- 
Statement of Duties and Responsibilities, (See Reverse Side) 

INSTRUCTIONS 

Statement of Duties and Responsibilities 

1. Describe the kind of work performed; state in some detail the method, process, 
routine, or manner in or by which work is accompHshed. Where work is of a 
general nature, illustrate with typical tasks. Utilize Bedaux S.P.B.'s where 
available. 

2. State the kind of supervision received and from whom. 

3. State the kind of supervision exercised, if any, and over whom. 

4. Describe the nature of responsibihties other than supervisory. Consider the 
extent to which work affects quality of product; the probability of causing delays 
or damage to equipment; the accountability for conservation of materials such as 
fuel, steam, air, water, acid, etc.; the possibility of injuring fellow workmen; and 
related factors. 

Statement of Minimum Qualifications 

1. Formal education (the amount of schooling or equivalent education). 

2. Previous mill or trade experience required; what occupations; length of such 
experience. 

3. Knowledge of equipment design, construction, and operation necessary for as- 
signment to occupation. 

4. Knowledge of methods, practice, principles, processes, product, materials, etc., 
required for appointment. 

5. The required knowledge of technical subjects such as chemistry, metallurgy, com- 
bustion, mathematics, mechanical drawing, etc. 

6. Personal qualifications such as initiative, tact, resourcefulness, dependability, 
alertness. 

7. Physical qualifications — any unusual requirements as to stature, strength, agility, 
eyesight, hearing, age, etc. 

Nature and Conditions of Work 

1. Posture — standing, sitting, stooping, etc. 

2. Fatigue — requirements for expenditure of physical or mental effort — the tedious- 
ness or monotony of the work. 

3. Hazard — possibility of injury to operator and the probable severity of injury. 

4. Surroundings — disagreeableness of work resulting from unusual heat, cold, damp- 
ness, dust, dirt, smoke, fumes, acid, lack of ventilation or illumination, etc. 

5. Requirement for skill, accuracy, and dexterity. 

Checked: Approved and Recommended By: 

Superintendent Works Manager 

Ass't. to Wks. Mgr 

Note: Retain one copy and send original and three copies to Staff Supervisor of 
Compensation and Production Standards. 



Figure 3. Occupational Classification or Rfxlassification Recommendation 
Form. (American Rolling Mill Company.) 



40 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

ment concerned, and revisions are made in the light of discussions 
of high and low rankings. 

The Kimberly-Clark Corporation since 1933 has used six char- 
acteristics similar to those of Socony- Vacuum Oil Company but 
minus Nos. 2 and 7. Furthermore it ranks the jobs jointly with the 
representatives of the employees. The company feels that this 
democratic process shows sincerity and brings a better understand- 
ing. During all discussions about the job rankings, changes may be 
made until a final ranking of jobs is agreed upon and approved by 
the management. 

Usually, after the jobs are ranked by departments, a comparison 
of rankings in each department is made with those of similar depart- 
ments. Where differences of opinion are shown by this ranking in 
the different departments, adjustments are usually made after a dis- 
cussion between the job analyst and the superintendents, foremen, 
or department heads, resulting in the ranking of jobs in the company 
as a whole. 

2. The Straight Point Method. Under this method work char- 
acteristics are selected and written down at the left of each job 
description card. Across the top five or six degrees are indicated 
and assigned points in unity increments from zero to four or five. 
The job is then appraised as to each characteristic and the resulting 
degree marked. These chosen degree points, zero to four or five for 
each characteristic, are all added to measure the total worth (see 
Figure 4). This method made history in two respects: it took the 
first step toward analysis and it showed the possibihties of pre- 
arranged degrees, Technique B. 

Disadvantages: 

The allotment of unweighted points to the characteristics ignores the fact 
that some characteristics are much more important than others, hence 
these are undervalued and the others are overvalued. 

Stress is likely to be placed upon the disparate characteristics of a job 
rather than upon the comparable characteristics in all jobs. 

Like the ranking or grading plan, it places too much dependence on the 
arbitrary judgment of individuals, hence the classification based upon it is 
still unreliable. 

Advantages: 

Some analysis is possible and something better than over-all appraisal is 
likely. The first disadvantage can be obviated by making several subdivisions 
of "skill." General Foods did just that and continued to use this plan until 
recently. Procter & Gamble Company is still using such a plan. If a com- 



METHODS AND TECHNIQUES 



41 



SKILL 


KIND 


NONE 


SLIGHT 


AVERAGE 


MORf 
THAN 
ORD. 


EXCEPT. 


MANUAL 


• 










NUMERICAL 


• 










VERBAL 










• 


INTELLIGENCE 


KIND 


NONE 


ROU- 
TINE 


TRADE 
JUDG. 


SUP. 
JUDG. 


MGR. 
lUDG. 


TECHNICAL 








• 




PRACTICAL 








• 




PERSONALITY 


KIND 


NONE 


LITTLE 


ORD. 


MORE 
THAN 
ORD. 


EXCEPT. 


APPLICATION ■ RELIABILITY 
■ COMPANY INTEREST 








# 




TACT 








9 




FORCE 








# 




ABILITY TO TEACH 
OR SUPERVISE 








9 




TRAINING 


KIND 


NONE 


LIMITED 


GOOD 


MORE 
THAN 
ORD. 


EXCEPT. 


TRADE TRAINING 








• 




GEN'L EDUCATION 








• 




EXPERIENCE 








• 




REPLACEMENT 
COST 


VALUE 


NONE 


$10-19 


$20-29 


$30-39 


$40- 


MARKET PRICE 










« 


PRICE PERSON REQUIRED 










• 


OPPORTUNITY 
FOR PROGRESS 


POSSIBILITIES 


NONE 


LIMITED 


FAIR 


GOOD 


EXCEPT. 


WITH COMPANY 








m 




ELSEWHERE 








# 




TRANSFER POSSIBILITIES 








# 




COMPANY 

TRAINING 

COST 


COST 


NONE 


SMALL 


ORD. 


MORE 
THAN 
ORD. 


CONSID- 
ERABLE 


LENGTH OF TIME 








• 




TRAINING LOSS 


• 










POINT VALUE OF RATING 





1 


2 


3 


4 



Figure 4. Clerical Job Rating by the Straight Point Method. Department — 

General Correspondence; Position — Section Chief, Adjustment Section; Job 

Rating Score — 51 points. 



pany today does not feel ready for either of the weighted point methods this 
one may still be used as a makeshift for the transition period. 

3. The Weighted-in-Money Method. Under this method the 
characteristics are selected as in the foregoing and are then directly 
weighted in money. The weighting is done by ranking a series of 
jobs on one characteristic at a time, applying a penny value - to that 
phase of each job, and then repeating successively on each other 

2 Promoters of this method soon renamed it "Factor Comparison," which shifts 
emphasis to the technique. 



42 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

characteristic. No range of limits need be set for any characteristic 
and no predetermined degrees need be defined. When the last char- 
acteristic is assigned its money weight for the given job, it is neces- 
sary only to add the amounts for all characteristics and the sum 
becomes the money rate for the job. 

Disadvantages: 

As wage levels change in a community the evaluated rates must be 
changed by use of a multiplier. If any occupational group develops an 
exceptional demand-supply ratio, then an extra multiplier must be used, that 
is, such rates must be doctored differently from those of other groups. In 
time of rapid change, such as that of 1941-43, the carefully derived rela- 
tivity of the various worths is likely to be obscured because that relativity 
is recorded only in terms of money rates which, as job rates, are no longer 
appHcable. Pennies as points lack the detachment of abstract points and 
using them to measure characteristics is likely to be influenced by constant 
thought of the total existing rate. It has been claimed that this method 
avoids the fixing of maximum values for the characteristics. There are no 
predetermined limits as such but the very absence of predetermined weight 
ranges necessitates reference to the past rates, that is, what share of the 
whole job rate should be allotted to a characteristic. When these rates are 
determined for key jobs, the key jobs become limits for in-between jobs. 
Finally, any hope of simplicity resulting from bypassing intermediate weights 
is offset by the necessity of repeated juggling. 

Advantages: 

It allows unlimited room at the top for any exceptional worth. 

It obviates the step of translating from points to money. 

In normal times when the relative worth of occupational groups does not 
change unevenly a single multiplier can be used to keep the whole structure 
up to date. 

Solely because of the Characteristic Comparison, Technique A, it short- 
cuts all the drudgery of Predetermined Degree Definitions, Technique B, 
and their repeated use; also it insures close adherence to the relative worth 
of each characteristic through a whole series of jobs, hence makes possible 
a direct and reliable classification. The latter is its surest virtue. 

4. The Weighted-in-Points Method— Without Separate Treat- 
ment of Universal Requirements. Under this method work char- 
acteristics are selected and each is assigned its proportionate share 
of a potential maximum, i.e., some assumed point value for the 
highest theoretical job. This value is arbitrarily set at 100, 500, 
1 ,000 points, or higher, as preferred. The Rubberset Company has 
used 3,500 points. Each characteristic has a weighted maximum 
value of its own. In turn each characteristic is analyzed in terms of 
progressive "degrees"; most of them have five. The degrees are 



METHODS AND TECHNIQUES 



43 



carefully defined to match the gradations as variously required by a 
whole series of jobs from sweeper to toolmaker or perhaps to super- 
visor. Each degree is then assigned its proportionate share of the 
maximum points for the particular characteristic (see Figure 5). 
Each job is studied relative to these predetermined degree defini- 
tions, each characteristic is thereby measured in points, and the 
latter are added to derive the total point worth for each job. 



Characteristics 


1st 
Degree 


2d 
Degree 


3d 
Degree 


4th 
Degree 


1 
5th 
Degree 


Skill: 

1. Education 


14 

22 
14 

10 

5 

5 
5 
5 
5 

10 

5 


28 
44 
28 

20 
10 

10 
10 
10 

20 
10 


42 
66 

42 

30 
15 

15 
15 
15 
15 

30 
15 


56 
88 
56 

40 
20 

20 

20 
20 

. . 

40 
20 


70 

110 

70 

50 

25 

25 
25 
25 
25 

50 

25 


2. Experience 


3. Initiative and ingenuity 

Effort: 

4. Physical demand 


5. Mental or visual demand . . . 

Responsibility: 

6. Equipment or process 

7. Material or product 

8. Safety of others 


9. Work of others 


Job Conditions: 

10. Working conditions 

11. Unavoidable hazards 


Total points 


100 








500 












Figure 5. Points Assigned to Characteristics and Degrees. (National Elec- 
trical Manufacturers Association Bulletin 43.) 



Disadvantages: 

This is the most preplanned of all the methods and is at best slow. In 
fact, it can be overdone, getting into more detail than is justified. In that 
case it assumes an appearance of being more exact than it is. Analysts do 
not agree on the relative values. 

If the predetermined degrees are not precisely defined and the definitions 
not conscientiously kept in mind, the results may stray from the correct 
values. Classification is automatic. 

Advantages: 

With a limited number of subcharacteristics this method need not be 
excessive in detail or, if great detail is v^^anted, the job descriptions can be 
measured automatically at the source, thereby minimizing the judgment 



44 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

of the analysts (see "Questionnaire Method of Job Description" in Chap- 
ter 7). 

If the definitions are well made and adhered to, this plan can be operated 
to attain a high degree of precision. It is by its nature the most analytical 
and can be the most objective of all the methods. Analysts should vary the 
values under different circumstances. 

As the resulting classification is almost independent of guessing it is 
favored by many for the original setup of extensive rate structures. 

After a "structure" is once built, the correct niche for any new job can 
readily be found by the characteristic comparison technique, thus short- 
cutting the original technique of using abstract measures. In fact, job-to-job 
comparison can always be applied as a final check on automatic classifica- 
tion. 

By way of summary we quote A. W. Bass, Jr. : ^ 

In the first place, the mere ranking of jobs under each factor contains no 
significance until these rankings are in some way measured and some abstract 
measure is obtained which will express the value of jobs in their mutual 
relationship. The obvious advantage of a detailed analysis is lost if there be 
no method of measuring the results obtained. 

Second, all the factors selected are not of equal importance in contributing 
to job value. However, by careful weighting, it is possible to represent these 
varying values, and reflect them in the final point value of the job. 

Third, in using points, there always remains a concrete measurable record 
of the analysis made and, should the rating subsequently be questioned, the 
actual evaluation always remains and can readily be rechecked. 

5. The Weighted-in-Points Method — With Separate Treatment 
of Universal Requirements. This method recognizes that every 
job holder must have such underlying assets as a mature and healthy 
body, a sane and well-disposed mind, and ability to communicate. 
No job requirements fall below this universal plateau. Therefore, 
if the point credits for the job at absolute bottom worth are taken as 
this constant basic worth of all jobs, the variable worth of other jobs 
need only be measured from that and the difference in points added 
to the universal point worth to derive the total point worth (see 
Figure 6). The Characteristic Comparison technique is used with 
six characteristics. These are given point ranges but there are no 
subdivisions into degrees. The total of characteristics taken for uni- 
versal credit is set slightly below the total amount of the character- 
istics required by the job of least worth. This lifts the zero points to 
a fixed level for all further measurement. Precedents for this prac- 
tice have been established in merit rating. 

^"Evaluating Shop Jobs by the Point System," The Iron Age. CXXXVIII, 
No. 11. 



METHODS AND TECHNIQUES 

^'^ "'."."«■' n.ToT SWEEPER 

MAKER 



45 




Figure 6. Universal and Extra Points for Four Jobs. (American Machinist, 

LXXXIII, No. 9.) 

Disadvantages: 

Since it is difficult to discern demarcations between the top of the universal 
credits and the bottom of the variable credits, except in terms of the job of 
least worth, use of Technique of Measurement B is usually not attempted. * 
Whatever superiority in accuracy that technique might provide is therefore 
sacrificed (see Technique of Measurement B). 

Advantages: 

The method combines the advantages of weighted points, cited under 
Method 4, with the advantages of Characteristic Comparison, cited as Tech- 
nique of Measurement A, and at the same time narrows the range of vari- 
ability which is to be measured by direct comparison. The concept of this 
narrower variability is true to life and the resulting appraisals should give 
true if not precise reflections of the existing facts. Additional points may 
easily be put on at the top. It is also the simplest of the weighted point plans. 

The Procter & Gamble Company of Cincinnati combines a 500- 
point "basic allowance" with its straight point plan. Each of the 
ten variable characteristics carries 100 points, five of which are 
subdivisions of skill. 

* A Cleveland consultant has used this "base factor" and predetermined degree 
measurement. 



46 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



Point Systems in General. In the opinion of W. H. Prater, 
"Point value systems have an advantage over ranking systems — but 
a point value system hasn't departed so far from a ranking system, 
it simply puts the jobs in rank by the technique of taking little 
pieces, so that the errors are compensating. The result is a more 
homogeneous and accurate whole." Similar testimony is given by 
S. P. Farwell: "We have found the point system extremely valuable. 



Characteristics 


Benge 


Kress, 

National Electrical 
Manufacturers Asso- 
ciation, National Metal 

Trades Association 


Weed 


Skill 


1. Mental require- 

ments 

2. Skill re- 

quirements 


1. Education 

2. Experience 

3. Initiative and in- 

genuity 


1. 

2. 


Mentality 
Skill 


Effort 


3. Physical re- 
quirements 


4. Physical demand 

5. Mental or visual 

demand 


3. 
4. 


Mental applica- 
tion 

Physical appli- 
cation 


Responsibility 


4. Responsibility 


6. Equipment or 

process 

7. Material and 

product 

8. Safety of others 

9. Work of others 


5. 


Responsibility 


Job Conditions 


5. Working condi- 
tions 


10. Working condi- 

tions 

11. Unavoidable haz- 

ards 


6. 


Working condi- 
tions 



Figure 7. Comparison of Characteristics in Three Plans 



We do not consider that it supplants judgment, but it gives the basis 
upon which judgment is exercised." 

Synopsis of Three Specific Weighted Plans. Methods designated 
as Nos. 3, 4, and 5 in the foregoing outline aizeuocLosLjaadely nsed 
in American industry and consequently deserve more specificSrody 
at this stage of our exposition. The Benge plan illustrates Method 
3, the Kress plan Method 4, and the Weed plan Method 5. All 
three plans may be said to conform to the standard four major 
characteristics which are subdivided in the plans as indicated in 
Figure 7. 



METHODS AND TECHNIQUES 47 

No. 3— The Benge Plan.^ This plan was originated about 1928 
by Eugene J. Benge, working under "Mitten Management" at the 
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co. Some of the principles Mr. Benge 
followed in preparing his plan are : 

1 . The evaluation scale should be expressed in cents per hour, not 
in points. 

2. The number of factors on which job judgment should be based 
should not exceed seven. 

3. Job specifications should be subdivided into the same categories 
as the evaluation scale. 

4. There should be no upper limit to the amount allowable for a 
given factor, thus providing a scale sufficiently flexible to take 
care of new jobs and of the importance of a single factor 
(such as the hazard of the overhead lineman's job). 

5. There should be some means of comparing each factor of a 
particular job against that factor in comparable jobs, rather than 
against a predetermined scale for that factor. After all, the 
primary object of the whole study is to determine the proper 
relative standing of all jobs in the company, and it is felt that 
this end can best be accomplished by making job-to-job com- 
parison, according to a single factor at a time. 

6. Repeated judgments of a group of competent persons using the 
job specifications, and spread over a considerable period of 
time, should be pooled to yield the final figures. 

Mr. Benge says, "by outlining a monetary unit the factor com- 
parison method gets away from an arbitrarily established and un- 
defined unit like that used in the point system." His method, 
therefore, remains as originated, namely, a "Direct-to-Money 
Method." 

The following are definitions of factors used in the Benge job 
comparison "scale." 

1. Mental Requirements — the possession of and/or the active 
application of the following: 

a) (inherent) Mental traits, such as intelHgence, memory, 
reasoning, facility in verbal expression, ability to get along 
with people, and imagination. 

b) (acquired) General education, such as grammar and arith- 
metic; or general information as to sports, etc. 

^ Eugene J. Benge, "Gauging the Job's Worth," Industrial Relations, III, Nos. 2, 
3, and 4, and E. J. Benge, "Job Evaluation and Merit Rating," (Manual of Pro- 
cedures, National Foremen's Institute, 1944). 



48 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

c) (acquired) Specialized knowledge, such as chemistry, en- 
gineering, accounting, advertising, etc. 

2. Skill: 

a) (acquired) Specific job knowledge necessary to the muscular 
coordination only; acquired by performance of the work 
and not to be confused with general education or specialized 
knowledge. It is very largely training in the interpretation of 
sensory impressions. 

3. Physical Requirements: 

a) Physical effort, such as sitting, standing, walking, etc.; both 
the amount of exercise and the degree of continuity should 
be taken into account. 

b) Physical status, such as age, height, weight, sex, etc. 

4. Responsibility: 

a) For raw materials, processed materials, tools, etc. 

b) For money or negotiable securities. 

c) For profits or loss, savings, or methods improvement. 

d) For pubUc contact. 

e) For records. 

/) For supervision, which includes the complexity of super- 
vision given to subordinates and the degree of supervision 
received. 

5. Working Conditions : 

a) Environmental influences, such as atmosphere, ventilation, 
illumination, noise, congestion, etc. 

b) Hazards — from work or its surroundings. 

c) Hours. 

In order to narrow the task for a committee the foregoing general 
definitions were made in advance. Mr. Benge describes these defi- 
nitions as "only an outline from which the committee may adopt or 
may make departures." 

Benge Procedure on Key Jobs. The procedure set up by Benge 
starts with the Job Analysis Record. This is a printed form, on one 
side of which are listed job details, including descriptions of duties 
and opportunities. On the reverse side the nature and conditions of 
work are shown, with their many subdivisions, preceded by boxes 
for the interviewer to mark. 

As a further help to procedure, "Items appearing on Job Specifi- 
cations" are classified according to Benge's five major character- 
istics. From these two forms a job specification is prepared, a copy 
of which goes to each member of the committee. Then each job is 
treated on a job comparison sheet, by making, first, job-to-job com- 



METHODS AND TECHNIQUES 49 

parisons separately for each of the five major characteristics. This 
job comparison is made at the start only for key jobs. Approx- 
imately twenty-four key jobs are selected, which are ranked accord- 
ing to their mental requirements. The same procedure is followed 
for skill, physical requirements, and so on. Once these key jobs 
are arranged according to their values in their various character- 
istics, the data are entered on a new "Data Sheet for Recording 
Ranking," and the total of each job is calculated. The findings of 
the investigation of the four or five members of the committee are 
collected in a new chart showing the ranks assigned for each job 
in each of the five characteristics. The findings are totaled and the 
averages are calculated. 

The next step is to distribute the ratings of the tentative key jobs 
over the five columns. For example, if a job is paid X cents per hour 
each member of the committee has to ask himself how much of that 
X cents is being paid for the job's mental requirements, how much 
for skill, and so on. The total distributed must equal the actual 
hourly rate. After each member of the committee has recorded his 
opinion as to the distribution of the rate for each tentative key job, 
results are summarized, scrutinized, and criticized. The results thus 
found are entered in a new form, "Allocation of Present Hourly 
Rates of Tentative Key Jobs." Again the total of the findings of the 
piembers of the committee are averaged and put on a new form 
showing the present rate, the ranks, and the appropriate cent per- 
centage of each total job rate (see Figures 19 to 22). 

By comparing the ranks resulting from ranking and from dis- 
tributing hourly rates the discrepancies which might still exist are 
ironed out and any odd figures eliminated. Benge claims that the 
order in which the jobs appear in this last form has been properly 
determined by the ranking process since the gaps in cents-per-hour 
between jobs were determined by the allocation of money. "In other 
words the rankings in each factor have been correctly priced." The 
votes of a job evaluation committee cited in his writings vary from 
82 to 93, that is, 11 cents. For checking purposes Benge uses 
a scatter diagram showing on the ordinate the present hourly rates 
and on the abscissa the evaluated rates for jobs. A line represent- 
ing the consensus of points is taken as the trend line against which 
subsequent rating is to be checked. 

Benge Procedure on Supplementary Key Jobs. In handling sup- 
plementary key jobs the ranking technique is omitted. Using the 
"factor scales" prepared from the original key jobs as reference, 
each member of the committee and each analyst immediately eval- 



50 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

uates each supplementary key job by distributing the average wage 
being paid to it among the five characteristics in accordance with 
its estimated importance. If in the opinions of those doing the 
evaluating the maximum and minimum values assigned to any 
characteristic of a supplementary key job vary by more than 10 
per cent then a discussion is held to reconcile the disparity. After 
the discussion, the members of the executive committee and the 
analysts are privileged to change their original estimates and a 
second evaluation is undertaken. Should the disparity persist after 
the second evaluation then the supplementary key job is discarded — 
for developing the scales. Moreover, should this wider comparison 
seriously challenge the validity of the original key jobs, then they 
too may be discarded. 

The ladder-like scales derived from the original and supplemen- 
tary key jobs should now progress in fairly even steps. For the 
higher grade jobs, however, the steps of the scale tend to group 
together at constantly widening intervals. This phenomenon is 
attributed to the fact that for the higher grade jobs the differences 
in each characteristic increase geometrically rather than arithmeti- 
cally. It is the concerted opinion of Benge, Burk, and Hay that 
this geometric increase best approximates the geometric series of 
preferred numbers. Accordingly, for the sake of convenience in 
evaluating other jobs, they choose to set up standard step values 
within the scales by superimposing upon them a formula for pre- 
ferred numbers (see Chapter 11). The ultimate value for "N," 
namely the number of steps, is determined by trial and error; that 
is, the value of "N" finally accepted is the one which necessitates 
the fewest changes from the original data. 

No. 4.— The Kress Plan. This plan was developed by the late 
L. B. Michael and by L. V. Fisher, Western Electric Company, and 
adapted about 1935 by A. L. Kress, who had had experience in job 
analysis. His was made the official plan of the National Electrical 
Manufacturers Association, further developed by the National 
Metal Trades Association, and copied from all directions ever since. 
There are eleven characteristics and five degrees for each as shown 
in Figure 5. In the choice of 500 points for the potential maximum 
the plan lies midway between the extremes. Of course the fifth 
degree is never reached for all characteristics in any job. Where 
the worth of skill is high, the worth of effort is usually low and vice 
versa; where the worth of responsibility is high, the worth of work- 
ing conditions is usually low. Thus the highest weight for a job is 
rarely above 380. 



METHODS AND TECHNIQUES 



51 



Mr. Kress has written and spoken frequently on all phases of the 
wages question. We select his early list of principles as printed 
in 1937." 



JOB RATING SHEET 



JOB NAME ^"'^"ATIC SCREW machine OBEHATOR Q^PJ screw liACHINE JOB NO 



GENERAL JOB DESCRIPTION 



Set up and operate automatic screw 
machines, such as #00, #0 and #2 
Brown & Sharpe Single Spindle or 
9/16* and 1* Acme Multl-Splndle. 



JOB REQUIREMENTS 

MAN WOMAN BOY SPEC. AGE REQ. 30-45 years 
HRS. OF WK. (IF NOT REG.) Regular 

REQUIRED EXPER. PREV. JOBS TIME 

3 to 5 years on 

Yea 



JOB ATTRIBUTES 



OBSERVERS EVALUATION 



ST|2hO|3RD|4TH|5TH|POINTS 
DEGPEGDEG. DEC. OEgUsGIsTD 



EDUCATION 




y 






^z 


EXPERIENCE 








y 




<!'J' 


INITIATIVE & INGEN. 








/ 


* 


jr6 



PHYSICAL DEMAND 




y 








^o 


MENTAL OR VIS. DEMAND 








/ 




z^ 



RESPONSIBILITY 



APPRENTICESHIP 



Bnme or similar 
types of machines 



EQUIPMENT OR PROCESS 






y 






/s- 


MATERIAL OR PRODUCT 




/ 








/C? 


SAFETY OF OTHERS 






y 






/r 


WORK OF OThERS 






/ 






/S 



JOB CONDITIONS 



DAY WORK RATE 



JAVE. HOURLYpCCUFATlOfOajJ 
EARNINGS 



$1.05 



WORKING CONDITIONS 








/ 




^o 


UNAVOIDABLE HAZARDS 






/ 






/jr 



TOTAL POINTS_ 



LABOR 
GRADEL 



^S4 



DETAILED DUTIES 



1. Get necessary cams, chucks, tools, etc. from tool crib 
according to Job layout. 

2. Set up and adjust machine. 

3. Grind and sharpen cutting tools and blades. 

4. Operate group 2 to 5 machines depending on work requirements. 

5. Determine proper feeds and speeds, where not specified. 

6. Maintain tool eet-up. 



SPECIAL QUALIFICATIONS 



1. Work from prints and Job layouts. 

2. Able to select proper cams, tools, chucks, cutters, blades, 
etc. If not specified on layout. 

3. Work to close tolerances using complicated tool set-ups. 

4. Able select proper cutting lubricant. 

5. May direct the work of helpers. 

6. Education equivalent to grammar school plus 4 years apprentice- 
ship. 



SAFETY REGULATIONS AND HAZARDS 

Remote possibility of dermatltla from cutting oils and lubricants. 

Figure 8. An Early National Electrical Manufacturers Association Job 
Rating Example."^ (NEMA Industrial Relations Bulletin 43.) 



^ National Electrical Manufacturers Association, Industrial Relations Bulletin 
43 (1937) and 45 (1938). A Manual and a Guide were published in 1946. The 
latter was re-edited by this author in 1953. 

"^ For characteristics and weightings used by the Wright Aeronautical Corpora- 
tion, see Figure 24. 



52 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Where job rating is used, the following principles should be kept in 
mind: 

1. Rate the job and not the man. The requirements of the job are usually 
definite and fixed. The man on the job may have plus qualifications or may 
not quite measure up to the job requirements. A job rating plan should not 
be confused with any plan to grade employees. The man on the job may be 
paid more or less than the job itself is worth, in relation to other jobs. Each 
element should therefore be rated on the basis of what the job itself re- 
quires. 

2. The elements selected for rating purposes should be easily explainable 
in terms that will avoid any overlapping which might lead to rating the same 
qualifications under several headings. The elements should be as few in num- 
bers as will cover the necessary requisites for every job. 

3. Success with job rating is absolutely dependent on a uniformit}^ of 
understanding with regard to the definitions of the elements and on con- 
sistency in the selection of the degrees of those elements. 

4. Any job rating plan must be sold to foremen and employees. Success 
in selling it will depend on a clean-cut explanation and illustration of the plan. 

5. Foremen should participate in the rating of jobs in their own depart- 
ments. 

6. The greatest degree of cooperation from employees, in job rating, 
will be achieved where they themselves have an opportunity to discuss the 
ratings. 

7. In talking to foremen and employees avoid discussion of money values. 
Talk point values and degrees of each element. Discussion of mone}^ values 
will lead to juggling. 

8. Too many occupational wages (or rate ranges for given labor grades) 
should not be established. It would be unwise to adopt an occupational wage 
for each total of point values. 

As we expect to allude to the Kress plan in some of the subse- 
quent chapters, we will represent it here with an early example of 
results only (Figure 8). 

No. 5. — The Weed Plan. This plan was developed by the late 
D. W. Weed at the General Electric Company. It has been kept 
simple to a remarkable degree. There are six characteristics, which 
are not subdivided.^ Each is defined but there are no predetermined 
degrees. The Characteristic Comparison technique is used and even 
that is narrowed to the variations that occur above the amounts of 
each characteristic which are common to all jobs. The latter 
amount, or universal credit, is set at four hundred points. The six 
characteristics and their weight ranges above base are shown in 
Figures 9 and 10. 

^ They are subdivided for salaried jobs. See Chapter 14. 



METHODS AND TECHNIQUES 



53 



Characteristic 



Relative Weights 



Low 



High 



Per Cent 



Mentality 

Skill 

Responsibility . . . , 
Mental application 
Physical application 
Working conditions 

Total 

Universal credit 



100 
400 
100 
50 
50 
100 



81/3 

331/3 
81/3 
4Vj 
41/6 
8% 



800 
+400 



66% 

33% 



Figure 9. Points and Percentages Assigned to Characteristics, Weed Plan 

Definitions of Characteristics.^ 

Mentality. By mentality is meant schooling, acquired either in a formal 
or an informal way, that an individual must have before he can qualify to 
learn the job in question. 

Skill. Skill is defined as learning time. By this is meant the total time 
spent in various assignments that is necessary before an individual is qualified 
for the job in question, plus the normal amount of time required on the job 
so that he is competent to do the job in an expeditious manner. 

Responsibility. Responsibility is measured by the chance of error and 
its probable cost either in materials or machinery. 

Application. Application, either mental or physical, is the degree and 
continuity of attention on the job. 

Working Conditions. Working conditions refer to conditions surround- 
ing a job which make it less desirable than the ordinary job from the point 
of view of the type of operator required. 

The Weed procedure is to begin with a few key jobs that are best 
known to all raters. Assort these according to the highest and 
lowest rating in each characteristic. Jobs in between these are 
selected until a list of some 50 key jobs is developed. Mr. Weed 
stresses the point that in selecting additional jobs it is essential that 
only one characteristic should be considered at a time, and the 
rating for these characteristics should be on the basis of one known 
job. Once the key list has been established and agreed upon, the 
evaluation then becomes simple and any new job is evaluated in 
each separate characteristic by comparison with a rating of the 
given jobs in that characteristic. Actually the highest weight given 
any job is 1 ,045 points out of a potential of 1 ,200. 

^ Job Evaluation, a General Electric publication of October, 1942. The plan was 
discontinued by General Electric late in 1945 but continues in use elsewhere. 



54 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



SKILL 



62.5% <^ 



EFFORT 



RESPONSIBILITY 



WORKING 
CONDITIONS 



12.5; 



12.5; 



12.5 ?2 



TOTAL 100.0 ; 



MENTALITY 100 POINTS 



SKILL 400 POINTS 



MENTAL APPLICATION" 50 POINTS 



PHYSICAL APPLICATION 50 POINTS 



'/A RESPONSIBILITY 100 POINTS 

WORKING CONDITIONS 100 POINTS 



Figure 10. The Weed Plan for Hourly Paid Workers. Maximum N'alues 

Allotted in Percentage for Major Characteristics, Variable Portion Only. 

(General Electric Company.) 

Example of Choosing a Plan. When the National Metal Trades 
Association faced the problem of selecting a plan it went through 
the following experience. 

First the association made periodic wage surveys by areas in order to de- 
termine if its own wages were higher or lower than others in the same area 
for comparable jobs. It was found that surveys based on job names alone 
proved nothing because jobs with the same names, but in different companies, 
varied widely in character. Next a Job Rating Committee was set up to 
determine: 

1. How companies could appraise their own wage differentials. 

2. Whether N.M.T.A. could or should recommend the use of a single 
job rating plan by all its members. 

3. How to improve its wage survey methods so that employers could 
better appraise their own wage levels. 

After due deliberation, the committee decided that valid wage comparisons 
between plants could be achieved only through the consistent application of a 
single plan. It was decided that a good plan should possess the following 
attributes : 

Simplicity — simple and easily understood by all involved. 
Consistency — in application in each plant and between plants. 



METHODS AND TECHNIQUES 55 

Incorporation and weight — of such essential factors as education, ex- 
~ perience, and physical effort.i<^ 

The National Electrical Manufacturers Association had a thor- 
oughly tested plan and the N.M.T.A. decided to adopt it. 

^^ Factory Management and Maintenance, XCVII, No. 10. 



4 



CHOOSING JOB CHARACTERISTICS 



When men find themselves confronted with a multitude of prob- 
lems, such as exist in every trade, and which have a general 
similarity one to another, it is inevitable that they should tr\' to 
gather these problems into certain logical groups, and then search 
for some general laws or rules to guide them in their solution. 

— Frederick W. Taylor 

¥/ork Variables That Characterize Jobs. Ever since Taylor 
pointed out that there is a science of work, even for the simplest 
work, industrial engineers and personnel staffs have been studying 
jobs; for a long time, however, no one got around to reducing job 
requirements to fundamental characteristics. By fundamental char- 
acteristics we mean the basic kinds of human abilities and endur- 
ances that are required by all jobs but in different qualities and 
quantities. These requirements have been called man-qualities, job 
factors, work attributes, etc. We call them job characteristics be- 
cause we think this term connotes that each kind of work compos- 
ing a job has a composite character of its own. When industrial 
staffs did arrive at this stage of job study they overdid the matter 
and included some variables which attached to the plant or the 
community rather than to the jobs themselves. In any job rating 
program it must be remembered that the job only is being analyzed. 
Man rating, for instance, must come as a separate program (see 
Chapter 13). Only characteristics which are directly required 
by a job should be included in a job rating study. 

Early Selection of Major Characteristics. One of the first at- 
tempts at grouping of characteristics was as follows : 

1. Previous training. This division determines the minimum 
requisite schooling and working experience in order to fit an 
individual for work in a particular occupation. 

2. Inherent demands of an occupation, peculiar to the industry or 
factory under consideration. This division determines the skill 

56 



CHOOSING JOB CHARACTERISTICS 57 

required, accuracy demanded, as well as ingenuity and integrity 
required. 
3. Physical conditions under v/hich the work of an occupation is 
performed. This division determines health and accident haz- 
ards, disagreeable conditions, physical effort, etc. 

Obviously there is a serious omission in this selection, namely, the 
characteristic of responsibility. We are indebted to Samuel L. H. 
Burk for a much better three. He says. 

If you must reduce the number to three, may I suggest that you 
use the following: 

1. Job requirements. This includes the capacities and abilities 
which the individual must bring to the job and the degree to 
which the job calls on the use of these capacities and abilities. 

2. Responsibility or importance. This includes the 'load' which 
the company puts upon the individual with the required capaci- 
ties and abilities and can be measured or weighted from the 
point of view of the probabihty of error and improvement and 
the possible consequences thereof. 

3. Working conditions. This includes all the factors which are 
listed under heading 3 (above), "Physical condition." 

Weighting the Characteristics Threw Light on Them. The 

weighted point system of evaluating the job emerged in 1925. It 
attempted to overcome or to minimize the disadvantages of the 
straight point system. Lott,^ who pioneered in this plan, proposed 
the following fifteen characteristics: 

1 . Time usually required to become highly skilled in an occupation. 

2. Time usually required for a skilled person in the occupation to become 
adapted to the employer's needs. 

3. Number of men employed in an occupation in the locality — the labor 
supply. 

4. Possibility of an employee locating with another company with a similar 
earning capacity. 

5. Educational requirements of an occupation. 

6. Prevailing rate of pay in locality. 

7. Degree of skill, manual dexterity, accuracy required. 

8. Necessity of constantly facing new problems, variety of work. 

9. Money value of parts worked on — possible loss to company through 
personal errors — unintentional. 

10. Dependence that must be placed upon the integrity and honesty of effort 
of the employee. 

^ Merrill R. Lott, "Wage Scales and Job Evaluation," part of which was pub- 
lished in Management and Administration, May, 1925. 



58 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

1 1 . Cleanliness of working conditions. 

12. Exposure to health hazards. 

13. Exposure to accident hazards. 

14. Physical effort required. 

15. Monotony of work. 

Eliminating Nos. 3, 4, and 6 as being extraneous - to job rating, 
the remaining characteristics can be grouped under four major head- 
ings for comparison with other plans, as follows: 

1. Skill— items 1, 2, 5, and 7. 

2. Effort— items 8, 14, and 15. 

3. Responsibihty — items 9 and 10. 

4. Working conditions — items 11, 12, and 13. 

Eugene Benge's Early Work. Following closely on Lott's work 
came that of another pioneer, E. J. Benge,^ who advocated direct 
weighting into portions of the existing money rate (see Chapter 2). 
He described his choice of characteristics as follows: 

When several hundred job descriptions had been prepared, a list of over 
50 items (duties, working conditions, requirements, etc.) was compiled, of 
which a few are: 

1. Education required. 

2. Skill — degree and kind. 

3. Nature of muscular effort involved. 

4. Responsibility for equipment. 

5. Hazards. 

6. Intelligence level needed. 

7. Precision required. 

8. Monotony. 

9. Time to acquire skill of expert. 

10. Age. 

11. Physique. 

12. Opportunities for savings. ^V 

13. Posture. 

14. Distractions. 

After much thought, it was concluded that all items fell within a classifica- 
tion of five major factors : 

^ Other influences at first included but now left to separate consideration were: 
prevailing wage, opportunity for advancement, cost of living, and profit of com- 
pany (see A. S. Knowles and F. C. Means, NA.CA. Bulletin XX, No. 7). Probably 
inspired by Weed's universal credit at the bottom, some companies have invented 
a loosely defined "Job Factor" for the top. It is supposed to compensate increasing 
difficulty of combining job requirements as job worths ascend. W^e condemn this 
as unmeasurable. 

^ Industrial Relations, III, No. 2. 



I 

I 



CHOOSING JOB CHARACTERISTICS 59 

1. Mental effort. 

2. Skill. 

3. Physical effort. 

4. Responsibility. 

5. Working conditions. 

Here we have recognition of five major characteristics which, 
except for the separation of effort into two characteristics — mental 
and physical — are in name identical with those soon to be adopted 
by A. L. Kress. 

Breakdown Becoming Crystallized in 1937. A survey * made in 
1937 of several companies having job analysis programs showed 
that eleven characteristics were in common use, and these were 
distributed into the four main groups as follows: 

1. Skill 

Scholastic content — 7 companies. 
Learning period — 13 companies. 

2. Effort 

Mental application — 2 companies. 

Physical resistance overcome by operator — 10 companies. 

3. Responsibility 

Seriousness of errors — 11 companies. 

Originality of problems — 4 companies. 

Degree to which work is supervised — 4 companies. 

Teamwork and public contacts required — 4 companies. 

Supervision exercised by operator — 6 companies. 

4. Working conditions 

Hazards and disagreeable conditions — 13 companies. 
Expense to operator — 2 companies. 

Job Characteristics Grouped Under Four Headings. Among the 
characteristics which have been found to correlate positively with 
wage rates are: ^ 

Scholastic content of the work, length of time typically needed by natively 
qualified but inexperienced operators to develop proficiency, physical resist- 
ance overcome by the operator during the work day, seriousness of possible 
errors on the job, originality of problems to be solved by the operator, degree 
to which the work is supervised, teamwork and personal contacts required 
of the operator, his supervision of others, hazards and disagreeable conditions 

'^ J. W. Riegal, Wage Determination (Ann Arbor: Bureau of Industrial Rela- 
tions, University of Michigan, 1937). 

^ J. W. Riegal, Director of Bureau of Industrial Relations, University of 
Michigan: Bulletin, "Principles and Methods of Wage and Salary Determination," 
Seventh International Management Congress, 1938. 



60 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 




I 



^^rORT 



SKILL 

L Skill 47.60% 

2. Mentality 11.90 

59.50% 

EFFORT 

4. Mental Application 6.00% 

5. Physical Application.... 7.10 

13.10% 



RESPONSIBILITY 

3. Responsibility for Material 

& Equipment 11.90% 



I 



JOB CONDITIONS 

6. Job Conditions 7.75% 

7. Unavoidable Hazards... 7.75 

15.50% 

Air- 



Figure 11. Major and Minor Characteristics — Southern California 
CRAFT Industry Restudy,'^ Evaluation Plan for Hourly Paid Jobs 



^ The original plan of 1942 had the same characteristics but different weights 



CHOOSING JOB CHARACTERISTICS 61 

which he must withstand at work, and any unavoidable expense caused him 
by conditions of his employment. 

Manual skill has been defined as "the ability to do work marked 
by precision, speed, and quick, accurate adjustment of motion paths 
to complex, intricate conditions." If we stretch this conception to 
include the knowledge and capability necessary to meet varying 
conditions together with the capability of improvement we find that 
skill so conceived is the most important of the major characteristics 
in all jobs lying between those classed as unskilled and those classed 
as supervision. This broad skill may be subdivided into mental and 
physical, into inherent and acquired, etc., but taking it broadly 
allows us to simplify the breakdown of characteristics, on which the 
worth of all jobs can be measured. We repeat and delineate these 
four major job characteristics: 

1. Skill — that which must be (with whatever composes it) already 
possessed by the worker, and additions which must be acquired. 

2. Effort — that which the worker must be able to exert in use of 
both physique and skill. 

3. Responsibility — that which the worker must be able to assume. 

4. Working conditions — what the worker must hazard and endure. 

All these major characteristics are present to some degree in 
every job, but do not carry equal importance or are not present to 
the same degree in the various jobs. Basically these characteristics 
must be treated as potentialities. Willingness to draw on the poten- 
tialities comes in response to correct evaluation and incentives. 

Critics of job evaluation call attention to the wide variation in 
point values assigned to the same characteristics. There certainly 
is a wide variation in point assignments, even when translated into 
percentages as they should be for comparison. Notice that the re- 
vised Southern California Aircraft Industry or SCAI plan. Figure 1 1 , 
retains several of the point assignments from the Weed plan, but 
comes out differently percentagewise. The only answer we can 
make to the critics on this is that conditions vary by industries and 
localities so that some variance is to be expected. We admit, how- 
ever, that this can hardly justify the amount of variation between 
such plans as those of the Southern Cahfornia Aircraft Industry and 
the Industrial Management Society as shown in Figure 12, both 
used more than locally. 

Greater Breakdown for Subcharacteristics. If more than a 
dozen subdivisions seem desirable we recommend that they be made 
after the first breakdown rather than in advance. This keeps them 



62 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



Skill 407c 

Points 

12 Knowledge of equipment and tools 

12 Knowledge of methods 

12 Knowledge of materials 

19 Length of schooling 

10 Judgment — decisions 

6 Initiative 



10 Ingenuity )■ Mental capability 
5 Versatility 



7 Predsion \ Physical skill 



100 



(Adaptation period seems to have been dropped) 



Effort, Physical 6.8% 

7 Endurance — exertion 
10 Strength, pounds of force applied without mechanical aid 



17 



(Acuteness of senses seems to have been dropped) 



Responsibility for 19.2% 

6 Supervision received 

5 Assigning work (seems to have been added) 

16 Safety of others 

13 Equipment 

8 Materials 

48 

Working Conditions 34% 

50 Accident hazards 

16 Health hazards 

15 Discomfort 

4 Clothing spoilage 

"85 



250 100^ 



Figure 12. The Industrial Management Society Plan (Outline) 

in order (see Figure 12) and should show whether or not each item 
of the final breakdown is really necessary. McKinsey & Company, 
management consultants, have carried this still further and use three 
terms to indicate the three gradations, namely, characteristics, com- 
ponents, and factors (Figure 13). 

Minor Characteristics Vary from Three to Thirty. While the 
"breakdown" into four major characteristics has become almost 
universal, there is great discrepancy as to further procedure. For 
thorough analysis our pioneers thought that the four major job 



CHOOSING JOB CHARACTERISTICS 



63 



COMPONENTS 
(12) 



FACTORS 

(24) 



ELEMENTS 



RESPONSIBILITY 



WORKING 
CONDITIONS 





BASIC 
KNOWLEDGE 


/l20 




EQUIVALENT 
EDUCATION 


120 




— 


















EXPERIENCE 


A 80 




EXPERIENCE AND 
TRAINING PERIOD 


180 




















COMPLEXITY 


L 




EQUIPMENT 


25 




PROCEDURES 


50 




PRECISION 


25 




SUPERV N REQ'D. 


25 














JUDGMENT 


i 




DECISIONS 


75 


























EQUIPMENT 


/eo 




PROBABILITY OF 
DAMAGE 


25 
35 




~ 






DAMAGE VALUE 














MATERIAL 
AND PRODUCT 


Ac 




PROBABILITY OF 
DAMAGE 


15 
25 








DAMAGE VALUE 














SAFETY 
OF OTHERS 


i 




CARE REQUIRED 


25 
15 






EXTENT OF INJ'Y 
















SUPERVISION 
GIVEN 


i 




NUMBER PERSONS 


20 
40 








APPLICATION 




















PHYSICAL EFFORT 
/ 


i 




FREQUENCY 


40 
15 
20 
15 






AREA COVERED 




SIRENGTH 




ENERGY 














MENTAL EFFORT 


i 




PACE 


35 




CONTINUITY 










TENSION 


















SURROUNDINGS 
/ 


i 




DISCOMFORT 


70 






















HAZARD 


6 




ACCIDENT 


50 











Figure 13. Graphic Chart of Job Gradation Plan. (McKinsey & Company.) 



64 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

characteristics were too broad and must be subdivided in order to 
provide a safer method of evaluation. Near the extremes ' the Weed 
plan has only six major characteristics (Figure 10) without any 
subdivisions, while the Industrial Management Society plan has 
eleven major "attributes" subdivided to make twenty-one in all 
(Figure 12). In 1940. average practice was found to be nine minor 
characteristics; but the Kress plan, which uses eleven minor char- 
acteristics, has been widely adopted since then so that average 
practice is probably ten or eleven today. 

The Industrial Management Society Plan. This plan, much used 
in the Chicago area, has eleven major characteristics which are 
further subdivided to make twenty-one. We have regrouped these 
for the sake of comparison as shown in Figure 12. 

x411otment of Weights in Percentage. The National Industrial 
Conference Board Bulletin for September, 1940, reported a rather 
extensive survey made of industries using job evaluation. As this 
omitted the Kress plan, we present that separately to show the sub- 
division of the four major characteristics into eleven minor char- 
acteristics and how the latter are weighted in percentage (Figure 
14). Thus the major characteristics used in 1940 by most indus- 
tries fell within the following ranges: 

1. Skill 27.8%-80.2rc 

2. Effort 4J9c-22.2^c 

3. Responsibility 4.4%-35.09c 

4. Working conditions .09c-20.0% 

These ranges of importance were unduly influenced by the inclu- 
sion of a few exceptional companies. Eliminating these extreme 
values from the above data, it can be said that the values assigned 
by 60 per cent of the companies fell within the following ranges: 

Major Range of Median 

Characteristic Importance Importance 

1. Skill 40.0%-64.3% 509t 

2. Effort . 10.0%-21.0% 15% ■ 

3. ResponsibiHty 20.0^-27.8% 25% 

4. Working conditions 10.0%-20.0% 11% 

"^ M. F. Stigers and E. G. Reed, authors of The Theory and Practice of Job 
Rating, describe a plan which has thirty-six characteristics. Except for this note 
we bypass this plan. In an attempt to develop "a complete system designed to give 
definite results" they have blended motion-time analysis, job rating, man rating, 
and extrafinancial incentives! Either Johnny or the whole army of management is 
out of step. 



CHOOSING JOB CHARACTERISTICS 

SKILL 



65 




^^SPONSIBIU'^'^ 



SKILL 

L Education 

2. Experience 

3. Initiative . 



EFFORT 

4. Physical Demand, 



5. Mental-Visual Demand 



14% 
22 
14 
50% 



10% 

5 



RESPONSIBILITY 

6. Equipment 

7. Material or Product 

8. Safety of Others. . . 

9. Work of Others 



5% 
5 
5 
5 
20% 



JOB CONDITIONS 



10. 
11. 



Working Conditions 10% 

Unavoidable Hazards.... 5 



15' 



15% 



Figure 14. 



Major and Minor Characteristics- 
Jobs 



-Kress Plan, Hourly Paid 



The Kress plan allotments, although omitted, come very close to 
the foregoing median and, if all the companies using this plan were 
added to the 60 per cent above mentioned, a much larger majority 
of cases would have approximated the median percentages. 



66 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

The Standard Pattern. From these studies it seems to be the 
consensus that all jobs can be measured in terms of the four major 
job characteristics but that this number is usually not sufficient to 
measure easily and accurately the small difference between the vari- 
ous job classifications. The use of fifteen or twenty minor char- 
acteristics is supposed to give this greater accuracy but entails an 
extraordinary amount of work when there are hundreds of jobs to 
be analyzed. Since Benge, Weed, Knowles, and Riegal have all sug- 
gested that the number of minor characteristics used should not 
greatly exceed seven, it might be well to subdivide each of the four 
major job characteristics into two subcharacteristics, making eight 
in all. An analysis of various surveys and reports suggests the fol- 
lowing subdivisions which appear to be common to most jobs and 
might therefore be standardized. Standardization of the major char- 
acteristics alone brings the advantage of a rough intercompany 
check on weightings. In suggesting standardization for the minor 
characteristics we would add a caution against carrying it all the 
way through point allotment. That at least should be tailor-fitted 
for each company. 

1. Skill 

Mental (intelligence, education, experience, training, reaction 

time, etc.) 

Physical (manual dexterity, accuracy, etc.) 

2. Effort 

Mental 

Physical and/or visual 

3. Responsibility 

For people (safety of others, supervision of others) 
For material things (equipment, materials, product) 

4. Working conditions 

Hazardous ) „ ^ . 

Disagreeable^ '^ ^'^^' '' '^'-^^^ combme. 

For salaried positions the major characteristics may be the same 
but most of them must be subdivided differently and reweighted. 

Where Variations May Be Desiiable. In suggesting a standard 
pattern we have no intention of discouraging variations. In fact, we 
prefer tailor-fitted programs for all management functions. If a 
company has ideal working conditions, the characteristics covering 
that condition might be very little needed. Nevertheless such a job 
as sandblasting will always need some credit on this characteristic 
and this job or similar jobs exist in the best-conditioned plants. Then 
there are extraordinary conditions. The Association of Pulp and 



CHOOSING JOB CHARACTERISTICS 67 

Paper Manufacturers gives 48.8 per cent weighting to responsibility 
for material and 15.2 per cent to responsibility for equipment while 
giving only 16.6 per cent to their skill characteristics. 



Plants A to I of One Company 

ABCDEFGHI 

Mentality 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 

Skill 410 345 360 325 360 390 300 350 300 

Responsibility 70 50 45 45 60 50 45 55 45 

Mental Application 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 

Physical Application 25 20 15 15 20 20 15 20 15 

Working Conditions 



Figure 15. Variation of Point Potentials for Toolroom Jobs. 

Barring extraordinary conditions the need for variation lies mostly 
in the extension of evaluation from shop to office. Variation may be 
desired, however, merely to reflect a company's standards as to the 
class and age of employees which it wants and can get. Even here 
we believe the main need for variation lies in the apportionment of 
relative values both as to a characteristic and as to its measures. 
This need may be expressed as a principle. Keep variations and sub- 
divisions of characteristics to the minimum, alter their definitions 
to suit plant needs, and let the local management judge the relative 
values of all minor characteristics, even the degrees. This practice, 
of course, may be followed within limits set for a whole company. 
The General Electric Company has found that some of its plants do 
not run as high on skill as others. The plant where each character- 
istic runs highest sets the over- all limit (see Figure 15). 

The Lockheed Aircraft Corporation has done much to fit plans 
to its several needs. For hourly paid work it uses the revised South- 
ern California Aircraft plan which was developed to help rapidly 
expanding aircraft companies at the beginning of World War IL 
The characteristics and maximum point values are the same as used 
by the General Electric Company except that the latter's Working 
Conditions, 100 points, is here divided into Job Conditions, 45 
points, and Unavoidable Hazards, 45 points. This change seems to 
be a Cole influence. Furthermore, the use of predetermined degree 
definitions is certainly a shift from Weed to Cole technique, but 
the total potential comes to 790 points. The progressions through 
the five degrees are by constant multiple except for the two char- 
acteristics here mentioned. For them the progression is by a con- 
stant addition (see Figure 16a and b). 



68 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



C^haracleriiltci and aUe^ree Uaiuei 

CHARACTERISTICS ,„ 2ND ^^m^\n sir 



SKILL See Tabic on Opposite Page 

MENTALITY ... 20 40 60 80 100 

RESPONSIBILITY 
FOR MATERIAL 
& EQUIPMENT . 20 40 60 80 100 

MENTAL 
APPLICATION . 10 20 30 40 50 

PHYSICAL 
APPLICATION . 10 20 30 40 50 

JOB CONDITIONS .5 15 25 35 45 

UNAVOIDABLE 
HAZARDS ... 5 15 25 35 45 



SKILL 

SKILL is the technique acquired through training and 
experience. The amount of skill required fcr different 
jobs varies considerably. However, the amount of skill 
necessary for the satisfactory performance of any job can 
be measured with reasonable accuracy in terms of the 
length of time normally required for an average in- 
dividual of normal mental capacity to acquire the neces- 
sary trade knowledge and training. 

Training and experience are considered together, and 
the aggregate item required for both serves as the basis 
for the assignment of evaluation points. The table below 
indicates the points allocated to each month and year of 
experience and training required by the job. 



TEtC 


roiNT s 


Tt»aj 


mms 


Less Than 




VA 


245 


3 mos. 


15 


3 


265 


3mos. 


55 


4 


300 


6 mos. 


95 


5 


325 


9 mos. 


125 


6 


345 


1 


150 


7 


365 


I'/z 


190 


8 


385 


2 


220 


9 


400 



MENTALITY 

MENTALITY is the prerequisite mental capacity, often 
measured by extent of education or equivalent, which is 
initially required of an individual to be capable of learn- 
ing to perform a given job efficiently. 

Depending on the complexity of the job and the degree 
of mentality required to perform the job efficiently, the 
following factors are defined; 

DEFINITION OF DEGREES 

1. Use addition and subtraction; follow written or 
verbal instructions. 

2. Use simple arithmetic such as decimals and frac- 
tions; use production illustr.itions or blueprints for 
reference or identification of parts. 

3. Use algebra and geometry or an elementary science, 
as applied to simple layouts or standard shop methods; 
interpret parts blueprints. 

4. Use sufficient shop trigonometry or a science to solve 
problems of moderate complexity; interpret assembly 
blueprints. 

5. Use sufficient shop trigonometry, or a science, to 
solve complicated problems requiring originality and 
ingenuity interpret complex blueprints, lofting data, and 
engineering drawings. 



RESPONSIBILITY FOR 
MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT 

RESPONSIBILITY' for material and equipment is the 
responsibilir)' required by the job for preventing loss 
to the Company through damage to equipment, tools, 
material, or product. 

"Equipment and Tools" include stationary and portable 
machines, material handling equipment, hand tools which 
are the property of the Company, and all tcxils, dies, jigs, 
and fixtures. 

"Material and Product" include raw materials, supplies, 
work in process, and finished parts. Tools, dies, patterns, 
etc., are considered work in process for the department 
making them. 

EVALUATION PROCEDURE 
Estimate the cost to the Company of accidental damage 
to equipment and tools which could occur in the course 
of normal performance of the job. Consider only the 
damage for which the employee would be wholly re- 
sponsible. Use an average top figure for a single occur- 
rence — not an extreme maximum. Cover the cost of 
repairs necessary to restore the equipment to first-class 
operating condition, and estimate the cost of accidental 
damage to material and product on the same basis. 



DEGREE 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


POINTS 


20 


40 


60 


SO 


100 



DliGREE 


1 


~ 


3 


4 


5 


DOLLAR 
RANGE 



50 


51 
250 


251 
500 


501 
1000 


1001 
up 


POINTS 


20 


40 


60 


SO 


100 



Figure 16fl. Southern California Aircraft Industry Plan for Shop Occupa- 
tions. (Lockheed Aircraft Corporation.) 



CHOOSING JOB CHARACTERISTICS 



69 



MENTAL APPLICATION 

MENTAL APPLICATION is expressed as the neces- 
sary degree of concentration required by the job. On 
developmental jobs involving close tolerances and 
complex mechanisms, mental application would be 
high, whereas on simple highly repetitive jobs, mental 
application is reduced to a minimum by the develop- 
ment of a habit cycle of the motion involved. 
Depending on the complexity of the job and the 
degree of mental application required to perform the 
job efficiently, the following factors are defined: 

DEFINITION OF DEGREES 

1. Minimum mental application; operations are 
practically automatic. 

2. Light mental application; operations repetitive. 
3.- Moderate mental application; operations are var- 
iable. 

4. Very close mental application; highly variable 
operations involving considerable detail. 

5. Intense mental application; extensive detail, 
requiring utmost care and attention for control. 



DEGREE 


1 


2 


^ 


4 


5 


POINTS 


10 


20 


30 


-10 


50 



PHYSICAL APPLICATION 

PHYSICAL APPLICATION is the muscular exer- 
tion required by the job, including its degree of 
continuity and working position. 

Depending on the job being performed and the fre- 
quency of physical effort required, the following 
factors are defined: . 

DEFINITION OF DEGREES 

1. Slight physical exertion; intermittent sitting, 
standing or walking. • 

2. Continuous handling light weight material; or 
continuous sitting, standing, or walking. 

3. Occasional pushing, pulling, or lifting heavy 
weight material; or occasional difficult work positions. 

4. Frequent pushing, pulling, or lifting heavy weight 
materials; or frequent difficult work positions. 

5. Continuous pushing, pulling, or lifting heavy 
weight materials; or continuous difficult work posi- 



DEGREE 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


POINTS 


10 


20 


30 


40 


50 



JOB CONDITIONS 

JOB CONDITIONS are the surrounding or physical 
conditions under which the job must be performed, 
and which may affect the mental or physical well- 
being of the employee. These conditions are beyond the 
employee's control. The following factors are defined: 

DEFINITION OF DEGREES 

1. Clean working conditions and no disagreeable 
elements or factors. 

2. Slightly dirty working conditions, or general fac- 
tory noise, but no disagreeable elements or factors. 

3. Occasional disagreeable elements or factors, such 
as heat, cold, dampness, fumes, vibration, irritating 
noise, etc.; or dirty working conditions. 

4. A continuous disagreeable element or factor such 
as heat, cold, dampness, fumes, vibration, irritating 
noise, etc. 

5. More than one disngrecnbic element or factor 
which is continuous, or a combination of such elements 
or factors as those listed under the above degrees. 



UNAVOIDABLE HAZARDS 

UNAVOIDABLE HAZARDS are the accident and 
health risks involved in the performance of the job. 
Depending on the possibility of occupational hazards 
inherent in the job, the following factors arc defined: 

DEFINITION OF DEGREES 

1. Work having very little accident or health hazard. 

2. Exposure to very minor accident hazards, such as 
minor abrasions, minor burns. 

3. Exposure to accident hazards such as severe burns 
and cuts. 

4. Exposure to accident hazards such as broken 
bones, eye injuries, hernia, loss of fingers. 

5. Exposure to accident or health hazards involving 
permanent disability or necessitating removal to 
another occupation. 



DEGREE 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


POINTS 


5 


15 


25 


35 


45 



DEGREE 


1 


- 


3 


4 


5 


POINTS 


5 


'' 


25 


35 


45 



Figure I6b. (Concluded.) 



70 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



Shift from Skill to Other Characteristics. Since 1940 there has 
been little change in choice of characteristics, but if several recently 
revised plans indicate anything they indicate that less weight may 
now be needed for skill and more for responsibility. This seems 
reasonable because we know that more skill is being transferred to 
highly specialized machines, and such jobs in turn carry heavier 
responsibility. See the accompanying tabulation. 





Percentages 


Plan 


Skill 


Effort 


Respon- 
sibility 


Working 
Conditions 


Boeing Aircraft Co 

Krauter Webber Tool Works 

Western Electric Co 

Army Air Force 


45.3 
40.0 
39.0 

37.5 


16.0 
21.0 
19.5 
25.0 


25.2 
29.0 
23.2 
25.0 


13.5 
10.0 
18.3 
12.5 







In a radio parts factory E. N. Hay found that a reduction of skill 
items to 30 per cent was necessary to serve the local needs. Messrs. 
Clerk Kerr and Lloyd H. Fisher have suggested that there may be a 
shift from skill to the "disutility" factors such as hazard and job 
conditions.^ 

Weighting Given Skill a Major Influence. As early as 1942 the 
General Electric Company concluded that skill could be accurately 
measured by learning timic, that is, "the total time spent in various 
assignments that is necessary before an individual is qualified for 
the job in question, plus the normal amount of time required on the 
job so that he is competent to do that job in an expeditious manner." 
Their manual of that year also tabulated total points and skiU points 
for their jobs. The ratio of these two values was by no means con- 
stant, but with numerous exceptions there was a suggestion of 
parallelism. Other analysts had, of course, realized that, because 
skill was usually assigned a high proportion of the points, it tended 
to dominate the total number of points. They made no move, how- 
ever, to discard other characteristics because they knew that there 
are always a few jobs which have unusual combinations of require- 
ments. Most analysts would be only too happy to use fewer char- 
acteristics if they were sure no injustice would result. In the mean- 
time some psychologists have advocated drastic simplification, in 

* "Effect of Environment and Administration on Job Evaluation," Harvard 
Business Review, XVIII, No. 3, 



CHOOSING JOB CHARACTERISTICS 71 

fact they have conducted elaborate experiments to prove that three 
or four characteristics would do as well if not better. 

Dr. C. H. Lawshe, Professor of Psychology, Purdue University, 
began his experiments in 1943. His first observation was that in an 
unnamed aircraft engine plant there were two clusters of character- 
istics in use, namely: 

1. Education, Learning Period, Initiative and Ingenuity, and 
Responsibility for Work of Others. 

2. Unavoidable Hazards, Responsibility for the Safety of Others, 
Working Conditions, and Physical Demands. 

The rating on any one characteristic in a cluster he suspected 
would predict the rating of the other ones in the same cluster. The 
first cluster he has named "Skill Demands Factor" and the second 
"Job Characteristics." This nomenclature is unfortunate because if 
those in the first cluster are not also job characteristics they do not 
belong in a job study. His next observation was that the first cluster 
contributes 90 per cent of the variance in total points while the 
second cluster contributes the remaining 10 per cent. This is no 
surprise for many jobs except in the idea that job values, when 
averaged, should retain much significance. At least he reports this 
ratio for six plants separately and they spread from 99 to 77.5. 
Did individual jobs in a single plant spread as much? It would not 
take that much spread to invalidate such an idea as a means of 
deciding the worker's pay. 

Lawshe's Abbreviated Formula. Of more moment than the fore- 
going is Lawshe's use of two characteristics from the skill cluster 
with one for the conditions cluster and the working out of a multi- 
plier for each of the three, which, multiphed by the respective point 
value and filled out by a constant, would when totaled proximate 
the total point value as derived from the full number of character- 
istics. The formula is as follows: 

Abbreviated Education Experience Hazard 

Rating = 2.0 Rating + 1.4 Rating + 5.4 Rating + 30.4 

Illustrations 
of one job = 2.0 X 42 + 1.4 X 66 + 5.4 X 5 + 30.4 = 233.8 

This job rated by the NEMA plan was third degree for the first 
two characteristics and first degree for the last. The original point 
value from totaling eleven characteristic values was 236. Hence 
Lawshe's abbreviated formula was only 2.2 points short. When the 
same formula was applied to all 247 jobs in an airframe plant all 



72 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

but seven jobs were within 22 points of the original ratings. NEMA 
uses 21 points per grade and one point clearance. The present 
writer applied this formula to 35 jobs that NEMA had used for 
instruction purposes and found the results disappointing. "Abbre- 
viated ratings" ran from 42 points below the original rating to 46 
points above. Twenty-one of the jobs came within =10 points of 
the original values so that they would have a chance of remaining 
in their proper grades, while 8 other jobs, if not more, of the 24 
jobs which were out more than half of a grade range would have to 
change grade. The good and bad results had less evident relation- 
ship to grade than to type of work. 

Lawshe's Four-Item System. The four characteristics chosen by 
Lawshe for his short-cut system^ are: (1) Learning Period, (2) 
General Schooling, (3) Working Conditions, (4) Job Hazards. 
After specifying degrees and points, five analysts rated forty jobs 
by the simplified system and another five analysts rated the same 
jobs by the NEMA system. Groups of five ratings were averaged 
to cancel individual variation. The two sets of average ratings were 
then compared. On 38 per cent of the jobs there was perfect agree- 
ment, but on 88 per cent of the jobs the two systems deviated by 
one (or less) labor grade, and on 97 per cent of the jobs by two 
(or less) labor grades. Lawshe then raised the question: ''Had the 
two groups of analysts used a single system, how extensive would 
the discrepancies have been?" To answer this he made comparisons 
of rating within each separate system and found that the percentages 
were similar, although a little less so, within the NEMA results. 
The most surprising part of the research to this writer is that within 
each system the analysts made the same grades for only 35 per cent 
of the jobs by the NEMA system. It was 43 per cent for the simpli- 
fied system. Properly experienced analysts are expected to make a 
more trustworthy showing. Lawshe indicates, and we agree in this, 
that unnecessary characteristics lessen the likelihood of rehable 
rating. Doubtless our pioneers started us off with too many and we 
now find it difficult to retract. Along this line Lawshe says, "If the 
employees, or the organized labor representatives, or the members 
of management or supervision hold the opinion that certain items 
ought to be included in a particular scale, this attitude cannot be 
ignored." 

A Proposal for Using Five Characteristics. Instead of trying to 
compact all characteristics into two clusters and then subdivide them 

« "Personnel Series N. 119," Journal of Applied Psychology, XXVIII. XXIX, 
XXX; also T. A. Ryan, Work and Effort (New York: The Ronald Press Co., 
1947). 



CHOOSING JOB CHARACTERISTICS 73 

into four, we propose that the generally recognized four major char- 
acteristics be used, with a subdivision of skill only to make five. We 
would accept Lawshe's selection of skill subcharatteristics, but re- 
name them: 

(1) Mentality and (2) Experience (i.e., learning period). 

We would then add: (3) Responsibility and let each plant decide 
what kind of responsibility is most important for its type of jobs. 
Then we would insert: (4) Effort (i.e., mental and/or physical or 
visual as each type of work would most need). Finally we would 
include: (5) Working Conditions (i.e., hazard and/or disagreeable 
unavoidables). 

Reversion to the major characteristics would retain the four kinds 
of needs which all successful analysts have considered to be present 
to some degree in most jobs. Subdivision of skill, almost always the 
predominate need, would bring qualitative balance impossible to 
obtain by weighting any one part of skill. 

The specific inclusion of responsibility and effort assures that jobs 
which run high on those points would not be slighted. The omission 
of these as independent variables is undoubtedly the reason why 
Lawshe's experiments fail to show consistent rating for some jobs. 
Using a single item for working conditions and hazards might re- 
quire a choice between the latter, but we cannot have our cake and 
eat it too. If it is worth while to simplify we must do some boiling 
down and the total weighting for this "cluster" has rarely been 
given a high rating. We have not even considered the relative 
weighting that these five characteristics should have, but the alloca- 
tion of points could be kept close to what has been found satis- 
factory for the four clusters which they represent. As heretofore we 
think each plant ought to analyze its own needs and make its own 
measuring scales to meet those needs (see "The Standard Pattern," 
page 66). 

Some simplification can be gained wherever the number of de- 
grees can be reduced. This should not be done, however, without 
deliberate consideration. As long as there is any doubt it is safer to 
set up or retain the larger number of degrees. 



5 



SELLING THE PROJECT 



The selling of job analysis and its administration to foremen and 
key workers is primarily a problem of insuring their collaboration 
at all possible points. 

— W. R. COLEY 

The Idea Must Be Acceptable. Before proceeding any further 
in planning the project it is advisable to anticipate the various kinds 
of opposition that might arise from middle management, from the 
supervisors, or from the labor representatives. This project will 
materially affect all concerned and it is not wise to complete plans 
without the support of all such key individuals, first those compos- 
ing the committees and eventually those less immediately con- 
cerned. Of course a sales campaign presupposes somethuig defi- 
nitely completed to sell but in this case the general policy and broad 
principles for putting rates in order on a preplanned factual basis, 
in short a project, must suflSce. Besides uncovering all possible 
objections, and forestalling resistance, it is important to bring out 
all pertinent suggestions. 

Conceivably the proposal to start job evaluation might originate 
from a staff man, a director, or even a union official. William Gom- 
berg ^ cites the case of the Commercial Telegraphers Union, which 
asked Western Union to install a job evaluation program in order 
to resolve the conflicting claims made upon the union leadership 
by the various craft members, each striving for his advantage in the 
collective negotiations. In such cases top management itself must 
be sold on the proposal. Management's interest would include: 
harmony of industrial relations, initial and operating costs, length 
of time required to get going, and the prospects for permanency. 
These men would usually be conversant with the history and success 
of the project elsewhere. If top management should not be aware 
of these things the selling party would have a diplomatic job of the 

^ William Gomberg, A Labor Union Manual on Job Evaluation (Chicago: 
Labor Education Division, Roosevelt College, 1947). 

74 



SELLING THE PROJECT 75 

first magnitude. Suffice it to say that citations from successful in- 
stallations elsewhere, a scatter diagram of the present job loci, 
together with cost estimates, representative reactions, and similar 
data should be enough to sell top management. We are much more 
concerned with the problem of selling from top on down and across 
the bargaining table where selling job evaluation is a matter of gain- 
ing confidence and imparting instruction. Even here there is likely 
to be a two-way traffic. 

Extension of Committee Organization. Since the committee 
form of organization is necessary for the initial part of this project, 
a committee for each major department should be undertaken at 
this early stage and all such committees used as clearing houses for 
pro and con opinions. The top "steering" committee can start this 
move by calling in the department heads to hear the aims and gen- 
eral plan of procedure explained. They should be encouraged to 
express themselves and their suggestions should be taken into ac- 
count. Perhaps the attitudes here displayed and the degrees of 
constructive resourcefulness evinced will be the best guides to decid- 
ing which persons should be put on the various departmental com- 
mittees. Some individuals may honestly doubt the claims for the 
project; occasionally one will be motivated by jealousy regarding 
his traditional right to manipulate rates, and some may be appre- 
hensive of union opposition. Some foremen like to increase rates, 
dislike to reduce them, causing inequities to predominate on the 
high side. If such is the case show them how systematic evaluation 
can bring correction. 

Selling the Project to Department Heads and Supervisors. An- 
swers to the first objection — that the project may not be all that is 
claimed — can be in the nature of citations from successful achieve- 
ments elsewhere or, better yet, the exposure of haphazard rating 
within their own departments. This is not hard to do. For instance, 
among reported installations: 

An exceptional case resulted in: A more typical case resulted in: 

Lowering 39.3% of all jobs. Lowering 20.0% of all jobs. 

Raising 43.9% of all jobs. Raising 30.0% of all jobs. 

Total changes 83.2% of all jobs. Total changes 50.0% of all jobs. 

These data mean that in the two cases cited only 17 per cent to 50 
per cent of all jobs were already rated correctly and remained un- 
changed.- 

^ One survey found that from 16 per cent to 64 per cent of jobs were within 
correct limits, 1.7 per cent to 17 per cent above range, and 21 per cent to 82 per 
cent below range. 



76 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

If the management has already practiced job analysis, the super- 
visors will know that the job descriptions and classifications have 
been valuable as guides to hiring, transfer, and promotion. Evalua- 
tion on the same impersonal basis should appeal to them as the next 
logical step in a more complete plan for job control. The fact that 
all decisions are the results of collective study should be welcomed 
as a sharing of responsibility. If the plant has not developed good 
job analysis, of course, the selling must include that step and may 
be a large order. Fortunately job analysis is now so generally in use 
that only certain new or isolated plants are unfamihar with its 
advantages. 

As to the second objection — loss of freedom in manipulation of 
rates — the supervisors can be shown that they will participate in the 
new ratings and that their recommendations will always have con- 
sideration, that only guessing and ill-considered requests will be 
out. Probably they know full well that much of the information must 
be contributed by them. Acknowledge this and use it as a means of 
clinching their full cooperation. Explain the operating procedures 
so they may see that they will no longer be liable to suspicion regard- 
ing favoritism. Most foremen v/ill welcome this better way of ad- 
justing rates if the management presents it tactfully and clearly. Two 
courses may be followed. The policy and procedure may be ex- 
plained to the foremen at a group meeting, or the essentials may be 
explained individually to each foreman. Whichever course is fol- 
lowed, the value of the project and the reasons for adopting it 
should be thoroughly explained. 

The third objection — that of union misunderstanding — can best 
be answered by the management's inviting the union to send a 
selected representative to sit permanently as a member of each de- 
partmental committee. We think that from now on this step \^ill 
be increasingly important for the solving of all management ques- 
tions that closely affect labor relations. If management is not ready 
to share this responsibility it can at least invite union representatives 
to sit in unofficially. In some situations management cannot expect 
to sell job evaluation to the employees, but one or more union offi- 
cials can do so if convinced that the proposal will be beneficial. 

Considerations of the Union. The fundamental union principle 
of "standard rates" has long pointed toward modern job evaluation. 
In 1921 there was a demand on the Council of the AF of L "to 
attempt to determine a more sound basis for wage adjustment." and 
in 1944 it was the United Steelworkers of America, CIO. that 
demanded similar pay for similar work. That led the National War 



SELLING THE PROJECT 77 

Labor Board to order a job evaluation system for the whole steel 
industry. It does not follow, however, that unions will welcome 
every job evaluation plan, or the best of such plans, regardless of 
other questions. Some of the other questions are: 

L Have other management policies been enUghtened and con- 
siderate? 

2. Have these policies been carried out by all representatives of 
management honestly, faithfully, and with friendliness? 

3. Is any conflict likely between this new policy and the union 
rules for layoff and discharge? 

4. Will merit rating supplement the plan and if so will that develop- 
ment lead to transfer and promotion regardless of seniority? 

5. Because the job, not the man, is evaluated will the plan lead 
to introducing high-skilled men on less-skilled jobs, men who 
can be transferred later to other jobs? 

6. Will the plan make more job grades within a family of jobs, 
thereby degrading all but the top layer and reducing the 
number of employees per grade? 

7. Are there to be separate rates for women? Are men's jobs 
to be broken in two and both jobs rerated lower as a con- 
sequence? Under what conditions will any rate be decreased? 

8. Will the union through its official representatives have any 
voice, other than through grievance procedure, in the estab- 
lishment and operation of the plan? 

9. Will such a factual predetermination of rates curtail collective 
bargaining, retard, freeze, or accelerate adjustments? 

10. Will the plan extend to incentive rates? If so, how will it affect 
them, particularly the rates on new and untried jobs? How 
will it affect the guarantees? 

1 1 . Will it affect the system of settling grievances? If so, favorably 
or unfavorably to union interests? 

Winning Labor Support. To win wholehearted labor support 
all these questions must be frankly faced and specifically answered. 

Questions 1 and 2 will already have been answered and, if an- 
swered negatively, the resulting lack of confidence, or downright 
suspicion,^ may take years to overcome, and may prevent any at- 

^ In the opinion of William Gomberg, "the principal barrier is a suspicion of the 
hocus-pocus of the company-paid technician. If the union gets its own paid 
technician, not in order to do the whole job, but to work with the management 
technician, you have 99 per cent of the men's resistance overcome. To allow such 
an arrangement you have got to overcome the opposition of your own top manage- 
ment first; get it clear as to what constitutes management's prerogative and what 
constitutes union prerogative." 



78 JOB E\'ALUATIOX METHODS 

tempt at job evaluation for the present. Even when the company 
record is good, an ambitious union leader may delude himself and 
others that before the entrance of the union the management had 
been autocratic and mysterious in its deahngs with labor but, now 
that union protections are in force, unfair tactics will be headed off 
as they arise. That kind of leader wants his union members to owe 
him for all that is desirable, crediting management not at all. In 
this situation a management may not be blocked from its desired 
project but it will have to bear with a lot of play-acting until con- 
sistent managerial square dealing has extended over sufficient time 
to convince the rank and file that there is no cause for distrust. 

In short, selling must be a continuous process and ever}' super- 
visor must be trained and retrained to cany out poHcy to a perfec- 
tion that will necessitate ven.^ Uttle apology. This training should 
be done anyway. Matthew^ Woll said, early in 1944, that ''intelhgent 
American workers will not be deluded by demagogic slogans." 
Fortunately there are many of these inteUigent American workers. 
There is also evidence that they are gradually improving union 
leadership and good labor leaders appreciate good management. 
If they are consulted early in the development of job evaluation 
their approval and whole-hearted support can be won. But they too 
will want all questions answered, at least in principle, so that they 
can in turn w'm over members of their unions to approve and co- 
operate. 

Conflicts with Union Rules. There is nothing in job evaluation 
proper that should affect, under Question 3. either layoff or dis- 
charge, except possibly changes in the number of job grades. If 
such changes are involved then the governing rules might need to 
be recorrelated; in fact, that would be expected. Merit rating, which 
is often correlated with rate ranges to determine individual differen- 
tials, does directly affect layoff and discharge. Hence if merit rating 
is not ruled out by seniority arrangements, the union and manage- 
ment must do some revamping. Whatever way this matter may be 
settled it need not upset the essential steps to job evaluation. 

Effects on Merit Rating. Certainly merit rating. Question 4. is 
needed to determine when, and how much, an individual has im- 
proved relative to the qualifications required for base rate. This 
step provides an additional layer on top of the derived job rates. 
It is by far the fairest guide to promotion and to transfer, and is. 
therefore, something of an incentive toward self-improvement of 
individual worth (see Chapter 13). Without it the time-paid worker 
must faU back on the favor of a foreman or the dropping out of 



SELLING THE PROJECT 79 

those ahead of him — seniority. If seniority rules leave no room for 
consideration of merit, then of course there is little use for merit 
rating and the consequent top layers of differential. This clash must 
be settled by bargaining.^ If seniority is invoked only when merit 
is equal, then there should be very little trouble because good man- 
rating can be substantiated. In the former case rate ranges will be 
much restricted, perhaps disappear altogether, but we have seen 
job evaluation do surprisingly well on "pin-point" rates, no merit 
rating. So this problem can be solved to suit the most antimerit 
unionists without sacrificing the essentials of job evaluation. After 
all, job evaluation is job rating, not man rating. 

High-Skilled Men. As to the introduction of high-skilled men 
on less-skilled jobs with subsequent transfer to higher-skilled jobs, 
Question 5, the management should point to the principle of keeping 
all skill at its highest level. That is, management's aim should coin- 
cide with the union's aim, both subject to expediency. Thus the 
answer to this question, as in the case of Questions 1 and 2, is to 
correct management policies and convince the union that manage- 
ment is not interested in trickiness, and will not allow any pohcy, 
principle, or control to be subverted. 

Job Grades Within a Family of Jobs. The number of grades, 
per family of jobs. Question 6, is likely to be changed in the process 
of setting up job evaluation since an orderly classification is to take 
the place of mere traditional classification. When such changes have 
real significance it should be possible to win union approval by show- 
ing those concerned a "picture" of the proposed structure and by 
giving them all the facts. If there is no ground for suspecting that 
management is trying to upset seniority, a union is likely to accept 
this kind of change for the same reason that management wants it, 
namely, equal pay for equal work. If the effect on seniority is too 
pronounced to be acceptable, then management will have to com- 
promise or retain the traditional classification. The sacrifice would 
be annoying but not completely upsetting. Job classification is a 
superstructure on job values. The substructure need not be dis- 
turbed and eventually the superstructure can be harmonized (see 
Chapter 11). 

Rates for Women Workers. The custom of having a separate 
and lower set of rates for women's jobs. Question 7, is by no means 
ended by the wartime attempts to include them under "equal pay 
for equal work." Not only do some regular women's jobs remain as 

^ Recently the United States Supreme Court gave unions the right to bargain on 
merit ratings as well as the use of them. 



80 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

they were but many jobs formerly held by men have been divided 
to make more jobs available for women. This practice is necessary 
in wartime but it must be kept clear of the suspicion that it is done 
perversely, that is, to put both jobs on lower rates. In other words, 
such jobs must be treated as new jobs, honestly described and evalu- 
ated so that the union representatives can endorse the conclusions. 
If such division of jobs is temporary, it may be helpful to indicate 
the change as temporary and retain the descriptions of the original 
men's jobs to assure the union that the original jobs are to be put 
back in force when the excessive need for women employees has 
passed. 

Out-of-Line Rates. As to adjustment of out-of-line rates, those 
which are higher than standard should be left untouched for present 
recipients, to be corrected as new individuals are brought in. Present 
recipients are usually trained for upgrading. If not upgraded, such 
overpaid individuals become ineligible for subsequent general in- 
creases. It is customary for transfers to take the downgraded rates 
but neither transfer nor layoff should ever be used to take advantage 
of present employees. All these principles must be explained afid 
followed! 

Union Participation. The extent and nature of union voice. 
Question 8, is primarily up to management. We have already advo- 
cated that some voice be given and given early if the union will 
accept it. We believe this should be arranged not merely as a 
negative expedient but as a positive opportunity to get all viewpoints 
on the development of the plan.^ The workers often know a lot 
more about their jobs than will ever be learned by all the office 
analysts. Suggestion systems, "Nelson committees," and the like. 
have proved this repeatedly. Furthermore, when a union represent- 
ative is put to work on a management problem he soon finds that 
management knows more about its job than has been realized by 
labor. In short, a worker can contribute real facts, he will gain 
respect for management, and he will come to believe in the plan he 
has helped to create — all of which will result in his having the 
knowledge and the interest to explain, correct, and defend the plan 
as may be needed. 

This aid and support can be a tower of strength in time of trouble. 
Somewhere along the route someone has to do a lot of explaining to 
individuals or to small groups as to why one job rate, not another, is 

■^ Paquette and Eraser, "Labor Management, Joint Development and Joint Ap- 
plication of Job Evaluation," Advanced Management, VIII, No. 3. Also N. L. A. 
Martucci, 'A Case History," Personnel, XXIII, No. 2. 



SELLING THE PROJECT 81 

to be increased. If the shop stewards are prepared to take on this 
duty it is likely to be done with a minimum of friction. If manage- 
ment is afraid of losing some of its prerogatives it should realize that 
the final step of rate setting is definitely included or implied in all 
definitions of collective bargaining, that an unsatisfactory wage rate 
must sooner or later come out in the open and hence might better be 
bargained over as part of an orderly plan, rather than as an isolated 
grievance regardless of plan. Surely this much participation will not 
undermine the essential authority of competent management. 

One very large union demands that master copies of all job de- 
scriptions, values, and rates be handed over as developed and this 
union prefers to dispute rather than to assume any share in shaping a 
plan. Another large union has fought for and won a joint union- 
management arrangement through which extensive researches are 
undertaken in the interests of better management. In other words 
the latter union has taken over a share of management prerogatives. 
Most unions are between these extremes, and will dispute or cooper- 
ate as opportunity presents. All unionized shops today have some 
kind of machinery for settling grievances and about 90 per cent of 
the grievances involve wages. Thus all unions have some degree of 
veto in operating any plan for setting or adjusting job rates. Since 
one of the main objects in job evaluation is to eliminate isolated 
treatment of individual cases, a new installation of job evaluation 
should be protected by new rules for grievances arising out of it. 
These rules must be bargained and new policies should outline 
clearly just what will be done in all likely situations, that is, the plan 
itself must provide for adjustments based on facts. The union voice 
will then be confined to presenting and proving the facts. We believe 
unions will learn to respect this setup as infinitely more just than 
depending on pressure regardless of facts. 

Influence on Collective Bargaining. The effects of job evalua- 
tion on bargaining. Question 9, are considerable in that the rates for 
specific jobs other than key jobs may eventually be excluded from 
bargaining altogether.^' The levels for each occupational grade must 
usually be left to bargaining as heretofore. Even without job evalua- 
tion, union agreements, which terminate on definite dates, have 
rarely provided completely for wage rate adjustment, that is, in 
normal times. It is considered sufficient to adjust wage levels at the 
time a new agreement is bargained, usually once a year. In times of 
rapid price change or of business uncertainty many agreements do 

^ A few union leaders take advantage of a mistakenly high rate by insisting that 
it is correct and all other rates in the class are wrong. This is as bad trickery as 
anything to which management has ever stooped. 



82 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

provide for wage adjustments within the life of the agreement. 
Such short-time provisions are either permissive or automatic and 
may authorize increases only or may set a lower limit for de- 
creases. 

The permissive type usually permits periodic renegotiation every 
three to six months. In some instances renegotiations are allowed 
whenever either side can convince the other that a substantial change 
in prevailing rates, in cost of living, or the like, has taken place. Ten 
to fifteen days' notice is specified to allow time for bargaining, and 
arbitration may be specified as the basis of solution. Some agree- 
ments call for a periodic review of prevailing rates in the community 
or among competitors. Frequently the management agrees to main- 
tain wages at an average level equal to, or above, that of other com- 
petitors. Occasionally renegotiation is required whenever the price 
of product or profit of the employer shows a substantial change, and 
a few agreements allow renegotiation whenever a decided change in 
general economic conditions can be demonstrated, such as inflation 
or deflation. 

The automatic type is designed to adjust wage rates to purchasing 
power, to the ability of an employer to pay, or to escalator arrange- 
ments. Neither unions nor employers are keen for such automaticity 
because the theoretical flexibility may prove to be inflexible itself, 
that is, may freeze standards at existing levels or may involve exces- 
sive retroactive adjustment. Since job evaluation is a semiautomatic 
operating control of job grading, a union may fear that it will freeze 
present rates and retard any advance. The answer to this fear is to 
explain the whole procedure of community surveys (see Chapter 
10). 

A further reassurance can be secured by making a place for union- 
made surveys. This right is already common where there is ma- 
chinery for hearings before an "impartial chairman" or other form 
of mediation and arbitration. Thus the essential bargaining is in no 
way hampered, but if the union has had a voice in shaping and 
accepting the plan most of the bargaining can be confined to the 
levels of key job rates. The rest wiU be worked according to plan 
and every employee wifl know that all individuals will be treated 
impartially under that plan. Unions have usually fought discrimi- 
nation. If they are confident that the plan is well conceived and 
will be strictly followed, they will find that bargaining can be simpli- 
fied without harm to their rights. The agreement itself can be 
shorter and decidedly more definite. Hence there will be less diffi- 
culty in interpreting the agreement and there will be fewer griev- 
ances. 



SELLING THE PROJECT 83 

Report on the Most Outstanding Case of Participation. 

Elmer J. Maloy, Director, International Rate Adjustment Commit- 
tee, United Steelworkers of America, has reported on the achieve- 
ment of instaUing job evaluation jointly in the basic steel plants: 

The problem of educating the vast number of people in the administering 
of this program was another major undertaking. The Union found it neces- 
sary to establish Rate Adjustors in each District, composed of competent 
Staff Representatives. We operated a school for these staff people for a full 
week and later sent International Committee people to each District to aid 
each of the three-man committees set up in each plant of the Companies 
where the Manual was agreed to. The fact that 150,000 jobs were classified 
by mutual agreement is a tribute to the very fine job done by the Rate Ad- 
justors and Local Committee members, as well as the Top Committee in each 
Company. The Steel Manual, with its many adjustments, is now constructed 
to classify adequately any type of job found in the Industry. 

Then in the summary of his report he says, 

1. Job Descriptions for Bench Mark Jobs and for Gary Specimen Jobs 
were checked and approved by the Top Joint Committee in the United 
States Steel Corporation. All other Job Descriptions were prepared by the 
Company and negotiated locally by the grievance Committee of the Union 
and the Plant Superintendents. This procedure was also followed in all the 
other Companies. 

2. The Steel Manual and all Bench Mark and Specimen Jobs were negoti- 
ated by the Top Joint Wage Rate Inequity Committee for U. S. Steel Plants. 
All other classifications were negotiated locally by a Joint Plant Inequity 
Committee composed of 3 members from the Union and 3 members from 
Plant Management. This procedure was also followed by all other Com- 
panies and Union Committees. 

3. All disputes of job descriptions or classifications were settled by the 
Top Joint Committee or referred to Arbitration. It is a tribute to the honesty 
of purpose and the cooperative spirit of both sides that of the 150,000 jobs 
described and classified, a fraction of 1 per cent were referred to Arbitration. 

4. A maximum of Union, Company and employee participation was used 
in the over-all program. I believe from the satisfactory results obtained that 
no part of the program should be done unilaterally by the Company, unless 
it is the preparation of descriptions and classifications, if the employees are 
to have the feeling that the program was installed fairly and honestly. In 
many small companies, the Union even wrote the descriptions and classifica- 
tions to save the Company the expense of engineering consultants. 

5. Finally, I believe the Companies and the United Steelworkers of 
America should make every effort mutually to maintain the splendid relation- 
ship of jobs brought about by the completion of the Program, and also the 
cooperation that was so manifest throughout all these negotiations. 



84 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Relation to Incentive Rates. Job evaluation should include base 
rates for incentives, which is the point raised in Question 10. 
Bonuses and premiums accentuate the importance of the rates upon 
which they are based. Hence unions have learned to be specific 
about these features in their agreements or to guard them negatively 
through grievance clauses. For some time many unions have 
been demanding the right to negotiate in advance all new incentive 
rates and from day to day all changes in such rates. This right has 
been generally conceded in the clothing, millinery, hosiery, shoe, 
and small steel products industries and some of these establish city- 
v/ide price schedules. A lesser degree of participation is being de- 
manded in many other industries in the determination of piece rates. 
This perpetual bargaining is usually done in grievance committees 
and is not allowed to substitute for the regular negotiations over 
general wage levels described above. Advance notice of any pro- 
posed change in incentive rates, twenty hours to two weeks, is 
required to allow study of the facts. Employers are reluctant to 
make such advance announcement because it takes times to develop 
operative automaticity, and rates that may seem tight often prove 
adequate when the newness is worn off. The union may recognize 
this fact by allowing a thirty-day trial period at the end of which 
any questioned rate can be taken up by the grievance committeee. 

Employers prefer to pay time rates during the learning period, a 
few hours to several weeks, and then determine the incentive rate. 
The underlying principle here is that no incentive rate shall be cut 
merely because an employee has earned more than was expected. It 
is just and fair that management should reduce the rate whenever it 
introduces equipment or method improvement, that is, when an old 
job is transformed into a new one. The distinction should be clear 
enough but many managements have tried to reduce labor costs re- 
gardless of the distinction and some unions have tried to force a 
sharing of gains regardless of the distinction. The true interests are 
mutual. Enlightened leaders from both groups want the distinction 
rigidly maintained. The usual answer is to guarantee rates against 
change for a period such as six months or, more reasonably, to guar- 
antee all rates for their respective jobs indefinitely but allow new 
rates whenever there is a substantial change in capital resource 
creating a different job. In addition, it is wise to assure labor that 
it will suffer no reduction in daily earnings. 

Guarantees. Under the Public Contracts Act and under the Fair 
Labor Standards Act employers subject to the acts are required to 
make good to the worker the difference when incentive earnings fall 



SELLING THE PROJECT 85 

below the hourly minimum rate set for each class of work. State 
minimum wage laws require the same guarantee. These legal man- 
dates make no distinction as to whether employee or employer may 
be to blame for the "fall-down," but the minimum amounts required 
are usually well below the normal earning of incentive workers. 
Some unions require that incentive rates be adequate to insure that 
a specified proportion of the employees, say 60 per cent, earn a 
certain amount above the minimum. This requirement aims at 
better management control but is more likely to tighten the stand- 
ards of employee selection. One union conceded that "workers mak- 
ing less than 90 per cent of the average production in the plant 
shall be deemed substandard and the employer shall not be required 
to pay up to the minimum to these workers." All unions and all 
enlightened managements agree that there should be a higher guar- 
antee to protect the employees for stoppages or slowdowns due solely 
to managerial faults. "A pieceworker unable to make reasonable 
wages through no fault of his own shall be paid at least his average 
daily earnings." "Incentive-plan workers who are qualified will be 
guaranteed 11 V2 per cent over their day rates on a weekly basis." 
These arrangements facilitate shifts between incentive and time-paid 
jobs to oblige management. When favors to management are not 
involved, 80 per cent of average earnings through the past four 
weeks is customary. 

Thus the most liberal guarantee for incentive workers may be 
either some percentage of average earnings or a fixed percentage 
above base. But such arrangements are usually limited to cover 
failures of management and hence are restricted to short intervals. If 
an incentive plan includes a time rate guarantee to cover employee 
as well as managerial fault it is usually fixed at the base rate as per 
job evaluation, sometimes a percentage above the legal minimum. 

All such rate setting may be indirectly affected by job evaluation. 
Management must formulate policies on these points that will be 
fair to both sides. When that is done there should be no fear as to 
the practice, but all points must be acceptable to labor and the re- 
sponsibility for the "selling" or instructing still resides with manage- 
ment. 

Reaction on the Grievance Procedure. The grievance proce- 
dure, or "machinery" as it is sometimes called, with which Question 
1 1 deals, is all-important to a union. It must be respected and sup- 
ported with full managerial cooperation. Job evaluation should cer- 
tainly eliminate many petty grievances. Some unions may prefer to 
have many grievances in which case they will be against any form of 



86 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

job evaluation, and any attempt at winning them over will be fruit- 
less, but it is inconceivable that unions of intelligent workers will 
persist in such perversity for long. They will hear of better ways 
in other plants and through their executive committees will demand 
a more constructive leadership. Most unions will welcome an 
undiscriminating, fact-based rate structure provided the grievance 
machinery is allowed to function also, and they would be right in 
wanting grievance machinery even if there were no serious griev- 
ances. Actually there are bound to be some grievances despite the 
best management, because there are intangibles in human relations 
that defy all prearranged system; there will at least be changing 
conditions, misunderstandings, different points of view, and the like. 
The answer to this question is therefore to welcome the grievance 
procedure and give it all the factual data pertinent to each case. 
Assure the shop stewards that job evaluation will help point the way 
to justice in their hearings. Tell them that if it comes to a question 
of system versus mutual satisfaction, the latter will prevail (see 
Chapter 9). A real system is not going to be upset by adjusting 
it to the larger justice. But a real system for evaluating jobs should 
bring a decided gain in justice. 

Various Means of Winning Employee Support. There is no 
substitute for personal instruction but that can be supplemented by 
publicity through plant and union publications, employee letters 
(see Figure 17), questionnaires, and the showing of slides. For 
instance, the Sperry Company made sUde and film records of the 
committee work from start to finish. This was done partly for 
immediate informational purposes and partly for future preparation 
of newcomers on committee work so that they might "all receive the 
same information, in keeping with the original intent." Most com- 
panies prepare a manual, or perhaps separate manuals, for hourly 
paid employees, for supervisors, and for salaried employees. An 
excellent example of the manual for hourly paid employees is You 
and Your Wages '^ in which cartoons are extensively used, even to 
illustrate the characteristics. The contents of this manual are as 
follows : 

You and Your Wages 

Job Evaluation 

Pay Grades (see Chapter 11, Figure 108) 

Merit Rating 

Periodic Merit Rating 

Wage Incentive 

"^ American Seating Company of Grand Rapids. 



SELLING THE PROJECT 87 



JOB EVALUATION -- WHAT IS IT? 

A program of Job Evaluations is being started in order to determine the 
value of each job in the plant. The purpose of it is to establish a sound wage 
policy which would accomplish: 

1. A fair wage level equal to the rates paid for comparable 
work in similar industry in this area. 

2. Establish a fair wage differential between jobs based on 
comparison of working conditions, responsibility, knowledge 
and experience and skill required for each job. 

3. Eliminate any wage inequalit iesi 
How will this program work? 

1. In the first place, this program can work properly if you 
will participate actively. It is important that each person 
in the plant tells the committee in charge of Job Evaluation 
all about his job. Within the next few weeks you will answer 
personally a questionnaire and tell the committee what you do 
on your job, how you do it, and as the Job Evaluation Program 
progresses, you will participate in determining the value of 
your job. 

2. A study and a survey will be made of various similar industries 
in this area and all the jobs in this plant will be compared with 
the jobs and the rates of pay of other companies. The names of 
companies and associations which will be used for comparison will 
be issued to you so that each individual will be able to check the 
findings of the committee and to see if they are correct. 

3. Each individual will be given an opportunity for a hearing so that 
he can discuss and explain what he does on his job and what he 
thinks the value of his job is, in comparison with the rates paid 
in the area as well as other jobs in the plant itself. 

4. In view of this big undertaking a number of committees will partici- 
pate actively. The Foremen and Group Leaders Committee will handle 
their share of the program from the supervisory and departmental level. 
The Suggestion Committees will be assigned to handle the job so that 
the views and opinions of the people in all sections and floors could 
be gathered and transmitted. In addition, people will be appointed 

to act as information and clearing centers on each floor who will 
consequently inform you of what is going on and answer any questions. 
Mr. Harry Sherman, a member of the faculty of Brooklyn College, has 
been appointed .to assist and coordinate the work of all these committees, 
He will be assisted by Mr. Henry Ries. 

It is hoped that this program can be finished and in effect by January 15, 
1951. As each step is taken in the Job Evaluation Program, its progress and 
workings will be explained to you in detail through reports in writing from the 
committees who will handle this project. 

In trying to establish a sound wage policy for this plant, it is not the 
purpose of the Job Evaluation Program to reduce your present rate of pay. No 
one's wages will be reduced when the Job Evaluation Project is completed. 

The Job Evaluation Program, which has for its objective a square deal in 
the matter of rates and pay for everyone in this plant, can only be as successful 
as the cooperation and the interest which you and every other Lewyt man and woman 
will give it. 

Figure 17. Bulletin Announcement to Employees. (The Lewyt Corporation.) 



88 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Computing Your "Take-Home" Earnings 
Miscellaneous Factors Affecting Wages 

The Armstrong Cork Company has an excellent pamphlet which 
is published in full in the A.M.A. Handbook of Wage and Salary 
Administration. 

The General Electric Company puts out a Supervisor's Guide 
to G. E. Job Information. This has 119 pages and no cartoons. 
Much space is given to "Don't Likes." It would be educational to 
many who are not supervisors. 

The plant of the Celotex Corporation at Marrero, Louisiana, has 
a booklet entitled Your Job and Its Evaluation which indicates co- 
operation all along the line. 

Last but not least, a great deal depends on the capabilities of the 
job analysts themselves. In the words of Dr. Leonard W. Ferguson ^ 
the analyst 

. . . must be familiar with the general principles, the administrative tech- 
niques, and the technical details involved in a complete job evaluation pro- 
gram. A job analyst must possess sufficient tact to secure the cooperation of 
all levels within a company. He must be able to speak the language of em- 
ployees and the language of management. He must be able to see the many 
sides of any problem, be able to make impartial judgments, and be able to 
sell all concerned on the purposes and merits of a job evaluation program. 

^Life Office Management Association, Clerical Salary Administration, 1948. 



SETTING UP MEASURING SCALES 



The characteristics should be clearly defined and explained so 
that all connected with measuring and grading may have, as 
nearly as possible, a common viewpoint. 

— W. D. Stearns 

No Real Measurement in Ranking. Under the ranking method 
predetermined degree definitions are superfluous. But the need for 
predetermined definitions of characteristics to be used as guides to 
proper ranking is now generally recognized. The earliest attempts 
at definition were crude. For instance, the Kimberly-Clark guide 
for "Probability and Consequence of Errors" read as follows: 
"Assuming that the occupation is filled by an experienced, con- 
scientious employee, consider typical errors that are likely to be 
made and the consequences of each in terms of waste, damage to 
equipment, delays, complaints, confusion, spoilage of product, dis- 
crepancies, etc." Such guides may have focused appraisal but they 
failed to implement measurement as an aid to judgment. They did 
point up the need for real measuring scales. 

Measurement Under the Straight Point Method. In the straight 
point method the concept of degrees was part of the plan itself so 
that it was natural to insert a definition in each box of the chart. 
This fact is illustrated in Figure 18. But as in the original method 
this measurement scale wholly neglects the relative difference in 
worth between the characteristics. 

Measuring Scales Under Direct-to-Money Method. Under the 
direct-to-money method ten or more key jobs are selected and care- 
fully described. A competent committee then ranks the jobs on each 
characteristic, members acting independently. This step has been 
called "the heart of the development." The final scores, 1 to 10, 
are averaged and the averages tabulated as in Figure 19. Then for 
each key job its existing rate per hour is distributed over the five 
characteristics by each member of the committee. This work should 

89 



90 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



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O e8 



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111 



SETTING UP MEASURING SCALES 



91 



Key Jobs 


Mental 
Effort 


Skill 


Physical 
Effort 


Responsi- 
bility 


Working 
Conditions 


Pattern Maker 

Machinist No. 1 

Substation Operator. . . 

Pipefitter No. 2 

Painter 


9.4 
8.1 
8.9 
6.0 
5.4 
3.7 
4.8 
1.6 
4.0 
3.1 


9.4 
9.1 
7.3 
7.0 
6.6 
3.1 
4.8 
1.8 
4.3 
1.6 


3.9 

5.7 
1.0 
6.4 
5.3 
8.3 
3.3 
9.3 
3.7 
8.1 


8.2 
7.5 
9.7 
6.8 
5.3 
3.3 
6.1 
2.2 
3.8 
2.1 


2.5 
5.6 
1.2 
6.3 
6.1 
8.1 
5.4 
9.1 
3.7 
7.0 


Poleman 


Drill Press Operator. . . 
Rammer 


Carpenter's Helper.... 
Laborer 





Figure 19. Average Ranks of Ten Jobs, Scale of 10 



End Jobs 


Mental 
Effort 


Skill 


Physical 
Effort 


Respon- 
sibility 


Working 
Condi- 
tions 


Present 
Hourly 

Rate 


Pattern Maker 


30 

27 
26 


33 
32 
33 


9 
11 
11 


14 
15 
16 


6 
7 
6 


92 


Laborer 


6 

5 
4 


3 
5 
4 


16 

17 
18 


5 
4 
4 


12 
11 
12 


42 





Figure 20. 



Estimates of Rater A on Allocation of Present Hourly Rates 
IN Cents 



Key Jobs 


Mental 
Effort 


Skill 


Physical 
Effort 


Respon- 
sibility 


Working 
Con- 
ditions 


Present 

Hourly 

Rate 


Pattern Maker 

Machinist No. 1 

Substation Operator . . 

Pipefitter No. 2 

Painter 


26.8 

21.7 

24.9 

11.1 

10.1 

5.5 

8.8 

3.2 

7.8 

5.5 


33.4 
32.1 
21.1 
20.1 
18.8 

7.3 
14.2 

4.2 
13.2 

3.0 


10.2 
12.2 

4.1 
14.0 
10.8 
19.2 

8.2 
21.9 

9.0 
17.7 


15.8 

13.8 

27.7 

12.2 

10.6 

6.9 

10.5 

5.0 

8.9 

4.0 


5.8 
8.2 
4.2 

10.6 
9.7 

13.1 
8.3 

13.7 
7.1 

11.8 


92 
88 
82 
68 
60 

fo 

48 
46 
42 


Poleman .... 


Drill Press Operator. 
Rammer 


Carpenter's Helper. . . 
Laborer 





Figure 21. Pooled Estimates of Nine Raters on Allocation of Present 

Hourly Rates in Cents, 

(Three steps in making the measuring scale, Figure 22.) 



Cents 


Mental 
Effort 


Skill 


Physical 
Effort 


Responsibility 


Work 
Conditions 


40 












39 












38 












37 












36 












35 












34 












33 




Patternmaker 








32 




Machinist 
No. 1 








31 












30 












29 












28 








Substation 
Operator 




27 


Patternmaker 










26 












25 


Substation 
Operator 










24 












23 












22 


Machinist 
No. 1 




Rammer 






21 




Substation 
Operator 








20 




Pipefitter 

No. 2 








19 




Painter 


Poleman 






18 






Laborer 






17 












16 
15 
14 








Patternmaker 






Drill Press 


Pipefitter 


Machinist 


Rammer 






Operator 


No. 2 


No. 1 




13 




Carpenter's 
Helper 






Poleman 


12 






Machinist 
No. 1 


Pipefitter 

No. 2 


Laborer 


11 


Pipefitter 




Painter 


Drill Press 


Pipefitter 




No. 2 






Operator 


No. 2 


10 


Painter 




Patternmaker 


Painter 


Painter 


9 


Drill Press 




Carpenter's 


Carpenter's 






Operator 




Helper 


Helper 




8 


Carpenter's 




Drill Press 




Drill Press 




Helper 




Operator 




Operator 


7 




Poleman 




Poleman 


Carpenter's 
Helper 


6 


Poleman 








Patternmaker 


5 


Laborer 






Rammer 




4 




Rammer 


Substation 
Operator 


Laborer 


Substation 
Operator 


3 


Rammer 


Laborer 









Figure 22. A Measuring Scale for the Benge Plan. (Eugene J. Benge, Job 

Evaluation and Merit Rating, National Foremen's Institute Manual No. 931.) 

92 



SETTING UP MEASURING SCALES 93 

be done several times with time intervals between trials. Three such 
distributions are shown in Figure 20 for two extreme key jobs. 
Next, these distributions of the hourly rates as of 1932 are adjusted 
and averaged as shown in Figure 21. When the whole committee 
is satisfied with the proportions the latter are rearranged in a form 
suitable for applying the Characteristic Comparison technique on 
any job in question (see Figure 22). 

Percentage Scales. William D. Turner describes his method by 
applying it to twelve key jobs, in twelve steps, five of which follow: 

Step 1. Select twelve key jobs which differ as to the characteristics. 

Step 2. Each member of committee ranks the jobs independently on each 
characteristic. This is merely a rough move preparatory to Step 3. 

Step. 3. On a separate percentage scale for each characteristic rate the 
lowest and highest jobs and then the rest of them by marking the respective 
job number at the appropriate point in each scale. These locations are not 
likely to be uniformly distributed. 

Step 4. With ranking positions as ordinate and job numbers as abscissa 
headings, enter symbols for the characteristics. This shows ranking of 
characteristics for each job and is merely a preparation for Step 5. 

Step 5. Have the committee rate all of each job's characteristics on a sepa- 
rate percentage scale for each job. Begin by assigning 100 per cent to the 
characteristic ranked highest in Step 4 and then locate the proportionate place 
for the other characteristics. These scales for the several jobs must not be 
considered equal in worth, nor are the ratings of Step 3 comparable with 
these of Step 5. 

The results of Steps 4 and 5 are then combined through twenty- 
eight routine computations and entries in eleven tables, all of which 
are painstakingly shown ^ by Dr. Turner, but are too rituahstic to 
appeal to many managers. 

First Step in Weighted Point Measuring. With Lott's develop- 
ment of the weighted point plan there came into use the principle 
of degrees, each of which v/as limited by a decimal range. 

Exceptional 10-7 or 4 

Above average 7-4 or 3 

Average 3-1 or 2 

Little or none 1-0 or 1 

This degree scale was used as one axis and the subcharacteristics 
were used as a second axis. For instance, skill was subdivided into 
five components and these were entered as column headings as 

^ Personnel, XXIV, No. 6. 



94 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



shown in Figure 23. Similar measures were set up for each char- 
acteristic, each of which was assigned an intercharacteristic weight 
by percentage. Thus the original plan of the Wright Aeronautical 
Corporation had thirteen characteristics weighted for patternmaker's 
job as in Figure 24. 





Dexterity 


Precision 


Versatility 


Adaptation 
Period 


Ingenuity 


Exceptional 


9 


8 
6 


5 


4 


10 


Above average 


6 

5 
4 


5 
4 


5 
4 


3 


3 

2 


Average 


3 

2 


3 

2 


3 

2 


7 
1 


1 


Little or none 


1 



1 



1 










Figure 23. Relative Rating of Subcharacteristics in Skill. 

After determining these weights a committee of sixteen super- 
visors assigned rates from zero to 10 points to each job for each 
characteristic. They did this by first determining the job which, in 
the combined opinion of the committee, should have the maximum 
value of 10 points, and then evaluating all other jobs by comparison 



Characteristics 


Weight in 
Per Cent 


1. Time required to learn trade 

2 Time required to adapt skill to work 


35.2 

13.3 

.9 

7.4 

19.5 

6.9 

4.4 

1.7 

.8 

2.2 

2.5 

4.5 

.7 


3. Difficulty in locating work elsewhere 


4. Educational requirements 


5. Degree of skill and accuracy 

6 Ingenuity 


7. Cost of probable errors 

8. Honesty of effort 


9. Dirtiness of working conditions 


10. Exposure to health hazard 


11. Exposure to accident hazard . . . . . 


12. Physical effort 


13. Monotony of work ... 





Figure 24. Weighting of Job Characteristics in Percentage According to 
Modified Lott Plan. (Wright Aeronautical Corporation — original plan.) 



SETTING UP MEASURING SCALES 



95 



to it. To facilitate this rating, scales similar to Figure 18 were used. 
In fact, the characteristic "Time Required to Learn Trade" was 
evaluated by allowing one point for each year required, just as Lott 
suggested. The total points for each job were then found by multi- 
plying each characteristic weight by the rate assigned to that par- 
ticular job. The evaluation for patternmaker was as in Figure 25. 





Characteristic 


Rate X Weight = 


: Total Points 


1 




10.0 


35.2 

13.3 

.9 

7.4 

19.5 

6.9 

4.4 

1.7 

.8 

2.2 

2.5 

4.5 

.7 


352.00 

46.55 

.00 

74.00 

165.75 

69.00 

4.40 

10.20 

1.60 

2.20 

21.00 

4.50 

.00 

751.20 


2 




3.5 


3 




.0 


4 




10.0 


5 




8.5 


6 




10.0 


7 




1.0 


8 




6.0 


9 




2.0 


10 




1.0 


11 




... 8.4 


12 




1.0 


13 




.0 


Total 















Figure 25. Derivation of Points for Patternmaker's Job 

Degrees Defined to Lessen Operating Judgment. Obviously the 
Lott technique was more elaborate than the results could justify. 
Each appraisal still depended solely on judgment. Some employers 
decided that the characteristic comparison technique gave just as 
accurate results with less figuring. Others sought to narrow the 
judgment by setting up a practical definition for each degree. The 
latter was the path taken by A. L. Kress. ^ At present the tendency 
is to accept the Kress definitions with little or no change. This we 
deplore, as many of the situations to which measuring is to be 
applied would be better served by reconsidering the definitions. It 
is, of course, helpful to take ready-made definitions as a starting 
point. With this a dvantag e in mind, n ot as a final pattern for all, 
apphcations, we reproduce in Figure 26 the Cole variation of des— 
greFTtSfflnTtMsTaHopted during World War II by eastern airplane^ 
c ompan y's .Points are identical with the Kress plan and definitions 
aj ^e^nearly the same. Some companies have reduced the number of 
graaes trom twelve to ten, in which cases the point allotments differ. 

^ National Metal Trades Association Bulletin No. 3, Parts I to VII of the 
Industrial Relations Policies and Procedures. Job Rating, a pocket booklet of the 
same association. Also National Electrical Manufacturers Association, Job Rating 
Manual, and Hourly Job Rating Plan 1953, from NEMA Industrial Department. 



96 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



1 — Education 

This factor appraises the requirements for the use of shop mathematics, 
drawings, measuring instruments, or trade knowledge. 
0-14. 

Requires the ability to read and write, add and subtract whole numbers. 
15-28 

Requires the use of simple arithmetic such as addition and subtraction of 
decimals and fractions, together with simple drawings and some measuring 
instruments such as caliper, scale. Equivalent to 2 vears of high school. 
29-42 

Requires the use of fairly complicated drawings, advanced shop mathematics, 
handbook formulas, variety of precision measuring instruments, some trade 
knowledge in a specialized field or process. Equivalent to 4 years high school 
or 2 years hish school plus 2 or 3 vears trades training. 
43-56 

Requires the use of complicated drawings and specifications, advanced shop 
mathematics, wide variety of precision measuring instruments, broad shop trade 
knowledge. Usually equivalent to 4 years high school plus 4 years formal trades 
training. 
57-70 

Requires a basic technical knowledge sufficient to deal with complicated and 
involved mechanical, electrical, or other engineering problems. Equivalent to 4 
years of technical university training. 

2 — Experience 

This factor appraises the length of time usually or typically required by an 
individual, with the specified education or trade knowledge, to learn to perform 
the work effectively. Do not include time required for apprenticeship or trades 
training which has been rated under Education. 



Month 




Points 


1 




8 


2 


1st degree 


15 


3 




22 


6 




30 


9 


2d degree 


37 


12 




44 


24 




55 


36 


3d degree 


66 


48 




77 


60 


4th degree 


88 


6 yrs. 

7 yrs. 


5th degree 


99 

110 



3 — Initiative and iNCENuiri' 

This factor appraises the independent action, exercise of judgment, the mak- 
ing of decisions or the amount of planning which the job requires. This factor 
also appraises the degree of complexity of the work. 
0-14 

Requires the ability to understand and follow simple instructions and the 
use of simple equipment involving few decisions, since the employee is told 
exactly what to do. 



Figure 26. Example of Degree Definition and Point Allotments 



SETTING UP MEASURING SCALES 



97 



15-28 

Requires the ability to work from detailed instructions and the making of 
minor decisions, involving the use of some judgment. 
29-42 

Requires the ability to plan and perform a sequence of operations where 
standard or recognized operation methods are available, and the making of 
general decisions as to quality, tolerances, operation and set-up sequence. 
43-56 

Requires the ability to plan and perform unusual and difficult work where 
only general operation methods are available and the making of decisions in- 
volving the use of considerable ingenuity, and initiative and judgment. 
57-70 

Requires outstanding ability to work independently toward general results, 
devise new methods, meet new conditions necessitating a high degree of in- 
genuity, initiative and judgment on very involved and complex jobs. 

4 — Physical Demand 

This factor appraises the amount and continuity of physical effort required. 
Consider the effort expended handling material (the weight and frequency of 
handhng), operating a machine or handling tools, and the periods of un- 
occupied time. 
0-10 

Light work requiring little physical effort. 
11-20 

Light physical effort working regularly with light weight material or occa- 
sionally with average weight material. Operate machine tools where machine 
time exceeds the handling time. 
21-30 

Sustained physical effort, requiring continuity of effort working with light 
or average weight material. Usually short cycle work requiring continuous ac- 
tivity, the operation of several machines where the handling time is equivalent 
to the total machine time. 
31-40 

Considerable physical effort working with average or heavy weight material, 
or continuous strain of difficult work position. 
41-50 

Continuous physical exertion working with heavy weight material. Hard 
work with constant physical strain or intermittent severe strain. 

5 — Mental and Visual 

This factor appraises the degree of mental or visual concentration required. 
Consider the alertness and attention necessary, the length of the cycle, the co- 
ordination of manual dexterity with mental or visual attention. 

0-5 

Little mental and only intermittent visual attention since either the operation 
is practically automatic or the duties require attention only at long intervals. 

6-10 

Frequent mental or visual attention, where the flow of work is intermittent 
or the operation involves waiting for a machine or process to complete a cycle 
with little attention or checking. 



Figure 26. (Continued.) 



98 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



11-15 

Continuous mental or visual attention where the flow of work is repetitive 
or the operation requires constant alertness. 
16-20 

Must concentrate mental and visual attention closely, planning and laying 
out complex work, or coordinating a high degree of manual dexterity with 
close visual attention for sustained periods. 
21-25 

Concentrated and exacting mental or visual attention, usually visualizing, 
planning and laying out very involved and complex jobs. 

6 — Equipment, Process 

This factor appraises the responsibility for preventing damage thru careless- 
ness, to the equipment or process used in the performance of the job. Consider 
the probable amount of damage resulting from carelessness in handling setup, 
operation, etc., for any one mishap. Process relates to operations, such as plat- 
ing. 
0-5 

Probable damage to equipment or process is negligible. 
6-10 

Probable damage to equipment or process is seldom over $25. 
11-15 

Probable damage to equipment or process is seldom over $250. 
16-20 

Probable damage to equipment or process is seldom over $1,000. 
21-25 

Probable damage exceedingly high, reaching several thousand dollars. 

7 — Material or Product 

This factor appraises the responsibility for preventing waste or loss of raw 
material or partially finished product thru carelessness. Consider the probable 
number of pieces which may be spoiled before detection and correction in any 
one lot or run, the value of the material and labor, the possibility of salvage. 
Do not use either maximum or minimum, but an average based on normal 
expectation. 

0-5 

Probable loss due to damage or scrapping of materials or product is seldom 
over $10. 
6-10 

Probable loss due to damage or scrapping of materials or product is seldom 
over $100. 

11-15 

Probable loss due to damage or scrapping of materials or product is seldom 
over $250. 
16-20 

Probable loss due to damage or scrapping of materials or product is seldom 
over $500. 
21-25 

Probable loss of material which may be damaged or scrapped is very high, 
up to several thousand dollars. 



Figure 26. (Continued.) 



SETTING UP MEASURING SCALES 



99 



8 — Safety of Others 

Careless operation of machine or handling of materials or tools by the em- 
ployee on the job being rated, may result in injury to others. Accordingly this 
factor appraises ( 1 ) the care which must be exercised to prevent injury to 
others, and, (2) the probable extent of such injury. (Injury to the employee 
on the job being rated is to be considered under Unavoidable Hazards.) 
0-5 

Little responsibility for safety of others. Job performed in an isolated loca- 
tion, or where there is no machine involved and the material is very light. 
6-10 

Only reasonable care with respect to own work necessary to prevent injury 
to others, and accidents, if they should occur, would be minor in nature. 
11-15 

Compliance with standard safety precautions necessary to prevent lost-time 
accidents to others. 
16-20 

Constant care necessary to prevent serious injury to others, due to inherent 
hazards of the job but where such other employees may act to prevent being 
injured. 
21-25 

Safety of others depends entirely on correct action of employee on job being 
rated and carelessness may result in fatal accidents to others. 

9 — Work of Others 

This factor appraises the responsibility which goes with the job for assisting, 
instructing, or directing the work of others. It is not intended to appraise super- 
visory responsibilities for results. 
0-5 

Responsible only for own work. 
6-10 

Responsible for instructing and directing one or two helpers 50 per cent or 
more of the time. 
11-15 

Responsible for instructing, directing or setting up for a small group of 
employees usually in the same occupation, up to 10 persons. 
16-20 

Responsible for instructing, directing and maintaining the flow of work 
in a group of employees up to 25 persons. 
21-25 

Responsible for instructing, directing and maintaining the flow of work in a 
group of over 25 persons. 

10 — Work Conditions 

This factor appraises the surroundings of physical conditions under which 
the job must be done and the extent to which those conditions make the job 
disagreeable. Consider the presence, relative amount of any continuity of ex- 
posure to dust, dirt, heat, fumes, cold, noise, vibration, wet, etc. 
0-10 

Ideal working conditions, complete absence of any disagreeable elements. 



Figure 26. {Continued.) 



100 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



11-20 

Good working conditions. May be slightly dirty or involve occasional expo- 
sure to some of the elements listed above. Typical machine shop working con- 
ditions. 
21-30 

Somewhat disagreeable working conditions due to exposure to one or more 
of the elements listed above, but where these elements are not continuous if sev- 
eral are present. 
31-40 

Continuous exposure to several disagreeable elements or to one element 
which is particularly disagreeable. 
41-50 

Continuous and intensive exposure to several extremely disagreeable ele- 
ments. 

1 1 — Hazards 

i This factor appraises the hazards, both accident and health, connected with 
or surrounding the job. even though all safety devices have been installed. Con- 
sider the material being handled, the machines or tools used, the work position, 
the possibility of accident, even though none has occurred. 
0-5 

Accident or health hazards negligible. 
6-10 

Accidents improbable, outside of minor injuries, such as abrasions, cuts or 
bruises. Health hazards negligible. 

11-15 

Exposure to lost-time accidents, such as crushed hand or foot, loss of fingers, 
eye injury from flying particles. Some exposure to occupational disease, not 
incapacitating in nature. 

16-20 

Exposure to incapacitating accident or health hazards, such as loss of arm 
or leg, impairment of vision. 

21-25 

Exposure to accidents or occupational disease which may result in total 
disabihty or death. 



Figure 26. (Concluded.) 



SETTING UP MEASURING SCALES 101 

Before the reader appraises the degree definitions in the various 
exhibits he should be reminded that there are at least three ways of 
expressing them, namely: 

1 . In terms of average, one or two less, and one or two more than 
average. 

2. In terms of job elements, such as: use heavy tools in rough 
work, use small tools and gauges in routine work, use precision 
tools in difficult work, etc. 

3. In terms of specific operations or bench mark jobs. 

The use of a point range for each degree as shown in the next 
illustrations is not usual because it allows subdivision of the meas- 
ures and consequent higghng. The higher value for each degree is 
sufficient and much more clean cut. 

Discussion of Point Allotments. NEMA and N.M.T.A., also 
most other users of the Kress type plan, use only the maximum 
number of points at each degree (see Figure 5). The point allot- 
ment principle has been much criticized. The criticisms are: 

1. The values were arbitrary and set from a single set of jobs. 

2. Because of the sudden acceptances, the allotments became 
frozen before they had been widely verified. 

3. The progressions from one degree to the next are all arithmetic, 
whereas some should be exponential if not geometric. 

4. Fixed definitions cannot be suitable to all kinds of jobs. 

5. The maxima for characteristics prevent making headroom for 
new job contents. 

6. The whole arrangement is rigid, makes classification automatic, 
and allows no flexibility. 

We deny none of this except to say that Kress constantly has 
cautioned against being hmited if breaking through is needed to do 
justice and bring mutual satisfaction. Beyond any doubt the plan 
has worked well, but there is room to improve or refit the scales and 
we think that should be done at time of adoption by any plant that 
has a competent set of analysts. 

The Southern California Aircraft Industries Restudy Evaluation 
plan for hourly paid jobs employs 840 points for seven charac- 
teristics, thereby providing more leeway for measuring the skill sub- 
characteristics. This plan seems to have attained in part the sim- 
phcity of the Weed plan without resorting to the characteristic 
comparison technique. The degree definitions for this revised SCAT 
plan follow. 



102 , JOB EXALUATIOX METHODS 



SKILL 

SKILL is the technique acquired through training and experience. The amount of 
skill required for different jobs varies considerably. However, the amount of skill 
necessary for the satisfactory performance of any job can be measured with reason- 
able accuracy in terms of the length of time normally required for an average 
individual of normal mental capacity to acquire the necessar\- trade knowledge 
and training. 

Training and experience are considered together, and the aggregate time re- 
quired for both ser%'es as the basis for the assignment of evaluation points. The 
table below indicates the points allocated to each month and year of experience 
and training required by the job. 



2 weekv or le^s 


40 

57 

92 
125 
150 
170 1 
203 


1 month 

3 monihs 


6 months 


9 months 


1 vear 


P ^ vears 





2 years 230 

2^2 years ; 254 

3 years 275 

4 years 313 

5 years 345 

6 years 374 

7 vears 400 



MENTALITY 

MEXTALITV' is the prerequisite mental capacity necessary- to leam to perform a 
given job eflBciently. Under this factor mentality is measured by educational attain- 
ment whether acquired through schooling or experience. The following degrees 
are defined: 

1. Use simple arithmetic involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, or di%i- 
sion of whole numbers and the addition and subtraction of decimals and fractions; 
includes direct reading of measuring instruments calibrated in decimal or frac- 
tional units. Understand simple verbal or written instructions. 

2. To use arithmetic, to multiply and divide using fractions, decimals, and per- 
centages or conversion of one quantity' to another of equivalent value (such as the 
conversion of a common fraction to a decimal fraction). Use blueprints or pro- 
duction illustration to obtain easily identified reference information such as iden- 
tification of parts and to determine priman." dimensions (such as length and 
breadth). Also obtains processing, or material callout information, such as nimi- 
ber of bolts per assembly, processing or finish specifications. Also ability to 
recognize part change notation. 

3. To use arithmetic and algebra to solve equations and problems involving 
geometric formulas, ratios, and square root: to apply geometric propositions — 
includes use of sine bars following standardized computing procedure: does not 
include solving formulae requiring use of tables of natural trigonometric functions. 
Visualize three dimensions from flat views, interpret right angle projections and 
opposite hand views and meaning of standard symbols and codes. Understand 
simple technical instructions in such fields as electricity, hydraulics, chemistry, 
mechanics, radio, metallurgy, etc.. where interpretation of terminology, symbols, 
or codes is necessars'. 

FiGLUE 2'. Factory SCAT Restudy Ev.\luation Plan. 



SETTING UP MEASURING SCALES 



103 



4. Use trigonometry to solve right triangles for unknowns when the given parts 
are shown in the same plane. Interpret complex blueprints which are difficult to 
visualize; interpret all symbols, codes, engineering changes or variations, or use 
and work from lofting prints. Understand and apply basic technical knowledge in 
such fields as electricity, hydraulics, chemistry, mechanics, radio, metallurgy, etc., 
as applied to standard trade or craft practices. 

5. Use trigonometry to solve for several interrelated dimensions in more than 
one plane and where projection and visualization of special relationships are 
necessary; solving of oblique triangles where given dimensions do not permit 
solving for right triangles. Interpret all information contained in any blueprint 
including complex electrical circuit diagrams, complex mechanical or installation 
drawings, and blueprints of intricate castings which require visualization of hollow 
core views, draft angles, and parting lines. Understand and use lofting practice 
and procedure. Understand and apply technical knowledge, in such fields as elec- 
tricity, hydraulics, chemistry, mechanics, radio, metallurgy, etc., where the solution 
of original problems is necessary. 



Degree 

Points 


1 
20 


2 
40 


3 
60 


4 
80 


5 
100 



RESPONSIBILITY FOR MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT 

RESPONSIBILITY for material and equipment is the responsibility required by 
the job for preventing loss to the Company through damage to equipment, tools, 
material, or product. 

"Equipment and Tools" include stationary and portable machines, m-^terial 
handling equipment, hand tools which are the property of the Company, and all 
tools, dies, jigs, and fixtures. 

"Material and Product" include raw materials, supplies, work in process, and 
finished parts. Tools, dies, patterns, etc., are considered work in process for the 
department making them. 



Evaluation Procedure 

Estimate the cost to the Company of accidental damage to equipment and tools 
which could occur in the course of normal performance of the job. Consider only 
the damage for which the employee would be wholly responsible. Use an average 
top figure for a single occurrence — not an extreme maximum. Cover the cost of 
repairs necessary to restore the equipment to first-class operating condition and 
estimate the cost of accidental damage to material and produce on the same basis. 



Degree 

Dollar 

Range 

Points 


1 



50 

20 


2 

51 

250 

40 


3 

251 

500 

60 


4 

501 

1000 

80 


5 
1001 
up 
100 



Figure 27. (Continued.) 



\ 



104 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



MENTAL APPLICATION 

MENTAL APPLICATION is a measure of the degree of concentration and 
sensory alertness required by the job. Depending on the intensity, the frequency, 
and the continuity of concentration and sensory alertness, the following degrees 
are defined: 

1. Minimum Mental Application. Operations requiring little attention and re- 
peated successively at short intervals or nonrepetitive but of such a nature as to 
require little directed thinking. 

2. Light Mental Application. Operations requiring intermittent attention to 
control machine or manual motions. Operations requiring intermittent directed 
thinking to carry out predetermined procedure or sequence of operations of limited 
variability. 

3. Moderate Mental Application. Operations requiring almost continuous atten- 
tion, but work is sufficiently repetitive that a habit cycle is formed: operations 
requiring intermittent directed thinking to determine or select materials, equip- 
ment or operations where variable sequences may be selected by the worker. 

4. Very Close Mental Application. Operations requiring close and continuous 
attention for control of operations which require a high degree of coordination, or 
immediate response; operations requiring intermittent directed thinking to deter- 
mine or select materials, equipment, or operations where highly variable sequence 
or close dimensions are controlled by the worker. 

5. Intense Mental Application. Operations requiring sustained directed think- 
ing to analyze, solve, or plan highly variable or technical tasks involving complex 
problems, machines, or mechanisms. 



Degree 

Points 


1 
10 


2 
20 


3 
30 


4 
40 


5 
50 



PHYSICAL APPLICATION 

PHYSICAL APPLICATION is a measure of the muscular exertion and physical 
strain required by the job. Depending on the intensity, the frequency, and the 
continuity of muscular exertion or physical strain, the following degrees are 
defined: 

1. Slight physical exertion. Handling light (less than 10 lbs.) objects and /or 
tools, with worker having choice of working position; work operations do not 
involve elements of physical strain. 

2. Light physical exertion. Handling, pushing, or pulling light to average w^eight 
(10 to 15 lbs.) objects and/or tools where elements of physical strain are slight 
or not involved; worker restricted in working position such as in continuous sitting 
or intermittent standing, walking, or climbing. 

3. Moderate physical exertion. Occasional momentary moderate (15 to 25 lbs.) 
pushing, pulling, or lifting; almost continuous pushing, pulling, or lifting of light 
to average weight (10 to 15 lbs.) objects; perform work operations requiring 
almost continuous standing or almost continuous walking; work operations involve 
elements of physical strain or unnatural work positions at regularly recurring 
intervals. 



Figure 27. (Continued.) 



SETTING UP MEASURING SCALES 



105 



4. Strenuous physical exertion. Frequent momentary or occasional sustained 
heavy (25 lbs. or over) pushing, pulling, or lifting; performs work involving fre- 
quent physical strain or unnatural work position which causes more than normal 
fatigue. 

5. Extremely strenuous physical exertion. Frequent or almost continuous sus- 
tained heavy pushing, pulling, or lifting; performs work operations approaching 
limits of normal capacity, normally works in such positions as to cause extreme 
physical exertion, or strain. 



Degree 

Points 


1 
10 


2 
20 


3 
30 


4 
45 


5 
60 



JOB CONDITIONS 

JOB CONDITIONS are the surrounding, or physical conditions, under which 
the job inherently must be performed, and which may affect the mental or physical 
wellbeing of the employee. The following factors are defined: 

1. Good working conditions. No exposure to disagreeable elements or factors; 
removed from general factory conditions. 

2. General factory working conditions. Exposure to general factory noise, dirt, 
fumes, vibration, temperature and dampness which surround the worker or which 
are inherent in the job but which are not disagreeable or irritating. 

3. Occasional disagreeable working conditions. Occasional exposures to dis- 
agreeable or irritating elements or factors such as noise, dirt, fumes, vibration, 
heat, cold, dampness, flying particles, or wearing fatiguing or disagreeable pro- 
tective devices. 

4. Frequent disagreeable working conditions. Frequent exposure to disagreeable 
or irritating elements or factors such as noise, dirt, fumes, vibration, heat, cold, 
dampness, flying particles, or wearing fatiguing or disagreeable protective devices. 

5. Continuous disagreeable working conditions. Almost continuous exposure 
to one or more disagreeable or irritating elements or factors, such as noise, dirt, 
fumes, vibration, heat, cold, dampness, flying particles, or wearing fatiguing or 
disagreeable protective devices, or almost continuous exposure to a combination 
of such elements or factors. 

6. Extremely disagreeable working conditions. Exposure to disagreeable or 
irritating elements or factors which are present in such a degree and for a sufficient 
duration of time to cause extreme fatigue or excessive discomfort to the worker. 



Degree 
Point . 



3 

25 



4 
35 



5 
50 



6 

65 



Figure 27. {Continued.) 



106 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



UNAVOIDABLE HAZARDS - 

UNAVOIDABLE OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS are the possible injuries in- 
volved in the performance of the job. Depending upon the possibility, severity, 
and frequency of exposure to occupational hazards inherent in the job, the follow- 
ing degrees are defined: 

1. Work having little or no accident hazard. Injury very unlikely. 

2. Exposure to minor accident hazards such as surface cuts, bruises, minor 
abrasions, or burns which do not involve lost time. 

3. Exposure to accident hazards involving lost time for a short period but from 
which complete recovery can be expected, such as lacerations, severe sprains, 
deep cuts and burns. 

4. Infrequent exposure to accident hazards such as fractures, hernias, severe 
burns, or those causing some minor permanent physical disability such as loss of a 
finger. 

5. Frequent exposure to accident hazards such as fractures, hernias, severe burns, 
or those causing some minor permanent physical disability such as loss of a finger 
or impairment of hearing. 

6. Exposure to accident hazards involving major permanent disability such as 
loss of arm, hand, leg, hearing, foot, or sight of eye; exposure to accident hazards, 
the probable consequence of which is loss of life. 



Degree 
Points . 



3 
25 



4 
35 



5 
50 



6 
65 



Figure 27. {Concluded.) 

Arbitrary Allotments. The most common practice weights the 
characteristics at the first degree in terms of percentage, namely, the 
sum of the first degree allotments is 100. Then the second degree 
allotments are derived by multiplying each first degree allotment 
by two, the third by three, the fourth by four, and the fifth by five. 
If a larger total is desired these figures are all multiplied by two or 
by three. Thus the total of points in the fifth degree for the Kress- 
Cole plan is 500 and for the Consolidated Water Power and Paper 
Company plan it is 1500. It is this assumption that the degrees 
ascend in constant ratio that makes these allotments so arbitrary, 
not the percentage weighting among the characteristics, although 
that should also be different as between any two differing sets of 
circumstances. 

Ranking Technique Used to Determine Scales. So many com- 
panies have been content to adopt ready-made plans that it is re- 
freshing to discover cases where plans have been locally developed. 
Nicholas L. A. Martucci ^ describes one case where this was done 



'Personnel, XXIII, No. 2. 



SETTING UP MEASURING SCALES 107 

jointly by a four-plant manufacturing company and a local union 
which represented the labor in two of the plants. Officers of the 
national union at first declined to participate so the management 
went ahead with their other two plants, which were nonunion. Then 
when the union officials found that the management planned to use 
analysts from outside, that is, men who were strangers to the com- 
pany, the union officials reversed their decision and allowed three 
of their men to go on the joint committee with three management 
men. One of the new analysts became chairman and head of the 
new job evaluation department. He reported to the manager of 
manufacturing, who was also a director of the company. A manual 
on job evaluation was used for instruction of the analysts and they 
in turn helped the supervisors to interest the stewards. Further 
development began by selecting and describing twenty-nine key 
jobs that would represent the spread of skill and ability from bottom 
to top. The analysts studied these jobs in all four plants and soon 
agreed on the final descriptions. In the meantime, all sorts of plans 
were considered, and a decision was reached to use a weighted-in- 
points plan. Next many characteristics were considered and from 
them twelve were selected that were common to all of the twenty- 
nine key jobs. The characteristics were then redefined to assure 
consistent interpretation. At this stage all members of the com- 
mittee made independent allocations of percentage shares for the 
characteristics and checked their judgments against the twenty-nine 
job descriptions. This was repeated after a lapse of ten days. 
Results were tabulated, differences argued, and final judgments 
averaged. 

The final step in developing the plan was to have the committee determine 
the division of the factor into degrees or levels in order that factor yard- 
sticks might be designed for measuring the degree of each factor in all jobs. 
For this purpose, the brief narrative account of each factor for the key jobs, 
as written by job analysts, was transcribed on cards. The cards, identified 
according to factor and job title, were grouped to facilitate handling. Each 
committee member was given a group of twenty-nine cards, one for each key 
job, for each of the twelve factors included in the plan. The committee was 
directed to rank the twenty-nine jobs, one factor at a time according to the 
relative degree of the factor and compare the card content with the factor 
definition. The key jobs were ranked twice for each factor during a ten-day 
interval. Because judgments made by individual committee members were 
based on interpretation of available facts, the rankings were analyzed for 
statistical reliability in the same way as those for estimating factor percentage 
values. Again, it was necessary to return to the committee with the results of 
all judgments and reconcile differences of opinion. 



108 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 







Points Allowed 


Nature of Job 


Degree of 
















i 




Possible Injury 


Persons Exposed | 






1 


2 


3 


4+ 


A. Slight chance for injury 


A. Minor burns, cuts, bruises, 












etc. 


2 


3 


4 


6 


Using hand tools. 


B. Injury causing one week or 










manual handling of 


less of lost time. 


5 


6 


8 


10 


light materials. Re- 


C. Injury causing over one 










cording or observing. 


week of lost time. 
D. Total or permanent dis- 


10 


11 


12 


14 




ability. 


15 


17 


18 


20 


B. Conditions quite safe 


A. Minor burns, cuts, bruises, 












etc. 


4 


5 


7 


10 


Using power tools, 


B. Injury causing one week or 










spot welding, grind- 


less of lost time. 


7 


8 


10 


13 


ing, heating equip- 


C. Injury causing over one 










ment, or the like. 


week of lost time. 
D. Total or permanent dis- 


12 


13 


15 


17 




ability. 


17 


19 


20 


23 


C. Conditions generally safe 


A. Minor burns, cuts, bruises. 












etc. 


5 


8 


10 


13 


Using power machine 


B. Injury causing one week or 








1 


to process. Control- 


less of lost time. 


8 


11 


13 


16 


ling boilers and elec- 


C. Injury causing over one 










trical equipment. 


week of lost time. 


13 


15 


18 


20 


Handling large or 


D. Total or permanent dis- 










heavy materials near 


ability. 


19 


21 


24 


26 


others. 












D. Conditions hazardous 


A. Minor burns, cuts, bruises. 












etc. 


8 


11 


13 


16 


Alertness necessary to 


B. Injury causing one week or 










prevent injury. Mov- 


less of lost time. 


12 


14 


16 


19 


ing materials with 


C. Injury causing over one 










power mobile equip- 


week of lost time. 


16 


19 


21 


24 


ment. 


D. Total or permanent dis- 












ability. 


21 


24 


26 


29 


E. Conditions very hazard- 


A. Minor burns, cuts, bruises. 








! 


ous 


etc. 
B. Injury causing one week or 


10 


13 


16 


19 


Extreme caution nec- 


less of lost time. 


13 


16 


19 


22 


cessary at all times. 


C. Injury causing over one 










Handhng high-tension 


week of lost time. 


18 


20 


24 


27 


electricity or explo- 


D. Total or permanent dis- 










sive and inflammable 


ability. 


23 


26 


29 


32 


materials. 













Figure 28. Guide Chart — Responsibility for Determining the Safety of 
Others Characteristic. (Sylvania Electric Products Company.) 



SETTING UP MEASURING SCALES 



109 







Per Cent o 


f Time 








Exercised 






Speed 












Characteristics of Operation 


of 
Operation 


V 


W 


X 


Y 


Z 





11 


31 


51 


Over 






10 


30 


50 


70 


70 




J— Immediate actions 


S — Moderate 


1 


5 


10 


15 


20 




are not controlled by 














A — variations few 


other men, processes or 


T— Fast 


1 


5 


10 


20 


25 


and simple. Tasks 


machines. Attention to 














become practically 


coordinate actions with 


U — Extremely 


2 


5 


15 


20 


30 


automatic. 

Duties highly re- 
petitive and learned 
in a short time. 

Duties nonrepet- 
itive but of such 
nature that methods 
are obvious. 

Decisions estab- 
lished by frequent 


others are not required. 


fast 












K — Attention required 
to coordinate manual 
actions closely with 
other men, processes, or 
machines. 

Example: Catcher- 
piler. 


S — Moderate 

T— Fast 

U — Extremely 
fast 


1 

2 

2 


5 
10 
10 


15 
15 
20 


20 
25 
30 


25 
30 
40 




S — Moderate 


2 


10 


20 


25 


35 


repetition of similar 


L — Makes routine deci- 














conditions. 


sions. Selects. Inspects 
and marks or assorts. 


T— Fast 


3 


10 


20 


30 


40 






U — Extremely 


3 


10 


25 


35 


50 






fast 














J — Immediate actions 


S — Moderate 


3 


10 


25 


35 


45 




are not controlled by 
















other men, processes. 


T— Fast 


3 


15 


30 


40 


55 




or machines, but duties 
















are obvious or instruc- 


U — Extremely 


4 


15 


30 


45 


60 


B — Tasks wherein 


tions are simple. 


fast 












K — Attention is re- 














variations are many 


quired to coordinate 














and complex. Per- 


closely manual actions 


S — Moderate 


4 


15 


30 


45 


60 


formance does not 


with other men, proc- 














become automatic. 


esses, or machines. 


T— Fast 


4 


20 


35 


55 


70 


Decisions not es- 


Attention constantly 














tablished by fre- 


focused upon an opera- 


U— Extremely 


5 


20 


40 


60 


80 


quent repetition of 


tion to discern varia- 


fast 












similar conditions. 


tions to which imme- 














Attention is re- 


diate response must be 














quired to vary 


made. 














speed, swing, or 
















travel of power- 


L — Attention to inter- 


S — Moderate 


5 


20 


40 


60 


80 


driven equipment. 


pret detailed instruc- 
















tions. 


T— Fast 


6 


25 


45 


70 


90 




Attention to analyze 
















and solve complex 


U — Extremely 


7 


25 


50 


75 


100 




problems. 


fast 














Attention to plan 
















complex operations. 















Figure 29. Guide Chart for Determining Mental Effort Characteristic. 
(Original. Plan of the U. S. Steel Corporation.) 



110 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



Subdegrees. Some managements have tended to overdo good 
things, forgetting that system is never an end in itself, that there is a 
law of diminishing returns. Figure 28 is a three-layer measuring 
scale for the minor characteristic Safety of Others. This is one of 
19 minor characteristics and carries a maximum weight of thirty- 
two points out of a theoretical total of 1,176 points. In fact, it is 
only one of four divisions under responsibility and yet it itself is sub- 
divided into five categories as to "Nature of Job," each of which is 
again subdivided into four degrees and each degree is given four 
conditions as to the number of persons for which the operator is 
responsible. This provides eighty different weights for one outcome. 
We present this one yardstick out of the whole set. If the company 
really wants all details this may be the way to get them, but the 
multiplicity reminds us of the man on the road to St. Ives. 

Open to the same criticism is a four-layer scale (Figure 29) for 
Mental Effort. These four layers of subdivision run 2, 3, 3, 5, and 
give 90 different weights out of which only one answer is possible. 
Note the use of code letters. The latter can be used by the rater 
without recourse to the weights. This plan has been discarded. 

The code letters also allow a further emphasis on adhering to the 
definitions, i.e., the letters and definitions can be separated from the 



Knowledge (11—220) 


Skill (23—300) 


1. Intelligence 


3. Mental 


(code) MNPRSTUWX 


(code) HJKLMN 


2. Training and experience 


4. Reacting Time 


(code) ABCDEFGHJKL 


(code) PRST 




5. Manual 


Responsibility (21—200) 


(code) ABCDEF 


7. Safety of others 


6. Accuracy 


Likelihood of injury 


(code) XYZ 


(code)ABCDEF 




8. Supervision of others 


Effort (30—280) 


Supervisory units 


11. Mental 


(code) LMNPRSTUVWX 


(code) ABCDEF 


9. Material 


12. Physical 


Likelihood of error 


(code) GHJKLM 


(code) GHJK 


Fatigue 


10. Equipment 


(not measured separately) 


Care required 


13. Surroundings 


(code) lOYZ 


(code) NPRST 




14. Exposure to accidents 




(code) VWXYZ 




Total of Maxima Values— LOGO 




points 



Figure 30. 



Characteristics of Frater Plan Showing Code Letters for 
Measuring Scales 



SETTING UP MEASURING SCALES 



111 



tables of points so that the evaluator will not be influenced by the 
thought of point results. The General Motors original plan included 
this precaution. Its characteristics were as in Figure 30. 

In this plan there is no major characteristic for Working Condi- 
tions but (13) Surroundings and (14) Exposure to Accidents are 
tucked in with Effort. Broad skill is divided into Knowledge and 
Skill, each of which is again subdivided to make, in all, six minor 
characteristics. The code numbers for minor characteristics 1 and 2 
are placed along two sides of a square table and the subsquares 
representing the various combinations are assigned point values as in 
other degree measures (see Figure 31). This is the simplest of the 
four measure tables. The largest one, with 1,056 subsubsquares, is 
for responsibihty. Since there are four minor characteristics for one 
major characteristic, each side of the rectangular table carries two of 
the minor characteristics, one made subordinate to the other, and the 
coded degrees of the subordinate one are repeated under each degree 
of the other one (Figure 32). 



KNOWLEDGE 




Intelligence 


M 


n 


P 


R 


S 


T 


U 


W 


X 


(D 

o 

C 

■I 

to 
c 

•H 

2 


A 


11 


18 


26 


35 


- 
45 


57 


70 


86 


105 


B 


16 


23 


31 


40 


50 


62 


75 


91 


no 


C 


23 


30 


38 


47 


57 


^ 


82 


98 


117 


D 


30 


37 


45 


54 


64 


76 


89 


105 


124 


E 


38 


45 


53 


62 


72 


84 


97 


113 


132 


F 


49 


56 


64 


73 


83 


95 


108 


124 


143 


G 


60 


67 


75 


84 


94 


106 


119 


135 


154 


H 


73 


80 


8B 


97 


107 


119 


132 


148 


167 


J 


88 


95 


103 


112 


122 


134 


147 


163 


132 


K 


106 


113 


121 


130 


140 


152 


165 


181 


200 


L 


126 


133 


141 


150 


160 


172 


185 


201 


220 



Figure 31. Coded Table of Degree Worths for Knowledge. (General 
Motors Job Evaluation Manual, 3d ed.) 



112 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Notes on Figure 31 

INTELLIGENCE 

This factor is a measure of mentality or general intelligence required by the job for 
its successful performance. This faculty is usually held to be developed by education, 
but bear in mind that education need not necessarily be "formal" education. Required 
abilities have been listed in the chart but no degrees of ''formal" education are indicated. 
If a job requires only one of the abilities for an established grade, it should receive the 
mark for that grade. 

The job requires the employee to: 

M. Carry out specific verbal orders. 

N. Carry out simple written instructions; fill out a simple written report; carry 
out simple routine tasks not closely supervised. 

P. Serve as a helper while learning a trade; operate on (or operate a machine on) 
repetitive work where no set-up is involved except the changing of tools or 
the setting of stops, etc., in a predetermined manner; deal with minor varia- 
tions within a repetitive routine, as, bench assembly. 

R. Add, substract, multiply, and divide; read dimensions and arrangement of 
"details" from blueprints; direct one or several helpers performing routine 
tasks; operate power equipment in loading and transporting materials in a 
routine manner: operate on (or operate machines on) one or more repetitive 
jobs where tool replacement or ordinary set-up only is involved: deal with 
variations within a repetitive routine, as, soldering, welding, testing, com- 
plicated assembly. 

S. Set up automatic machinery for others: set up and operate machines on non- 
repetitive work. 

T. Make calculations involving fractions, decimals, and percentages; make general 
repairs to equipment requiring some knowledge of mechanical or electrical 
principles. 

U. Read and analyze blueprints and follow out details on nonrepetitive work: use 
a thorough working knowledge of abstract mechanical or electrical principles. 

W. Plan and direct the work of several others, both skilled and unskilled. (Ex- 
ample — Diemaker Leader) 

X. Plan and supervise the work of skilled positions or large group of others. 
(Example — Assistant Foreman) 

TRAINING AND EXPERIENCE 

This factor is a measure of the practical knowledge required by the job for its suc- 
cessful performance. The relative evaluation of this factor should be based on the time 
ordinarily needed to acquire not only the experience prerequisite to assignment to the 
job, but also the time ordinarily required after assignment to learn to handle the job 
efficiently. Estimate the time required for the average employee to become proficient, 
to learn all the technical details required, and to acquire the necessary skills to success- 
fully perform this job, and all necessary previous jobs leading to this job. A list of bench 
mark or example occupations to assist in selecting the proper mark should be worked 
out for each plant. 

Months Necessary to Become Proficient on Example 

the Job, Before and After Assignment Occupations 



A 


1 or less 


B 


2 


C 


3 


D 


5 


E 


8 


F 


12 


G 


18 


H 


24 


J 


36 


K 


48 


L 


Over 48 



SETTING UP MEASURING SCALES 



113 





A 




F 




G 


H 


J 


K 





G 


H 


J 


K 


L 


I 


21 


28 


36 


45 


47 


54 


62 


71 





28 


35 


43 


52 


54 


61 


69 


78 


Y 


36 


43 


51 


60 


62 


ef) 


77 


86 


Z 


45 


52 


60 


69 


71 


78 


86 


95 




















X 


I 


126 


133 


141 


150 


152 


159 


167 


176 





133 


140 


148 


157 


159 


166 


174 


183 


Y 


141 


148 


156 


165 


167 


174 


182 


191 


Z 


150 


157 


165 


174 


176 


183 


191 


200 



Figure 32. Coded Table of Degree Worths for Responsibility. (Sampled 
only by means of the four corner squares, out of the complete 66 squares.) 



Notes on Figure 32 
SAFETY OF OTHERS 

This factor is a measure of the degree of care required by the nature of the job and 
the surroundings in which it is performed to prevent injuries or discomfort to other 
persons. The evaluation is based on the probability of accident and the seriousness of 
it. The direct acts or neghgence only of the person performing the job should be 
considered. 



LIKELIHOOD OF INJURY 



On jobs requiring 

A. Use of general hand tools, the handling of material manually, or the controlling 

of a process manually. 

B. Use of edged hand tools, power-driven hand or machine tools, burning, welding, 

or heating equipment. 

C. Use of hand or machine tools or the handling of material in positions above 

other persons. 

D. Control of material through processing equipment, the material not being held 

in a fixed position. 

E. Continuously moving or transporting of material with power-driven equipment. 

F. Handling of highly inflammable materials, explosive materials; moving or con- 

trolling flow of molten materials. 



114 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



Notes on Figure 32 (Continued) 

SUPERVISION OF OTHERS 

This factor measures the amount of responsibility inherent in the job or placed there 
by supervisory authority for the training, directing, and scheduling of other persons in 
order that the most effective use of their time and abilities can be secured and the most 
effective use of materials and equipment can be obtained. Supervision should not be 
confused with cooperation resulting in mutual direction between two workmen. The 
best approach to a proper evaluation of the amount of supervision inherent in a job is 
to measure the number and type of persons supervised. 

General Labor — All types of unskilled jobs requiring simple operations performed 

manually or with the aid of a few simple tools. Jobs that can be learned in 

less than three months. 
Semiskilled Labor — All jobs that normally can be classified as routine or involve 

the controlling of simple machine operations requiring some precision, mental 

application, responsibility, or knowledge of methods or materials. Jobs that are 

usually learned in three months to two years. 
Skilled Labor — All jobs requiring a high degree of skill and a wide knowledge of 

materials, equipment, or methods. Jobs that are usually learned in from two 

to four years. 
Each job should be evaluated on a basis of two supervisory units for each general 
laborer, four supervisory units for each semiskilled laborer, and six supervisory units 
for each skilled laborer supervised. The total number of supervisory units will indicate 
the code letter to use in rating this factor. Jobs showing more than 50 supervisory units 
cannot usually be properly evaluated under this Manual. 



Number of Employees 
Supervised 



Class 
General Labor X 2 — 
Semiskilled Labor X 4 
Skilled Labor X 6 

Total 



Supervisory 

Units 



Code 

Supervisory Units Letter 

None L 

1 to 5 M 

6 to 10 N 

11 to 15 P 

16 to 20 R 

21 to 25 S 



Supervisory Units 



31 to 35 
36 to 40 
41 to 45 



Code 
Letter 



26 to 30 T 



46 to 50 X 



PROCESSED AND PROCESSING MATERIALS 

This factor measures the responsibility inherent in the job or placed there by super- 
visory authority for the care and prevention of damage to the processed and processing 
material. It can best be measured by considering the type of operation and the likelihood 
of damage. Responsibility cannot be considered as inherent in the job beyond the extent 
of a direct act of negligence on the part of the workman. 

Processed material is that material which is being worked upon. Processing material 
is that material which is used as an aid in the performance of the requirements of the 
job. Processing material must not be confused with machinery and equipment. 
Likehhood of error causing damage: 

G. Damage not likely to occur. Little attention required. 
H. Damage easy to avoid. Ordinary attention required. 
J. Damage fairly easy to avoid. Close attention required. 
K. Damage difficult to avoid. Extreme care required. 



MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT 

This factor measures the responsibility for the prevention of damage to machinery 
and equipment and can be evaluated as a measure of the amount of care required to 
avoid damage. 



SETTING UP MEASURING SCALES 115 

Care required to avoid damage: 

I. Working with machinery, tools, and equipment which are almost impossible to 

damage or in a manner in which damage is not likely to occur. 
O. Ordinary attentiveness required to prevent damage. 
Y. Damage fairly easy to avoid. Close attention required. 
Z. Damage difficult to avoid. Extreme care required. 

Trend Is Away from Complexity. We pointed out in our first 
chapter that job evaluation cannot be considered as scientific except 
in its objectivity. Most wage and salary administrators concur in 
this, but a few overzealous consultants still think that minute detail 
does make job evaluation scientific. Managers are usually practical 
enough to shun such plans, in fact, the Frater plan was never widely 
applied by its originating company. Since then similar efforts have 
appeared and this paragraph is written to discourage them. The 
reasoning of these overdoers is that "all job variables are solely 
linears." Thus they think that a multitude of finely divided measur- 
ing scales can be laid end to end without gap or overlap for accurate 
measurement of a whole job, omitting no detail. "The large num- 
ber of points assists in the accurate evaluation of comparable jobs 
because minor differences of opinion on certain factors give rise to 
very small percentages of difference in the final result." 

The latest of these efforts that has come to our attention uses 
2455 points and divides skill into seven subcharacteristics as 
follows: 

1. Knowledge — 8 elaborately defined degrees, and each degree is 
subdivided for three speeds. 

2. Experience — a two-way table, 12 x 10 values. 

3. Contact — 15 degrees with 3 speeds each. 

4. Mental and Manual — 1 1 degrees, each with 5 subdivisions, and 
each of these is given 5 subsubs. 

5. Resourcefulness — 15 degrees, each with a 3 x 9 table of 
values. 

6. Analytical ability — 9 degrees, with a 3 x 9 table of values. 

7. Execution of Detail — 5 degrees, each with 3 subdivisions and 
5 speeds for each of those. 

In addition to skill there are eight other characteristics, each with 
its microscopic measures! 

The idea of bringing in speed variations is alone enough to queer 
any plan for evaluating a job. Necessary constant speed, as in keep- 
ing up with a mechanical process, or as a minimum coordination 
of sight and action, is legitimate, but speed variation is a man 
quality. 



116 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Tailor "Fitting Degree Definitions. It is fast, easy, and seemingly 
reassuring to accept the degree definitions and their point allotments 
from a plan already tried out elsewhere. The reassurance may, how- 
ever, be short lived if the set of jobs to be evaluated differ in some 
unobserved aspects. We think the least that a management should 
do is to study each characteristic as it actually exists in his own set 
of jobs, determine the extreme limits, and then decide how the 
degree definitions should be written to include those limits and pro- 
vide recognizable steps between. Our most successful analysts have 
insisted on listing an actual case to illustrate each degree range.^ 
Paul M. Edwards, developer of the postwar steel plan jointly spon- 
sored by "Big Steel" and the United Steelworkers of America, has 
gone much further in tailor-fitting. He has tested each proposed 
weight for correlation ^ with actual variations of all kinds in prac- 
tice. It seems the union believes that "actual rates developed by 
supply and demand and bargaining in years past have recognized 
the nature of the problem better than the empirical job evaluation 
plan . . . [and this] makes it possible to pursue systematically in 
the future the same s'et of values that have governed both parties 
intuitively in the past." If pricing influences are to accompany the 
appraisal of job content, rather than to follow in negotiation, then 
no transference of a set plan to an entirely different application will 
be satisfactory. 

In the particular case of basic steel the results have at least won 
bilateral acceptance. The joint committee started out with simple 
descriptions of one hundred and thirty "bench mark" jobs that 
existed in all forty-three plants of Carnegie-Illinois Steel Corpora- 
tion. These pattern descriptions were checked and jointly approved. 
From these a system of degree values was developed (see end of this 
chapter) and put into a Manual for Job Classification. The Steel 
Manual, as it is called, was then checked against the same jobs in 
other plants and corrections were made until both parties accepted 
all the bench mark job descriptions and degree allotments. After 
several months more, 1250 bench mark jobs were described, rated, 
and added to the Manual. A further trial was made by applying the 
new system to the whole Gary works, and after seeing the results the 
U. S. Steel Corporation agreed to use the Gary job descriptions as 

"* For an elaborate check list to guide this preparation work see Training and 
Reference Manual for Job Analysis, War Manpower Commission, Bureau of 
Manpower Utilization, Division of Occupational Analysis and Manning Tables. 
June, 1944, pp. 10-52. 

^ P. M. Edwards, "Statistical Methods in Job Evaluation," Advanced Manage- 
ment, XIII, No. 4. 



SETTING UP MEASURING SCALES 117 

specimens for all its plants. A correlation check with jobs in other 
plants showed that about 80 per cent of all jobs were in line with 
the specimens. 

By the spring of 1950 over 5,000 jobs had been classified, in 450 
plants, which meant a coverage of about 450,000 employees, and 
"with satisfactory results both to the Companies and the Union 
members." 

In general and as a matter of principle we have heretofore main- 
tained that past pricing influences do not belong with the job char- 
acteristics. To whatever extent such influences do belong to jobs 
they belong only because of past precedents and customs which 
should not always be perpetuated, or they result from economic 
forces which change, and in either case we have believed they should 
be considered at the end, that is, they belong with the last step, 
which is the money pricing of objectively appraised jobs. In all 
transactions regarding property all agree that quality and weight or 
volume which constitute relative worth must be known before a 
price can be honestly set; otherwise the final results would be un- 
reliable. Similarly the relative worth of jobs should, we have said, 
be established before a price is set. The question arises from the 
fact that jobs are human assignments and cannot be measured 
exactly. There is no disagreement in that, but experienced analysts 
know that because of the human aspect there is also a greater chance 
of error creeping into the values when they are set solely by bargain- 
ing. They claim that job evaluation has been mutually helpful 
because it has introduced a more objective and consistent means of 
deriving job worths. Hence they are apprehensive lest objectivity 
be lost. The difficulty is that no one can say with certainty which 
jobs have, and which have not, been appraised justly by past bar- 
gaining. If those who want past bargaining judgments retained 
through degree values will join with those who are apprehensive, 
and honestly sort out doubtful jobs so that the sure jobs only will 
be used for specimens, then perhaps both aims can be protected. In 
this new situation we recommend that, if characteristic and degree 
weightings are to be checked and readjusted so that they must 
evaluate specimen jobs as per custom and similar factors, great care 
be taken in the selection of specimens, or rather in the elimination 
of all prior job values that cannot be well substantiated. This re- 
quirement of itself seems almost prohibitive, but first class coopera- 
tion may achieve it and it looks as if basic steel has achieved it. 
Other unions that want past influences retained must be prepared to 
give equally constructive participation (see E. J. Maloy's report on 
participation in Chapter 5, page 83). 



118 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



Measuring Scales for Weighted-in-Money Plans. What has been 
stated, in the paragraph just preceding this, is particularly pertinent 
here because, as Dr. Gomberg has aptly said, "The principal virtue 
of the factor comparison method when weights were distributed in 
money terms was that it lent itself readily to collective bargaining 
purposes." Elsewhere he states the reason as, "The factor compari- 
son method is rooted in the existing wage structure of the firm." 

Under this technique no predetermined degrees are used but each 
characteristic is carefully defined and ranges of points showing their 
relative worths may be used as guides to building the final measur- 
ing scales, which are sequences of well-described key jobs arranged 
according to rank for each characteristic, each key job weighted 
according to the proportion allowed for the given characteristic. 
Thus the final measuring scales, one for each characteristic, show 
definite measuring points from the lowest to the highest key job and 
thereafter any other job is measured on each characteristic merely 
by locating its proper position on the key job scale for the given 
characteristic. The final worth is a summation of all these char- 
acteristic measurements. As a sample of these key job measuring 
scales or ladder measures we select one for skill (Figure 33) . 



Job 


Points 

1 


400 




380 


Diemaker, combination dies, 1st 


360 


Patternmaker, wood, difficult 


340 


Toolmaker, 1st, complicated jigs 
Diemaker, 2d, irregular dies 


320 

1 


Patternmaker, metal, difficult 


300 


Machinist, maint. 1st, diagnose, correct 
Patternmaker, wood, ordinary 
Boring mill, 1st, 16' stator frames 
Diemaker, 3d, stand, blkg. dies 
Machine operator, jig boring 


280 


Electrician, maint. 1st, lead. 
Toolmaker, 2d, complicated fixtures 
Patternmaker, metal, ordinary 


260 



Figure 33. Ladder Measure for Skill 



SETTING UP MEASURING SCALES 



119 



Plumber, st. fit. high press, san. 
Diemaker, 4th, plan shear dies 
Machinist, maint., 2d, rep. large mach. 
Tinsmith, maint., 1st, L/O develop. 
Planer 7' and over, fab. frames 
Lathe, engine, 1st, intricate 


240 


Carpenter, maint., 1st, fin. work 
Boring mill, 2d, loco, spiders & wheels 
Grind precision, 1st, gas eng. cranks 
Assembly, bench, 1st, fit scrape, align. 
Toolmaker, 3d, drill templates 
Auto, screw mach., 1st, die work & S. U. 
Lathe, turr. irreg. compl. arm. spiders 
Mill, machine, 1st, ordinary index 


220 


Machinist, maint. 3d, ordinary repairs 
Screw machine, 1st, micrometer & S. U, 
Assem. floor, 1st, align, large appara. 
Spray loco, finish large surfaces 


200 


Planer under 7', motor frames 
Lathe, engine. 2d, turn for grind 
Grind, precision, 2d arm, shafts 
Mill, machine, irregular, close 


180 


Boring mill, 3d, rough, fractional 
Milling machine, infixt, close limits 
Drill, radial, 1st, complicated, to L/O 
Assem. bench, 2d, gen. valve adjust. 


160 


Drill, rad. 2d, jig work, close 

Drill, sensitive, 1st, complic. to L/O 

Punch press, over 200 T. irregular 


140 


Craneman 200-ton double hook 
Weld, arc, gas, large mach. strength 
Mill, machine to fractional dimen. 


120 


Truck driver, licensed 
Milling machine, clearances 
Spray paint refrigerator cabinet 
Weld, arc or gas, repet. ref. cab. 


100 


Craneman 30 to 200-T. single hook 
Lathe, engine, 3d, rough off stock 
Auto, screw mach. no set-up 
Drill radial, 3d, clearance holes 
Punch press 80 to 150-T. blk. punch 


80 


Watchman, uniformed, patrol, dir. traffic 

Gateman, no patrol, directing visitors 

Truck driver, plant only 

Truck, shop electric 

Punch press, repet. strip or roll 


60 



Figure 33. {Continued.) 



120 JOB EVALUATION iMETHODS 



Job Points 


Assem. conveyor, simple, short cycle 
Spray apparatus, supply parts 
Grind small castings 
Weld, resistance and spot 


40 


Laborer, inside, bar stock 
Janitor — offices and lavatories 
Drill press, sensitive — simple 


20 


Sweeper, sweep and remove chips 
Labor, foundry, remove scrap, etc. 






Figure 33. {Concluded.) 

Note: Skill has been authoritatively defined as "Trade knowledge and the 
ability to apply it." The relative degree of skill required for dissimilar jobs and 
occupations can best be evaluated on the basis of length of training necessary for 
an individual of given mentality to be able to perform the work. (General Electric 
Company.) 

Graphic Method of Determining Allotments. Daniel Weed was 
perhaps the first to turn to graphics for a solution to the problem of 
finding the true relationships between degrees and point allotments. 
Doubtless this early application was experiential rather than mathe- 
matical but it should have had greater influence. For instance, his 
study of Mentality and Training (see Figure 34) should have re- 
minded all analysts that the effects of training are rapid through the 
first two years, after which they continue to increase, but at a nearly 
constant rate. The effects of mentality are less variable but show a 
steady gain in value for at least sixteen years. Three separate 
straight line graphs were set up to make the allotments for respon- 
sibility (see Figure 35). A curve that depicts ranking for the same 
characteristic is shown in Figure 36 (complete listing in Figure 37) . 
There were other curves for the rest of the characteristics. They 
were used to guide the judgment of raters rather than as rigorous 
measures. 

Several years ago, Paul M. Edwards published a curve for 
surroundings. Like the Weed curves it was plotted between degrees 
on the abscissa and weights on the ordinate and showed what all 
should have realized, that "ordinary working conditions call for 
little or no increment over ideal conditions, but that extreme condi- 
tions of disagreeableness require a heavier weighting compared with 
ordinary conditions, than any job evaluation plan has used." This 
high weighting does not apply to many jobs, but where such do 
exist the usual straight line allotments are likely to do some injustice. 



SETTING UP MEASURING SCALES 



121 



1 








C.K 








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I— 1 


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- 




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O UJ 

5< 


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tuj 

to 


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en 

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z: 

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E 






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ro\ 


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122 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



100 



80 



60 



40 



20 



Sweeper 



ORDINARY 



ADDITIONAL' 



RESPONS 


IBILITY 
















^:>^ 


^^s^-^ 


^ 


<:^<:^ 


--^^ 




.^^ 


""^ 







GREAT 



VERY GREAT 



CARE NECESSARY TO PREVENT ERRORS OR DAMAGE 
TO EQUIPMENT AND PRODUCT 



Figure 35. Guide Curves for Responsibility. (General Electric Company.) 





_ 








/ 


25 


- 


RESPONSIBILITY 
10-30 




A 


f 


r 










/" 


f 






w 20 

z 

2 

a: 
O 

i>5 


- 


^A 




7 


B 


9 


fo 


f 












^^ 


5 


r 




















- ^^ 


3 


4 






















10 


f^ 


2 


























^ 
































ROD 


SHAKE- 


WHEEL 


SAND 


ROUTINE 


OFFICE 


SENIOR 




STRAIGHTENER 


OUT 


GRINDER 


CUTTER 


ANALYST 


CLERK 


LABORATORY 




























ANAL 


YST 



15 



FOUNDRY 
LABOR 



POURERS 



LADLE 
LINER 



NIGHT CRANE 
OPERATOR 



CORE 
SETTER B 



PATTERN 
CUSTODIAN 



FURNACE 
TENDER 



ASSISTANT 
FOREMAN 



Job Worth -REPRESENTATIVE COMPARISON 



Figure 36. Graphic Ranking on Responsibility. (National Founders' Associa- 
tion.) 



SETTING UP MEASURING SCALES 



123 



CLASS 


CLASS 


CLASS 


1. Sorter 


Core Paster 


9. 


Core Setter A 


Cupola Helper 


Shakeout 




Core Setter B 


Foundry Labor 


Washhouse Attendant 




Core Assembler A 


Coreroom Labor 
Cleaning Room Labor 


5. Squeezer Molder 
Ladle Liner 
Flask Maker 




Core Assembler B 
Truck Driver 


Yard Labor 




Pattern Maker 




Core Oven Attendant 






2. Rod Straightener 










6. Bench Molder A 


10. 


Routine Analyst 




Machine Mold 




Time Clerk 


3. Molder Helper 


Finisher 






Core Carrier 


Bench Coremaker 






Sandblaster 


Facing Mixer 


11. 


Inspector 


Tumbling 


Wheel Grinder 




Day Crane Operator 


Sand Mixer (System) 


Swing Grinder 




Senior Maintenance 


Scaler 

Furnace Charger 


Chipper 
Electric Truck 




Man 
Pattern Custodian 


(Helper) 


Operator 






Cupola Charger 


Tester 






(Helper) 
Furnace Helper 
Pourer 


7. Floor Molder A 
Floor Molder B 


12. 


Cupola Tender 
Office Clerk 


Day Welder 


Bench Molder B 




Shipping Clerk 


Night Welder 


Sand Slinger Operator 






Flask Carrier 
Maintenance Helper 


Floor Coremaker 
Senior Cupola 


13. 


Furnace Tender 


Core Sand Mixer 


Charger 






Janitor 


Night Crane Operator 


14. 


Senior Laboratory 




8. Senior Furnace 




Analyst 


4. Machine Molder 


Charger 






Machine Coremaker 


Sand Cutter 






Core Blower 


Mold Finisher 


15. 


Assistant Foreman 



Figure 37. Foundry Occupations Classified by Responsibility. (A representa- 
tive comparison of occupations selected from this list is shown in Figure 36.) 



This curve for surroundings, with others, was derived by tech- 
niques of curvilinear correlation for which the reader is advised to 
consult a standard text on statistical methods. Incidentally when a 
degree-allotment curve shows a negligible rise for two or more de- 
grees, those degrees can be combined into a single degree. If one can 
assume that geometric progression should be put into a degree 
measure a straight line should be located on a semilog grid from 
which geometric values can be determined. This was done long ago 
by A. W. Bass.^ The semilog grid combines a logarithmic scale on 
the ordinate with a plain arithmetic scale on the abscissa so that a 
geometric series when plotted takes the form of a straight line or a 

^ The Iron Age, CXXXVllI, No. 11. 



124 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

straight line provides geometric values. The desired number of 
degrees are equally spaced along the horizontal, proportionate 
values for known conditions of minimum and maximum degree 
worth are plotted vertically, and the two end points connected by 
a straight line. Values for the intermediate degrees are then read 
from the vertical magnitudes which correspond to the horizontal 
intervals, that is, according to the equally spaced points on the 
diagonal straight line. Job worths rated on such degree measures 
will fall into a straight line, or approximately so, when plotted on 
plain coordinates and there will be geometric progression in the 
rating. 

Question of Exponential and Geometric Progressions. We post- 
pone the main treatment of this question to Chapter 10 because 
putting such progression into the trend line can be done at that 
stage and that solution is least disturbing if you are remodeling a 
plan already established. When a plan is being designed, however, 
it is possible to achieve such progression at the source, that is, by 
arranging the degree allotments on a 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 relationship 
rather than on a 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 relationship. The Mills plan does this 
on some characteristics; for instance, responsibihty has degrees of 
1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 points. 

There is one real advantage to leaving the solution to the last, 
namely, it may be impossible to put exact geometric progression into 
the degree allotments without resorting to fractions or without en- 
larging the amount of points used. Neither of these expedients is 
desirable. Psychologists tell us that the magnitude in characteristic 
worth of the highest job should usually not be more than three times 
that of the lowest job and should never be more than five- or six fold . 
When a characteristic is valued at zero for the lowest job, the next 
lowest job, or the first to have a value, becomes the base for this 
check. 

On the other hand, steps should not be less than 1 5 per cent. Thus 
if we call the first step unity, the maximum for step two would be 
1.15, for step three 1.32, for step four 1.52, and for step five 1.75. 

We have found a few plans which keep the relative weights down 
to two- or threefold and some plans which go to twentyfold, but 
general practice seems to lie between four- and sixfold and that cer- 
tainly is enough for all hourly paid jobs. A limit to this relationship 
of, say, sixfold is therefore recognized by two professions which 
have had experience in observing job characteristics and it should 
be kept in mind. The rule is to estabhsh both minimum and maxi- 
mum values according to known conditions. Of course the maxi- 



SETTING UP MEASURING SCALES 



125 



mum value need not be fixed for all time. Without these precautions 
one might make allotments for the degrees which would seem de- 
sirable on paper but which would be out of bounds as to actual 
relationships. It appears that this is one of the worst faults of some 
existing plans. 

Measuring Degrees in Terms of Job Grade. Under the plan 
developed after 1 944 by the United Steelworkers of America, CIO, 
and Carnegie-Illinois Steel Corporation, twelve characteristics are 
used with degrees varying from 3 to 9; the first degree is con- 
sidered basic and the other degrees are allotted numerical values 
to total a theoretical maximum of 43, but no job has made a total 
above 32. These allotment job totals automatically classify the jobs 
from 1 to 32. Figure 38 is interesting in several respects: (1) Pre- 

PRE-EMPLOYMENT TRAINING— I 

Consider the mentality required to absorb training and exercise judgment for 
the satisfactory perfoi-mance of the job. This mentahty may be the result of native 
intelligence and schooling or self study. 



Code 


The Job Requires the Mentality 
to Learn To: 


Bench Mark Jobs 


Numerical 
Classi- 
fication 


A 


Carry out simple verbal or simple 


Stocker O. H. 






written instructions necessary to 


Laborer 






the performance of a repetitive 


Loader-Shipping 






manual task, or a closely supervised 


Thread. Mach. Oper. 






nonrepetitive task. 


Barb Wire Mach. Oper. 






Make out simple reports such as 


Pipefitter Helper 






crane reports and production cards. 


Ingot Buggy Operator 


Base 




Operate simple machines and make 








simple adjustments where adjust- 








ments are limited. 








Use measuring devices such as 








scales, rules, gauges, and charts in 








the performance of work where 








action to be taken is obvious. 








Operate powered mobile equipment 








performing simple tasks where little 








judgment is required. 






B 


Perform work of a nonrepetitive or 


Pickler Stocker 






semirepetitive nature where judg- 


keeper-B. Fee. 






ment is required to obtain results. 


Truck Driver 






Lead or direct three or more helpers 


Guide Setter-Bil. 






in a variety of simple tasks. 


Slitter Operator 


.3 



Figure 38. Scale for One of Twelve Characteristics. 
tive Bargaining Agreement.) 



(Taken from Collec- 



126 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



Code 


The Job Requires the Mentality 


Bench Mark Jobs 


Numerical 
Classi- 




to Learn To: 




fication 




Exercise judgment in the operation 








of powered mobile equipment serv- 








icing a number of units or per- 








forming a variety of tasks. 








Set up and operate machines or 








processes requiring a variety of ad- 








justments. 








Post detailed data to standard forms 








or write reports based on observa- 








tion and judgment. 






C 


Make general repairs to equipment 


Millwright B. M. 






involving the knowledge of me- . 


Machinist "A" 






chanical or electrical principles. 


Keater-Hot Strip 






Interpret detailed assembly and 


Tandem Mill Roller 






complex part drawings such as in- 


Moulder 'A" 


1.0 




volved in performing tradesman's 








duties. 








Direct the operation of a complex 








production unit which determines 








size, shape, analysis, or physical 








property of the product. 








Plan complex work details and pro- 








cedures to obtain results. 







Figure 38. {Continued.) 



employment Training has its degrees expressed in resulting abilities 
rather than in years of schooling, (2) under bench mark jobs there 
are job examples listed, and (3) the grade allotments are exponen- 
tial or geometric. Two other characteristics are: Physical Effort 
and Surroundings have approximate geometric allotments as — base, 
.3, .8, 1.5, 2.5 and base, .4, .8, 1.6, 3.0 respectively. The other 
nine characteristics have arithmetic progression except for one or 
two larger jumps at the upper end in some cases, and in one case 
the interval is smaller at the lower end. The plan uses letters to 
code the levels, 2iS A, B, C instead of first, second, and third (see 
Inequities Program — Agreem.ents, Oct. 25, 1945 to Jan. 27, 1947. 



7 



JOB ANALYSIS— DESCRIBING AND 
SPECIFYING 



The securing of the information and the writing of job descrip- 
tions is by far the longest and most important part of the pro- 
gram. 

W. J. BORGHARD 

Job Analysis a Personnel Term. Time study men were called 
"job analysts" by some industrial engineers at the beginning but 
when referring to the job study itself the Taylor group stuck to "time 
study" and the Gilbreth group stuck to "motion study." From 1909 
to 1912 a job study to aid job classifying, job rating, hiring, trans- 
ferring, and promotion, that is, personnel functions, came into 
being. This development was originated under E. O. Griffenhagen ^ 
for the municipal service, at The Commonwealth Edison Com- 
pany, Chicago, and carried to similar companies, and government 
offices, employing large clerical forces. As early as 1914 Harry A. 
Hopf was classifying clerical positions in banks and insurance offices. 

In these large offices, where mechanized jobs were segregated, 
some real time study was done by industrial engineers and was duly 
called time study, but because most office work consisted of long and 
varied cycles there was a tendency to let nonengineering office spe- 
cialists revamp methods and set tasks. Records of elapsed time or 
crude over-all timing was considered sufficient. Group tasks were 
much used. For instance, Wm. H. Leffingwell used a standard- 
ized work rate of clerical minutes per order (C.M.O.) for task. 
Like the emergency plant-wide tasks of 1944 it could be set with- 
out any analysis of individual jobs. In nearly all office studies the 
emphasis was on position classification and salary equalization, but 
the term job analysis was used regardless of emphasis or of scope. 

^ E. O. Griffenhagen, Classification and Compensation Plans as Tools in Per- 
sonnel Administration, also A. M. A. Office Executive Series No. 17. 

127 



128 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Hence in management literature the job study of industrial engineers 
was not always distinct from the job study of personnel men. 

Confusion Has Arisen.^ We recall all this merely to explain the 
confusion in terms that arose thereby. World War I caused a rapid 
growth in the new personnel movement and "job analysis" became 
one of its important activities.^ The National Personnel Association 
in 1920 came out with a definition of job analysis which sounded in 
part like time study and this definition was widely accepted: "Job 
Analysis is that process which results in estabhshing the component 
elements of a job and ascertaining the human qualifications neces- 
sary for its successful performance." This definition was repeated 
in the committee report of 1922.^ In professional addresses the term 
job analysis continued to be all-inclusive, that is, it covered every 
kind of job study, but as the personnel function grew the original 
personnel type of job study began to attract wider attention and to 
reclaim its name. 

Factory Applications Restricted the Term. Although time study 
engineers had vied ^ with personnel people in the broad concepts of 
job analysis, in practice the former shunned the personnel term be- 
cause their own motion and time study was narrower, that is, tech- 
nical in purpose and restricted in scope. The main purpose of the 
latter was, and is, to improve tools and methods. The scope was, 
and is, to standardize the improved methods for determining tasks, 
using these for planning and rewarding but not as an aid to hiring 
people. When they extended their motion and time study to time- 
paid jobs the jobs would be no longer time-paid. Thus as the 
personnel movement slowly extended to factories, 1914 to 1919, 
their job analysis began to supplement the engineer's time study. 
Here the job analysis was definitely a review study of jobs which 
had already been standardized by time study or which did not justify 
any degree of time study. It was introduced solely for personnel 
purposes.^ 

Pioneering Completed by 1920. Many of our best-managed 
manufacturing companies shared in the development of personnel 

^ Roy W. Kelly, "Selecting and Training Interviewers," Industrial Management, 
April, 1919. 

^ Valentine and Gregg, Outline of Job Analysis, 1918, also A Committee Report, 
1919, National Association of Corporation Schools. 

"^ Job Analysis, National Personnel Association, 1922. 

^ V^. O. Lichtner, "Time and Job Analysis in Management," Industrial Manage- 
ment, April, 1920. 

^ Job Specifications, Federal Board for Vocational Education, November. 1919. 



JOB ANALYSIS 129 

functions. So far as we are informed, those which particularly con- 
tributed to the pioneer work of job analysis, 1914 to 1919, were: 

Dennison Manufacturing Company 

Detroit Steel Products Company 

National Carbon Company 

Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 

American Optical Company 

American Rolling Mill Company 

International Harvester Company 

Curtis PubHshing Company 

Cincinnati Milling Machine Company 

National Cash Register Company 

Leeds and Northrup Company 

Before 1918 the job descriptions were in narrative form and not 
always confined to minimum requirements of the job. The National 
Carbon Company and the Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company 
introduced lists of paired opposites, such as standing-sitting, indoor- 
outdoor, and the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 
divided such items into two groups, headed The Worker and The 
Work. This company also used square boxes for checking, which 
innovation was taken up by the Dennison Manufacturing Company, 
the International Harvester Company, and most others after 1918. 
This listing and checking was somewhat overdone, and left little 
space for the prose description of duties, but was better practice 
than some of the all-prose practice prevalent during World War II. 
The instructions which were used in 1919 were also pretty good 
(see Figures 39a and 39b). Soon after the deflation of 1920-22 
every manufacturing company large enough to afford a personnel 
staff was using job analysis as its main source of data for personnel 
work. In fact, the personnel function may be said to have grown up 
during those memorable years 1922-29. 

Terms Better Defined. Meanwhile in banks and insurance offices 
the office specialists continued their methods improvement, and 
classification, but found a new name for the combination, viz., 
"Salary Standardization." ^ J. K. Hackett, a member of the Job 
Analysis Committee already twice cited, wrote in 1923,^ job analysis 
is "the determination of essential factors in a specific kind of work 
and of qualifications of the worker necessary for its component per- 

"^ H. A. Hopf, Salary Standardization, Society of Industrial Engineers, 1921. 
^Management Engineering, May, 1923. 



JOB SPECIFICATIONS 

Dennison Manufacturing Co. 

THIS FORM IS EASY TO FILL OUT IF YOU FOLLOW INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY 

1. GENERAL 



DEPARTMENT NO- 
JOB DESCRIPTION- 



NUMBER 
-EMPLOYED- 



C SYMBOL 



2. MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS 

□ READ 



□ MALE 

□ FEMALE 



ENGLISH 



□ WRITE 



SCHOOLING 



n8 



□ - □ BLUEPRINTS PHYSIC.^ 
□* □ SKETCHES 



TRADE EXPERIENCE- 



J^DVANTAGEOUS- 



3. NATURE AND CONDITIONS OF ^ ORK 

□ PERMANENT O FLOOR □ STANDING 

□ TEMPORARY D BENCH □ SITTING 

□ OVERTIME n MACHINE □ WALKING 

□ QUICK □ COURSE □ CLEAN 
D SLOW □ FINE □ DIRTY 



□ DANGEROUS 



MACHINES 



□ EXACTING 



□ GREASY 



□ HEAVY 

□ MEDIUM 

□ LIGHT 

□ HOT 

D MOIST 

□ WET 



□ VARIETY 

□ REPETITr.-E 
n AUTOMATIC 
D DUSTY 

□ ODORS 
H: GASES 



PERSONAL TOOLS REQUIRED 

TIME REQUIRED TO TRAIN A TOTALLY INEXPERIENCED MAN, PHYSIC.U.LY ANTD 
MENTALLY CAPABLE, TO DO THIS WORK WITHOUT SUPERVISION OF INSTRUCTOR 



4. DUTIES AND QUALIFICATIONS 

DUTIES 



QUALIFICATIONS 



JUST WHAT DOES HE DO WITH REFERENCE TO 
MATERIALS, MACHINES, EQUIPMENT, AND TOOLS': 



WTiAT QU-ALTTIES SHOLXD HE HAVE IN 
ORDER TO DO IT? CONSIDER TR.ADE 
EXPERIENCE. SCHOOLING. PHYSICAL 
QUALIFICATIONS AS E\"ESIGHT. H.ANDS, 
STRENGTH AND OTHER QU.ALIFICA- 
TIONS AS NEATNESS. PATIENCE. ETC. 



□ D. W. 

□ P. W. 

5. RATES n task and bonus starting 

□ TIME and PIECE WAGE 



NEXT 
_\DVANCE_ 



AL\XIMUM_ 



RANGE 

ON P. W._ 



HOW SOON 
_PUT ON P. W._ 



6. PROMOTION TO. 



HO\\' 
-SOON- 



7. RELATED JOBS, what other jobs in the plant use to .advantage experience 

GAINED IN THIS JOB? 

8. EXITS, what is the most common reason why workers leave THIS JOB? 



9. REMARKS- 



dept. head 



foreman 



emp. dept. 



DATE 



note if you THINK AGE, HEIGHT, WEIGHT, OR ANY OTHER QUALIFICATION, 

NOT PROVIDED FOR ABOVE, IS ESSENTIAL IN SELECTING A WORKER FOR THIS JOB, 

INDICATE THAT FACT UNDER REMARKS. 



Figure 39fl. Job Specifications. (National Association of Corporation Schools. 
7th Annual Convention (report), 1919.) 

130 



INSTRUCTIONS 



GENERAL 



FOR FILLING OUT BLANK FORM FOR 
JOB SPECIFICATIONS 



1. It is necessary that the following instructions be carefully observed. 

2. Write neatly and legibly. 

3. Place a cross in the proper square when the item you are considering is helpful 

in selecting or training the worker for that job. Leave the square blank when 
it is unimportant. 

4. Note carefully the information desired under each heading before writing. This 

will eliminate error and erasures. 
WHAT IS WANTED 

1. GENERAL 

Job Description should be brief, merely indicating the nature of the work. 
Do not put anything opposite Grade A B C or Symbol. 

2. MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS 

Be careful to distinguish between the qualifications of the worker who is on 
the job and the minimum requirements for another worker to do the job. 

For example, English r^ jJf/rite '^^'^^^ that a worker MUST be able to write 
English before he can even be considered for that job. After Schooling, 6 
and 8 refer to years of grade school, 2 and 4 to years of High School. Trade 
experience should be specified only when that experience is absolutely essen- 
tial. After advantageous indicate any related work which may be helpful 
in this job. 

3. NATURE AND CONDITIONS OF WORK 

Permanent means the same job month after month. In the square before 

temporary write the number of months. 
If the work is at a machine and on a bench put a cross in the square before 

machine and another cross in the square before bench. Make as many 

crosses as you think will help describe the work. 
Heavy, medium, and light refer to material or equipment hard to carry or 

move. 
Variety means different kinds of work, involving set-up and all adjustments 

necessary to completion of work; repetitive refers to straight production 

work involving only a small amount of adjustment and attention; automatic, 

doing identically the same thing in a purely mechanical way. 
Fine work demands care and neatness; exacting means continuous application 

to delicate or close up work. 
Dust includes sawdust, dust from polishing machines, dust from ground floors, 

etc. 
Fumes refer to objectionable smells, coming from ammonia, strong paints, 

glue, smoke, etc. 
Acids should be checked only when the worker handles acids as a part of his 

regular work. 
After machines write the different KINDS of machines used on the job, as 

lathe, printing machine, slitter, etc. If several machines operate together as 

one machine give the names of the separate machines. If the maker's name 

or the machine number is important, or if some special appliance on the 

machine makes it different from other machines of the same name, indicate 

that fact. 

4. DUTIES AND QUALIFICATIONS 

Duties refer to the operations on the job and other things the worker has to 
do. Operations include make ready, actual operations on the job, and fin- 
ishing up after the job. Other things he has to do include watching certain 
important things in the work, inspecting, or making adjustments during 
operations. 

Qualifications refer to such things as knowledge of material or machines, 
physical strength, quickness or delicateness of hands, ability to distinguish 
colors, other jobs that help the worker to do this job, etc. Give the qualifi- 
cations of a first-class worker doing this job. 

5. RATES 

Starting wage is the wage paid to a beginner with no experience that will help 
him on the job. 

6. PROMOTION 

To what other jobs are workers promoted from this job? From what jobs 
are workers promoted to this job? Indicate preference for new or old 
workers. 
% EXITS 

Note if the job is one of the best in the department and much sought after. 
REMARKS 

Include any special information which you think may be of interest, or helpful 
in selecting, training, or promoting work. 



Figure 39b. Instructions to Accompany Figure 39a. 



131 



132 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

formance." This definition omitted the "elements" which had 
always been the particular characteristic of good time study. 

In factories time study was becoming influenced by Gilbreth's 
principles of motion economy. The present author, writing with 
Professor Joseph W. Roe in 1924, treated these complementary but 
at that time rival procedures, motion and time study, together under 
the end-step term Job Standardization^^ Confusion as to the mean- 
ing of job analysis persisted, however, and in 1927 Charles R. Mann 
of the American Council on Education made the following plea: ^'^ 
"Reserve the term 'job analysis' for the various analyses of job 
descriptions made for special purposes afterwards." To this Mr. 
Hopf replied, "To me job analysis is a process, an approach to a 
situation; the job description or specification is the result of that 
process." In the Handbook of Business Administration, published 
by the American Management Association, 1931, E. O. Griffen- 
hagen wrote: 

Where it is difficult to describe the common characteristics of a group of 
positions that are to be allocated to the same class in the process of classifica- 
tion, it is often possible to adopt the expedient of explaining the kind of 
ability, kind of experience, kind of skills, etc., that a person qualified to 
handle the work must possess. The first step in the process of classification 
is, therefore, to learn all that is practical to learn regarding the duties of 
each position in the service. The term job analysis, if it is to persist, ought 
to be restricted to this process. 

Several years later Ralph C. Davis wrote: 

A job analysis is an investigation and analysis of a work assignment, and 
the conditions surrounding it, to determine its requirements from an organi- 
zational standpoint. In this respect it differs fundamentally from time and 
motion study. In most cases, it is used by the personnel department to 
procure information regarding the job and the worker that will facilitate em- 
ployment, promotion, transfer, and training. 

In short, job analysis had at last taken its place everywhere as a 
review study of duties subsequent to job standardization, and with 
the definite purpose of procuring all data on the man-job unit which 
the personnel staff needed. As such it became fundamental and, 
because it had also contributed to better classification, it shaped up 
as the basis of systematic job evaluation during the period 1931-37. 

^ See Section 15, "Operation Study and Rate Setting," Management's Handbook 
(New York: The Ronald Press Co., 1924.) 

'^^ Improving Management Through Job Analysis, by H. A. Hopf. Annual Con- 
vention Series No. 62. 



JOB ANALYSIS 133 

We trust the term will hereafter stay put! For our own definition of 
job analysis see Chapter 1 . 

Earlier Job Analysis May Need to Be Discarded. Although 
modern job analysis is now hemmed in by job standardization on the 
one side and by job evaluation on the other side, it is still an inclu- 
sive term and as generally accepted covers job description, job 
specification, and job classification. Its scope begins with the pre- 
paratory work which precedes the gathering of preliminary job 
descriptions. If this preparatory work, the standardization of char- 
acteristics, the arrangement of the same on forms, and the like was 
completed before the proposed plan of evaluation was conceived 
there is little likelihood that such analysis can contribute, except by 
way of experience, to the further program. Even if the jobs are well 
described and classified, the data may be unsatisfactory. If it is 
worth while to have a new evaluation it will usually be best to start 
with no hmitations. The reason is that the new plan may need to 
bring out certain data which were wholly lacking or not distinct on 
the old forms. Certainly it would be foolish to economize in the 
matter of foundational data for anything so important as a lasting 
job classification. With the same long-run view it is all-important 
to make the new preparation as sound and complete as foresight 
can allow. 

Begin With Bench Mark Jobs. The first step in application of a 
job evaluation plan is to gather data from which a description and 
specification for each distinct or standardized job can be re- 
corded, checked, and standardized. We say "standardized job" 
because it is a waste of time to describe jobs that are not reasonably 
definite. Preferably, a job should be made definite by the type of 
job study done by engineers, motion and time study. That precau- 
tion assures improved methods and something approaching stability. 
Hence a job study for the purpose of recording a final description is 
in the nature of a review and may be done by trained men, inter- 
viewers, investigators, analysts, etc., of the personnel staff. Usually 
the interviewer, investigator, or analyst will begin by listing all the 
jobs he thinks are distinct in a department, but it is better to com- 
pile, with the aid of supervisor and steward, a smaller list of "bench 
mark" jobs that are wholly distinct and common to several depart- 
ments. This list can gradually be enlarged until all jobs are listed 
and checked by department heads, but if this work is new it is 
desirable to perfect the ways and means on a small list before going 
all out. Southern California Aircraft Industry used only twenty- 
eight key jobs for the whole industry. 



134 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Beware of assuming that like-titled jobs are always identical. In 
some establishments the payroll designations represent broad occu- 
pations, not specific jobs. If such is the case a tentative subdivision 
of each occupation may need to precede the solicitation of data. 
Four or five subdivisions, such as boring machine, labor grades 2, 
4, 6, and 8, will usually suffice (see Figures 63 to 70, inclusive, for 
examples of these job descriptions). 

Indicate the Kinds of Information Wanted. The information to 
be gathered must include (a) identifying data, namely equipment, 
operations, parts worked on; (b) job summary to show purpose and 
scope; (c) description of duties and responsibilities to clarify the 
nature of abilities necessary to meet requirements of a and b; and 
(d) specific data on all characteristics to allow definite appraisal 
as to kind and degree of each which may be involved. Note that 
for d there must be anticipation in the form or questionnaire of the 
predetermined degree definitions. If this is not made clear by the 
form or questionnaire the workers will not give all the needed data 
and information must be sought separately from the supervisor and 
others in a position to know. Some managements prefer this separa- 
tion on the ground that, when a worker tries to furnish such data, 
they are unreliable and must be checked anyway. In that case the 
major part of the job description may be a prose statement of duties 
and responsibilities including both physical and mental demands of 
the job. 

There are two difficulties in this. First, a worker may be 
superior to what the job actually requires and inclined to think of 
his own abilities rather than the minimum requirements. Such a 
description is exaggerated and is said to show a "halo effect." 
Second, he may be unused to describing anything accurately and 
be either too brief or downright garrulous without producing the 
desired facts. 

A Manual Should Be Started. At this stage it may not be safe 
to complete a manual because eventually that will be the guide to 
harmonize the whole program, but it is necessary to have that part 
ready which defines the characteristics, their degrees if such are to 
be used, and relates to the degrees whatever scales are to be used 
for appraisal. This can be closed up by the top committee and offi- 
cially accepted by top management. This is a prerequisite to the 
determination of procedure for gathering data and writing the 
descriptions. In the meantime the department analysts should, with 
supervisory advice, select the names and locations of the workers 
who are best suited to furnish the preliminary data. 



JOB ANALYSIS 135 

Methods of Gathering the Data. There are four methods in use 
as follows: 

1. Analyst calls employees to his desk where by use of a check 
list (see Figure 40) he solicits the information through an inter- 
view. This means several half-hour interviews for each job and 
considerable checking with the supervisors later on. It is not only 
time consuming, but is deficient in that the analyst may not envision 
the work place or influences affecting the actual performance. 

2. Analyst interviews workers at their work places and fills out 
his prearranged headings (see Figure 41). This may take even 
more time, but it can bring better results because the analyst will 
see more than is told him. There is a two-way traffic in information. 

3. Prepare an elaborate questionnaire such as Figure 42 or 52 
and have the stewards help the workers fill them out. This has the 
advantage of transferring much of the judgment to the workers, but 
elaborate questionnaires alter the whole program and prevent simpli- 
fication if they do not obscure important facts in a welter of details. 
Some employees are incapable of doing this as needed. 

4. Supervisor has a group of employees who are on homogeneous 
jobs meet in a conference room where he and the analyst can talk 
to them for half an hour to give them much needed explanation 
concerning the program in general and the descriptions in particular. 
Each is then given a form and allowed to ask questions. They take 
the forms home to fill out or get the steward to help them. They 
are given a week or more for this. They return the rough drafts to 
their supervisor, who checks them in their presence and then hands 
them over to the analyst. The latter makes a composite description 
from the various ones entered for each job. When he is satisfied 
that these are complete and reliable he takes them back to the con- 
tributors for their final suggestions. Employee approval is important 
to the further procedure of the program. It is claimed that 30 to 60 
per cent saving is made by this method. ^^ 

Principles of Form Design. As in the design of most forms the 
first principle ( 1 ) is to keep between excess complexity and excess 
brevity, that is, to provide for definite portrayal of all essential facts 
but no more. The second principle (2) is to arrange the essentials 
in the order which wiU facilitate the entry of data, the use of the 
information, and explanations of the results. 

In endeavoring to keep within both principles there arises a choice 
between the use of prose and the use of a prearranged check list. 

^M. E. Eitington, "Cutting the Cost of the Job Evaluation Program" Per- 
sonnel, XXV, No. 4, 



136 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 







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JOB ANALYSIS 



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138 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



JOB EVALUATION AND DESCRIPTION SHEET 

Job Tide- VERTICAL BOBING MILL OPR., SKILLED 




FACTORS 


BASIS FOR RATING 


PTS. 


05 


Education 


Use con-.plicated drawings 
shop math., arithmetic, 
equivalent to S-yrs H.S. 




D«.rtmenl.: P^^neT (32) 


Brief de«ripUon of Job: 

Works from complicated drawings, sets up ov/n 
work on castings, forglngs and some second 
operation work which is quite heavy. 

Required to work to very close tolerances - 
often .0005. 

Grinds ov/n tools, except special forming tools. 
Checks own work. 

Highly diversified and difficult set ups on 
a wide variety of irregular shaped parts; 
also tool room work when necessary. 

Typical exainplei of work done: Cross slides, "A" type, 


Experience 
Required 


2-3 years 




Initiative and 
Ingenuity 


Perform end plan operatic 
guided by general sethocs 
Decisions need Ingen. k 


is 


% 


Physical 


Continual physical effort 
handling nedlujn and occa? 
hea'/y materials. 




Menial 


Constant mental and 
visual attention. 






Material 


£150 - S200. 




Equipment 


£250. 




Safety of 
Others 


Compliance with safety 
standards. 




Hex turret slides, rocker seats for sq. turrets. 


Minor 
Supervision 
or Training 


Responsible for training 
of learners. 




W.E. drums, rings, brackets, special pot and 


adjustable fixtures. 

Macliine. used if anv: 

Vertical boring mill. 


1 


Working 


Occasional disagreeable 
element. Vibration, dust, 
chips, heat, fumes. 




Hijloryofjob Written bv: 41> Grill 


Hazards 


Eye injury, hernia, loss 
of finger, crushed feet. 




(2) Gencope (3) Kingsbury Date 


Remarks: 


Total PoinU 






Approved by Committee 1 
Date ' 









Figure 41. 



Kress Short Form for Gathering Data. 
Administration Service.) 



(Dartnell Personnel 



The latter certainly facilitates entries, and to a certain extent aids 
definiteness, thereby minimizing errors of interpretation, but some 
job duties cannot adequately be covered by a universal check list. 
Thus some combination of prose and check list is most satisfactory. 
The nature of the work involved and the thoroughness of treatment 
desired must determine the proportionate use of these two means of 
record. In all cases there must be harmony of order between related 
forms. This is important for entry, use, and explanation. 

Besides the series of forms needed for job evaluation there are 
other forms to be made up using some of the same original data. 
We will therefore pause here to survey these other uses of the data. 

1. Occupational or job class information as an aid to normal selec- 
tion and placement; also as a guide to utilization of disabilities, 
and the like. 

Information as to levels of skill, responsibility, and other abil- 
ities, as a basis for the revamping of jobs. 
Information as to kind and degree of skill, responsibility, and 
other abilities, as a basis for planning transfer and promotion; 
hence a guide to training. 



2. 



3. 



JOB ANALYSIS 



139 



JOB RATING DATA SHEET 



Occ. No. 
Dept. __ 
Class — 

Points 

Grade — 



Job Description: 



Typical Examples 



FACTOR 


D 


POINTS 


EDUCATION 






EXPERIENCE 






INITIATIVE 






PHYSICAL 






MENTAL 






E<?UIP 






MATERIAL 






SAFETY 






W OF O 






WORK CON 






HAZARDS 













I. EDUCATION OR TRADE KNOWLEDGE 



.Able to read, write 
.decimals, fractions 
. shop arithmetic 
, handbook f orrmilas 
. geometry, trigonometrv 

Kzplain use; 



Drawings 



Simple Ordinary Conplex 



sketches 

drawings 

nuaber of dimensions 

wiring diagrams 

specifications 

Sxtent used: 



Measuring lastrujents 



Trade Knowled' 



rul.e, 8C£ile 
micrometers 
fixed gau^jes-plug 
dial indicator 
vernier-lie ight 
vernior-cn.llper8 
bevel protractor 
sine bars 
Jo-blocks 
pyrometer 
weigh scales 
. shrinJc rule 



calipers, square 

ring, flnjq p 



feeds, speeds, tools, work holding methods on 
specialized machine operation 

fundamentals of construction and operation 
of 

.broad knowledge of 

requiring years apprenticeship or trades 

training covering 



2. EXPERIENCE 

Anal;.'2e job to determine the length of time usually req'airod to learn to do the Job 
duties satisfactorily, over and above any trades training where required. 



up to and including 1 month 
over 1 month up to 3 months 
over 3 months up to 6 months 
over 6 months up to 12 months 



. over 1 year up to 3 years 
, over 3 years up to 5 years 
over 5 years 



Do not Include apprenticeship or trades training in experience. 
Education. 



Consider It vmder 



Figure 42. Kress-Cole Form for Gathering Data. 

ministration Service.) 



(Dartnell Personnel Ad- 



140 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



3. INITIATIVE AND INGENUITY 

Analyze the joT5 as to conplexltjr, variety of work assigned, staadardization of 
duties, length of cycle per imit, amcrjut and kind of planning req^red, klndt 
of decisions oadet diagaosing and remedying trouble. 



Vork Issi, 



Who directly assigns work? 

Who checks workt 

Descri'be inspection, if any: 



How often? 
How oftent 



Variety of Workt 

Hi^ily Hepetitlve 

Rapetitire 

Short Huns 

Jobbing 

Eepair i Mainter-£mce 



Quantity of Lots ApproxL-aate Jiae Per Unit Talerar.sea 



(jobs per day) 
Planning Work; State typical ezanples of planning that Job requires. 



Decisions Hepuired! 



Effect of Srror in Judgaent 



Trouble Shooting! State below typical exasTples of dia^oeing and reaeiyiag tra^ible 



4. PHYSICAL DEMAND 

Analyze job req-oireaents as to work position, eleaents of work which produce 
physical Strain or fatigue, lifting, bending, etc. 



Work Position 

Sit 

Stand 

Walk 

3end-Stoop 

Lift-Handle 

Hold 

Shovel Sand 

Hide 

Push or Pull 

Carry lbs 



Percent of Time 



Material Handl 


in^ 






Weight of Material i r 


6 


J- 


c 


'Jo to 1# ' 










1 to 5* 










Over 5 to 25f 










Over 25 to SOi^ 










Jver 56* 











Arms in Unsupported 
.Position 



K = Up to 5^ of tiae 
* 5^ to 30> of tiae 
r = 20^ to 50^ of time 
C ^ 50if or more of tiae 



Ixplain use of any material handling equlpnent, s-j.ch as hoists or cranes. Describe 
any difficult work positions which may produce physical strain or fatigue. 



Figure 42. (Continued.) 



JOB ANALYSIS 



141 



5. MENTAL OR VISUAL DEMAND 
imlyze job as to mental or visual attention and alertness required. 



Degree; 



, Little - up to 20j5 of time 
IVequent - 20^9 to SOjt 
Continuous - over 50J6 



Haasons; 

Intermittent duties 

Length of cycle 

Handle snail parts 

Check work 

Speed of aanipulation 

Operating Points 

Hequiring Attention: 



.Close attention on complex work 
.Hl^ manual dexterity - close viaual attention 
-Concentrated and exacting attention on very 
complex jobs as 

.Parts or equipment difficult to manipulate 
.Tolerances difficult to maintain 
.Machine adjustments necessary 
.Coordinate hand and eye - hl^ily repetitive 



Equipment Involved 



6. RESPONSIBILITY FOR EQUIPMENT 

How can it be damaged 
through Carelessness 



Estimated Cost to Repair 



7. RESPONSIBILITY FOR MATERIAL 



Analyze Joo for causes of scrap or rework caused hy carelessness on the job. Considef"" 
aiiount of spoilage that may occur before detection, the value of labor and material 
up to this point, the salvage value if any and cost to repair. 



Causes 



Where discovered 
and by whom 



Scrap or Rework 



Probable Loss 



8. RESPONSIBILITY FOR SAFETY OF OTHERS 

Analyze job to see how some employee may be hurt through carelessness on this Job, 
What care must be used to prevent injury to others? 



Hazard Causing In.lury 

Air Hose 

Dropped Tools 

Dropped Work 

Electric Shock 

. yiylng Part or Chips 

riylng Work 

Hot Material 

Molten Metal 

Wheel Breakage 



Who can be In.iured 



How can they be Injured 



9. RESPONSIBILITY FOR WORK OF OTHERS 
Is employee responsible for directing other employees? 
If so, describe nature of duties: 



How Many? 



Figure 42. {Continued.) 



142 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 







Analyze job to see what 
II - Up to 5?5 

Element Cause 


10. WOR 

dlsa^eeable 

- 0= 5-2C 

or Sotirce 


KINGC 


ONDITIONS 

nts there are in working 
7 = 20-505^ - C=r Oyer 50 

Percent of Tiae 
ree Sxposed 


conditions 

RenarVcB 


A^1<i 






r.n-\A 






_ tSiflt. 


















Pnnt 




, „. "Jolse 














Vihrpt^on 






Vafe\T 






Respirator 





















II. UNAVOIDABLE HAZARDS 

Analyze joTj for possible hazards, either accident or health, even thOTi^ safety 
device B are in use. 

Ha=aid Cause Eoi,-; Cen STrploi-ee be IsJ-^ed 




A'brasions 






"^irris - Mir, '^r 






B-oms - y^ajor 










_ C'-'i''>"='^ Tnpf* 






:v,<-.« 






^vn TnjiT^- 






_.. ?allR - Le.r>-er, Etc 






yTprf.•^TPR 






Ef!mi,? 






T.nBQ TlngPTR, Taab 






Loss Am, Leg 






_, . . Shock 




~ 
















~ 




2apl0'/ees Who Hegularly Do This Job 


Kera-Tis : 






l-'^n ITo. 


Rate 


}'^ ro. 


Rate 




Dpv 


3aee 


EfffT). 


3ft- 






















































Approvals 




Tate 


Man 


















I approre the facts and 
ratings 'unless otherwise 
noted above . 


Written 






















Rated 






































Ched'ced 
























?rpad 




































Revis^d 






















1 



Figure 42. {Concluded.) 



JOB ANALYSIS 



143 



4. 



5. 



Information on which to base a system of merit rating; hence a 
guide to systematic follow-up and morale building. 
Indication of working conditions which may be the source of 
occupational diseases, fatigue, or industrial injuries; hence the 
improvement of preventive action. 



A general plan for all these personnel activities should be out- 
lined at this stage of development so that a unified set of forms can 
be laid out. 

Examples of Preliminary Job Descriptions. A good example of 
the use of prose and check list, neither of which is elaborate, is 
Figure 43, put out as a sample by the Civilian Personnel Division 
Headquarters, Services of Supply, War Department. 



PRELIMINARY JOB DESCRIPTION SHEET 

Present Payroll 
Establishment Philadelphia QM Depot Designation^ Railroad Trackman 



Section 



Utilities Railroad 



Proposed Change 
In Designation 



Title of Immediate Supervisor 



Foreman Railroad Trackmen 



GENERAL NATURE OF WORK 

Under immediate supervision of Foreman Railroad Trackmen, 
maintains or installs railroad tracks within Depot. Works in 
group of from 6 to 15 individuals. 

Maintains tracks by jacking and placing ballast under ties. 
Unspikes and respikes rails to correct gages. Removes v^orn 
ties and replaces with new ties by jacking rails, removing 
spikes, and respiking rails to new ties. Replaces worn or 
broken rails by unspiking and removing them and by placing, 
gaging, and spiking the new rails. 

Installs new track by performing operations similar to above. 

This is essentially a heavy labor job. 



Precision (tolerances) required: 

Check Working 
Conditions 

1. Inside 

2. Outside— 2 

3. Abnormal tempera- 

tures 

4. Unusual noise 



Fumes, dust, etc. 

Unusual hazards 

scribe below) 



(de- 



1. 

2. 
3. 


Check Type of 
Supervision 
General 
Immediate — 2 
Continuous — 3 


1. 

2. 
3. 


Check Extent of 

Inspection 

Immediately after — 1 

After other operations 

100% inspection— 3 


4. 

5. 
6. 


Intermittent 

Written Instructions 
Oral instructions — 6 


4. 


Sampling or spot 
check 



Danger from moving heavy rails and from swinging sledge 



Figure 43. Preliminary Job Description Sheet 



144 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

a. The upper portion identifies the job, indicates its general place 

in the organization, and gives the title of the immediate super\'isor. 

b. Space is next provided for full outline of the duties performed. 
As will be noted in the job description of a Railroad Trackman, the 
duties performed may be described according to the order of their 
importance. Duties of another type of work might be described 
according to the sequence of operations. Note also that it is cus- 
tomar}- to begin each sentence with a verb and to ehminate unneces- 
sary words. Most important is that this portion of a job description 
be factually accurate, not a matter of opinion or an ideal assign- 
ment of duties. The use of adjectives to compare the job in question 
with another job should be kept at a minimum. Instead, exact 
examples of duties performed prove more useful. One company 
supplements its prose examples with picture examples. A complete 
description should indicate what work is done, and if significant, 
how. when, and where the \\ork is carried on and within what pre- 
cision tolerances or limits of decision. Occasionally, it may be help- 
ful to indicate also the reason for an operation and its relation to 
other work of the establishment. 

c. On the back of the job description fat bottom here) space is 
provided for certain detailed information relating to the degree of 
supervision, machines or equipment used, materials worked upon, 
specific precision requirements, inspection of work, and working 
conditions, such as indoor or outdoor, abnormal temperatures, un- 
usual noise, fumes, dust, or hazards. 

Filling Out the Form. If the form is to be filled out bv the inter- 
viewer, as intended in Figure 43. all explanations can be oral, but 
it is better to prepare a manual. If a form is to be filled out by the 
employees it must carry \^ritten explanations or be so exphcit that 
there is little room for misunderstanding. It is not practical, how- 
ever, to eliminate all personal explanation because, left to himself, 
the employee is likely to overstate the importance of his job or to 
omit pertinent details, often both. Under guidance an employee- 
filled blank, at the work place, has several advantages: the direct 
contribution of data gives him a sense of participation, brings out 
details w^hich might otherwise be overlooked, and provides a better 
background for subsequent analysis. Always the immediate super- 
visor, and sometimes others who may be involved, should be con- 
sulted. The job description form (Figure 44). which is really a 
standardized arrangement for answers and checks, is a good com- 
promise between the extremes of complexity and brevity. It is meant 
to be filled out by the employees but with the aid of an investigator. 



JOB ANALYSIS 145 




1. DESCRIPTION OF DUTIES: 
A. Daily 



B. Periodic 



C. Occasional 



2. MINIMUM STARTING REQUIREMENTS FOR POSITION: 

(Note: Do not state your own personal education, experience, etc., unless it 
coincides with the minimum requirements.) 

A. Minimum Education — Check one 

1. Read, write, and speak English 

2. Grammar school 

3. High school 

4. College 

5. Graduate work or special courses 

B. Minimum Experience — Check one 

1. Less than one month 

2. One to three months 

3. Three months to one year 

4. One to two years 

5. Over two years 

3. RESPONSIBILITY 

A. Safety of Others — Check one 

1. None. 

2. Up to five persons 

3. Six to ten persons 

4. Eleven to fifteen persons 

5. Over fifteen persons 

B. Work of Others — Check one 

1. None 

2. Up to five persons 

3. Six to ten persons 

4. Eleven to fifteen persons 

List names of jobs and describe briefly the duties of these jobs. 



Figure 44. Job Description Form 



146 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



C. Equipment or Process — Check the approximate value that you are respon- 

sible for. 

1. None 

2. Up to $25.00 

3. $26.00 to $250.00 

4. $251.00 to $1,000 

5. Over $1,000 

Please name equipment or process that is your responsibility. 

D. Material or Product — Check the approximate value that you are respon- 

sible for. 

1. None 

2. Up to $25.00 

3. $26.00 to $250.00 

4. $251.00 to $1,000 

5. Over $1,000 

Please name material or product that is your responsibility. 



4. EFFORT 

A. What Portion of Your Time is Spent: 



Standing- 
Lifting 



.% Sitting- 



Walking- 



Climbini 
Other 



B. What Physical Requirements are Necessary for the Proper Perform- 
ance OF Your Duties — (Strength, height, dexterity, etc.)? 

5. WORKING CONDITIONS 

A. Please State Your Regular Working Hours 

B. Hazards — Check the ones that you are subject to. 

1. Machine hazard 

2. Acid fumes 

3. Heavy lifting 

4. Heat 

5. Wet 

6. Dust 

7. Nerve strain 

8. Eye strain 

9. Others 

6. WHERE DO YOU GET YOUR WORK? 



7. WHERE DOES IT GO; 



TO WHOM ARE YOU IMMEDIATELY RESPONSIBLE AND WHAT IS HIS 
POSITION? 



9. CAN YOU SUGGEST ANY IMPROVEMENTS WHICH CAN BE MADE IN 
PERFORMING YOUR WORK? 



Figure 44. (Concluded.) 



i 



JOB ANALYSIS 



147 



Several of these answers per job are then built into a single com- 
posite record acceptable to all concerned and summarized on the 
job specification form (Figure 45). A form to be filled out inde- 
pendently by three analysts is shown in Figure 53. 



JOB SPECIFICATION 



Job 

No. 



Job 

Title.. 

Duties. 



Rate per hour. 



Dept. 



Skill 



Responsibility 



Effort 



Working 
Conditions 



Education 
required 



Experience 
required 



Safety of others 



Work of others 



Kind of equipment 
or process 



Kind of material or 
product 

Other responsibili- 
ties 



Kinds: 
Standing 
Sitting _ 
Climbing 
Lifting _ 
Walking 
Bending 
Other _ 



Repetitive 
Intermitt. 
Varied 



Age — 
Height 
Weight 
Sex 



Place 
Type 

Surroundings 
Atmosphere 

Hazards 
Other 



Light thinking 
Average thinking 
Deep concentration 



Figure 45. Job Specification 

Some have made a distinction between the terms description and 
specification. We do not think this is important. When the distinc- 
lionjs made description refers to the recording of conditions, duties, 
etc., while specification refers to designation of qualifications needed 
for satisfactory performance of duties. 



148 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

A combined description-specification, but to be filled out by the 
interviewer, is shown in Figure 46a. This is essentially a check list 
on which there is some prose description so that there is none on 
the rating sheet. Figure 46b. Together they constitute a complete 
job specification. The same can be said for Figure 47 but it should 
allow for prose description to show certain aspects not otherwise 
provided for. 

JOB DESCBIPTION FORM 

Job Title — Gear Cutter 
1. EDUCATION OR TRADE KNOWLEDGE 

,' Read and write or follow verbal instructions. 

, Add and subtract whole numbers. 

. Multiply and divide. 
Fractions and decimals. 

J Handbook formulas. 
Advanced shop mathematics and trigonometry. 

J Read blueprints — Simple. 

" '" Fairly complicated. 

" " Very complicated. 

Education equivalent to two years of High School, 

J " " '■ four " 
" " ' one " " trades training. 

. " " •■ four " " " 
" " '" " " " technical university training. 

Trade Knowledge Necessary 
/ Some in a specialized field of process. 

Broad shop trade knowledge. 

Technical knowledge to deal with involved engineering problems. 

Gauges and Instruments Used 

J Scale Sine bar 

,' Caliper Plug. ring, snap gauge 

Depth gauge Thread plug gauge 

Dividers Gauge blocks 

Combination square Dial bore indicator 

J Feeler gauges Vernier protractor 

Surface gauge Indexing head 

Dial indicator Mechanical comparitor 

, Micrometer caliper Optical comparitor 

Vernier height gauge Brinell hardness tester 

Vernier micrometer caliper 



Figure 46a. A Special Checklist for Gathering Job Data for an 
N.M.T.A. Rating. 



i 



JOB ANALYSIS 149 

2. EXPERIENCE TO ATTAIN PRODUCTION AND QUALITY 

Up to three months. 

Over three months up to one year. 

y Over one year up to three years. 

Over three years up to five years. 

Over five years. 

3. INITIATIVE AND INGENUITY 

Must keep four gear shapers in operation at all times, each cutting a dif- 
ferent type of gear. Must change the setup for each machine on the average 
of once per day. 

Must keep in mind the capabilities of each machine in assigning work to 
machines. 

In changing the setup of the machine the operator must keep in mind the 
difference in machines since each gear shaper is a different model. 

4. PHYSICAL DEMAND 

Most gears are light (10 pounds) and can be easily lifted by hand. 

About 25 per cent of the work consists of heavy gears (up to 70 pounds). 
These gears must be lifted by hand since no crane is available. A helper is 
required on the heavy gears in lifting them to the machine. 

Requires constant moving in checking and loading each of four machines. 

5. MENTAL OR VISUAL DEMAND 

Must constantly refer to charts during setup, in order to get the correct 
gear train. 

Must check the first gear of each lot for the correct number of teeth after 
the first revolution of the table. Must check the correct over the pin size on 
the first and every tenth gear. 

6. RESPONSIBILITY FOR EQUIPMENT OR PROCESS 

Probable damage to equipment or process is negligible. 

" " " " is seldom over $25. 

y " " " " " " $250. 

" " " " " " $1000. 

Probable damage is exceedingly high, reaching several thousand dollars. 

7. RESPONSIBILITY FOR MATERIAL OR PRODUCT 

Probable loss due to damage or scrapping of materials or product is seldom 
over: 

$10 

$100 

y $250 

, $500 

very high, up to several thousand dollars. 

8. RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE SAFETY OF OTHERS 

Only reasonable care to own work necessary to prevent injury to others, 
and accidents, if they should occur, would be minor in nature, such as cuts, 
bruises, abrasions, etc. 

Figure 46a. {Continued) 



150 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

9. RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE WORK OF OTHERS 

y Responsible only for own work. 

Responsible for instructing and directing one or two helpers 50% or 

more of the time. 
Responsible for instructing and directing up to 10 persons. 

" " " 25 " 

" , " " over 25 " 



10. WORKING CONDITIONS 

What part of the day 

on the average up to: 

Some Much Half All 

Harmful fumes, gases, smoke, and odors. . 

Dirt, dust, and grease _^ J 

Oil 

Acids 

Harmful weather conditions — Outside .... 

Heat _l_ _l_ 

Cold 

Humid 

Drafts _,/_ ,' 

Water 

Noise 

Vibration 

Chips and shavings 

Special clothes. Goggles, Respirators 

Eye strain 

Illumination 

Excellent 

Fair v^ 

Poor 

Surroundings 

Crowded 

Orderly y 

11. HAZARDS 

Accident or health hazards negligible. 

y Accidents improbable, outside of minor injuries, such as abrasions, cuts. 

or bruises. Health hazards negligible. 
Exposure to lost-time accidents, such as crushed hand or foot, loss of 

fingers, eye injury from flying particles. Some exposure to occupational 

disease, not incapacitating in nature. 
Exposure to health hazards or incapacitating accident, such as loss of 

arm or leg. 

Exposure to accidents or occupational disease which may result in total 

disability or death. 



Figure 46a. {Concluded) 






JOB ANALYSIS 



151 



Job Title— GEAR CUTTER 







Degrees 




Factors 






Points 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


SKILL 














1. Education 






y 






42 


2. Experience 






y 






66 


3. Initiative and Ingenuity 






y 






42 


EFFORT 














4. Physical Demand 






y 






30 


5. Mental or Visual Demand 






y 






15 


RESPONSIBILITY 














6. Equipment or Process 






y 






15 


7. Material or Product 






y 






15 


8. Safety of Others 




y 








10 


9. Work of Others 


y 










5 


JOB CONDITIONS 














10. Working Conditions 




y 








20 


11. Unavoidable Hazards 




y 








10 


Labor Grade 6 


TOTAL 




270 



Figure 46b. Job Rating Sheet. (The National Metal Trades Association) 



152 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Writing the Official Description— Specification. Figure 47 is 
the form originally used by Kress and hence the pattern for all 
NEMA, N.M.T.A., and Cole Panel (airplane companies) applica- 
tions. In practice one whole page or more may be used for the 
prose description, but if so it must be abbreviated to be put on the 
Kress Job Rating Specification sheet. Figure 48 is an actual 
worker's preliminary description of his job made without assistance. 
It would be rewritten in less than 300 words by the analyst and still 
further abbreviated as already explained. Any data called for in 
the form and not provided by the prehminary description must be 
procured by the analyst from the supervisor and/or from other 
reliable sources. In the case of hourly paid jobs it is unlikely that 
there will be any misunderstanding of who supervises a job, but aU 
job descriptions must be reconciled with existing organizational 
understandings or vice versa, so the analyst must be sure where 
every job belongs, and where responsibilities start and stop. 

The existing job title may need simplifying and harmonizing with 
other titles, that is, it should be expressed in terms of the occupa- 
tional class of work within which it falls and should distinguish it 
from kindred job titles by the addition of a modifying adjective such 
as Assembler — Wire, Cable, and Hose, or so far as practicable by 
nothing more than the grade number, such as: Carpenter, 1 (NEMA 
and Cole start grade numbers from the top, N.M.T.A. from the bot- 
tom). Sometimes a series of occupational code numbers may be 
estabhshed which can be associated with all job titles and used on 
payroll records. This is particularly desirable where tabulating 
equipment is used. The new title and date of writing should head 
the official job description. 

Getting the description into satisfactory shape takes care and 
time. It may have to be rewritten three or four times. ^- NEMA 
suggests beginning with "Under direct supervision of. . . ." Then 
list basic duties. Begin each sentence after the first with a word 
which denotes action, such as: Prepare, Perform, or whatever active 
verb is most helpful in the elaboration of the basic duties already 
listed. Avoid inconsequential items that add nothing important and 
discard a description every time there is a minor change in job 
content. Avoid abstract phrases or any words you or the users do 
not understand. When the description really gives a thumbnail pic- 
ture of the job, and distinguishes it from jobs related to it. approval 

^- Jack Grady, "How to Write Good Job Descriptions," A.M. A. Management Re- 
view 6/1948, and NICB Studies in Personnel Policy No. 72 "Job Descriptions." 



JOB ANALYSIS 



153 



should be obtained from the supervisor, and eventually from the 
department head. Figures 49 and 50 give a fair representation of 
good description practice. Other examples, with job ratings added, 
will be shown in later chapters. 



Job Name 
Description 



JOB RATING SPECIFICATION 

Occ. No. 

Dept 

Class Grade 



Points. 



Factor 


Specifications 


Rating 


D 


Pts 


Education 








Experience 








Initiative and 
Ingenuity 










Physical Demand 








Mental or Visual 
Demand 








Responsibility for 
Damage to Equipment. 








Responsibility for 
Material or Product. . . 








Responsibility for 
Safety of Others 








Responsibility for 
Work of Others 








Working Conditions . . . 




1 
1 


Hazards 









Figure 47. NEMA Form for Final Writeup 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



FACTORY EVALUATION DATA 



.Date. 



AnalvsL 



I 
I 

154 

Job Title 

SKILL 

Determine training and experience necessary for an inexperienced employee 
to satisfactorily perform the job (assume employee has average intelligence, 
aptitude, and is afforded normal supervision). 

MENTALITY 

Determine level of mathematics used — why? 

Determine type and complexity of reference documents used (blueprints, wiring 
diagrams, sketches, DATs, etc.). 

Determine degree and type of technical knowledge required (Electricity, Chem- 
istry, Metallurgy, etc.). 

RESPONSIBILITY 

Average top loss including general overhead resulting from damage to items 
listed below for a single occurrence for which employee could be wholly 
responsible. 

Item Possible ($) Loss * Actual Experience 



Tools . . . . 

Machines . 
Equipment 
Material . . 
Product . . 



* Repair or replacement, whichever is least. 
MENTAL APPLICATION 

What portion of employees' assignments require mental application (consider 
intensity, frequency and continuity)? Is employee required to make machine 
setups or layouts, determine operational sequences, select materials, etc.? 

PHYSICAL APPLICATION 

What type and degree of physical exertion is required (lifting, pushing, walking, 
awkward working positions, etc.)? 

Explain Degree 
Type {i.e. lift over 25 lbs.) Frequency 



JOB CONDITIONS 

Disagreeable Element 



Intensity 



Frequency 



Does job require wearing of any protective devices: Yes □ No □ 
Explain if "Yes": 

UNAVOIDABLE HAZARDS 

Frequency of 
Type Accident Exposure Severity 



Frequency of 
Occurrence 



Figure Ala. Form for Gathering Evaluation Data. (The Lockheed 
Aircraft Corporation.) 



JOB ANALYSIS 155 



MAINTENANCE MECHANIC— HI-LO FORK TYPE 
ELETRIC LIFT TRUCKS 

Scope 

There are six trucks to maintain and the job covers four fields: 

L Battery upkeep and repair 

2. Electrical maintenance 

3. Hydraulic maintenance 

4. Mechanical maintenance. 

Battery Upkeep 

I have to service and charge the batteries. Add distilled water. See that I have 
proper solution points (gravity) per cell. I remove and replace defective elements. 
This means removing straps, cover, element. I check and replace worn separators. 
I solder lugs on, clean batteries. Once a month I equalize the battery charge. I 
have to maintain the charging equipment. There is a Hobart charger. I have to 
test it with a voltmeter, adjust contactor, replace brushes. If commutator is rough, 
I turn it down on a bench lathe. I undercut the mica; sand and clean the com- 
mutator and put it back in the motor. Also replace bearings. On the rectifier, I 
have to check charging rate, adjust it to taper off for proper charge level. 

Electrical Maintenance 

The biggest job is diagnosing and remedying trouble. Contactors in function box 
get worn; I have to clean, adjust, and replace them. If voltmeter shows trouble 
at the drive or lift motor, I check the commutator and do the same as on the 
Hobart charger commutator. I check the forward and reverse switches. The con- 
tacts get dirty or burned so I check the points, clean and replace them. 

Hydraulic System 

I have to service the hydraulic system. I replace fluid, repack valves and pump, 
replace broken lines, connections. I replace broken springs on the valve control 
and adjust the control to maintain flow of oil and pressure in lines. Also replace 
bearings and pump rotors on the hydraulic pump. This is all important. 

Mechanical 

I grease and oil them. Re-tire wheels pressing on the tires. Diagnose and remedy 
trouble with brakes, steering gear. On the brakes, there are two systems on dif- 
ferent make trucks. One is hydraulic. Here I check the valves, replace valve 
rubbers, clean and flush lines, add fluid; also bleed the lines and adjust brakes to 
1/1g"- I have to remove and re-face the clutch sometimes. On the other type of 
brakes, I replace the brake linings and clutch facings. Also adjust pedals, steering 
system for alignment. All this keeps me busy. 



Figure 48. Preliminary Description Submitted by One Worker 



V 



156 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



Labor Grade 3 Code 8452 

INSPECTOR— FLOOR— MFG. 
INS-F-MFG 

Job Description 

Perform inspection checks on all operations on any part manufactured in 
department. Is responsible for the inspection of first piece produced on each 
new setup and also for first piece made by each operator at the beginning of 
the shift. 

' Inspect part visually for finish,' mutilation, burns, etc. Check the operation 
for detailed dimensions such as diameters, radii, thread, and concentricity. 
Read a variety of blueprints, operation sheets, service, and blue orders to get 
dimensional limits and tolerances. Must know effect of substandard opera- 
tion on a later operation. 

Use various standard and special gauges in checking operations, such as 
inside and outside micrometers, verniers, plug and snap gauges, thread gauges. 
and indicating gauges. For inspection of parts without complete tooling, set 
up work on surface plate, between centers, or on Vee blocks. Use verniers, 
height gauges, and protractors for checking the operation. Use ingenuity in 
devising proper setup for checking such parts. 

Do some paper work such as signing operator's job card, if operation is O.K.; 
handling service and blue orders, making out salvage and rework tickets. 
Work with minimum supervision. 

Check blueprints for engineering changes and see that any special gauges used 
conform with new specifications. Check special gauges for tool inspection 
stamp which certifies their accuracy. 

1 . Education 

Use advanced shop mathematics. Read complicated drawings and have 
knowledge of machine shop methods. Use a wide variety of precision meas- 
uring instruments. 

2. Learning Period 

Approximately 4 years on varied inspection work. Inspect operations per- 
formed on all types of machines. 

3. Initiative and Ingenuity 

Plan and perform a series of diversified inspection operations on the machine 
shop floor. Usually has standard inspection procedures and tooling, but occa- 
sionally use considerable judgment to improvise inspection methods on special 
parts. Decide whether to allow off-size part to remain in production or send 
to salvage. Occasionally do layout work for checking purposes. Work with 
minimum supervision. 



Figure 49. Example from Cole Application. (Wright Aeronautical Corpora- 
tion.) 



JOB ANALYSIS 157 

! 
4. Phy.sical Demand | 

Light physical effort handling average weight material and parts. Almost con- 
,- tinuous walking from machine to machine. 

^ Mental and Visual Demand ' ' '^ 

Concentrate mental and visual attention closely inspecting, laying out parts, 
and studying blueprints. 

6. Resp. for Equipment or Process 

Careless handling of gauges and precision measuring instruments may cause 
damage. Seldom exceeds $25. 

7. Resp. for Material or Product 

Errors in inspection or poor judgment in passing parts may necessitate scrap- 
ping or reworking a large number of pieces. Seldom exceeds $800. 

1^ Resp. for Safety of Others 

Little responsibility for the safety of others. 

9. Resp. for Work of Others Q /} - ' ^ 

Occasionally assist or instruc-t others. / ^ ^ ^ (/ r[i r' 

10. Working Conditions 

Good. Walk around machines and handle parts which are somewhat oily. 

'11. Unavoidable Hazards 



May crush hands or feet handling parts. 



feV 



Figure 49. (Concluded.) 



158 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Labor Grade 10 Code 8512 

JANITOR 

JAN 

— Job Description — 

Perform any or all of the following jobs, as assigned: 

Sweep, mop, dump refuse in barrels, move and replace 
furniture and equipment, dust and clean working areas. 



1 — Education 

Read, write, and follow simple direct instructions. 

2 — Learning Period 

Approximately 1 month to learn duties. 

3 — Initiative and Ingenuity 

Repetitive work. Work from simple instructions in sweeping, mopping, 
dusting, moving and replacing furniture or equipment. Work with 
occasional supervision. 

4 — Physical Demand 

Sustained physical effort sweeping, mopping, and moving furniture and 
equipment. Usually work with brooms, mops and shovels. 

5 — Mental and Visual Demand 

Frequent visual and some mental attention to maintain clean conditions 
in area assigned. 

6 — Resp. for Equipment or Process 
Negligible. 

7 — Resp. for Material or Product 

Negligible. 

8 — Resp. for Safety of Others 

Reasonable care in the use of broom and mop and in the placing of 
pails and equipment required to prevent injury to others. 

9 — Resp. for Work of Others 

Responsible only for own work. 

10 — Working Conditions 

Somewhat disagreeable. Some exposure to dirt, heat, water, oil, dust, 
noise, etc. 

11 — Unavoidable Hazards 

Slips and falls on oily floors, or falls from ladders. 

Figure 50. Example from Cole Application. (Wright Aeronautical Corpora- 
tion.) 



JOB ANALYSIS 159 

Job Description by Code Letters. Some of the most conscien- 
tious job analysis is done by finding the degree definitions which fit 
the conditions of a job and then recording the identification by 
means of code letters. The purpose of this is to make sure that all 
pertinent questions will be answered and that the degree definitions 
will be carefully applied at the source without any influence from 
point weightings. The latter are tabulated separately and kept out 
of reach of the interviewers. Later the code letters, which have been 
recorded on a standard work sheet (Figure 51) by way of job de- 
scription, are located in the tables and the corresponding weight 
combinations are entered on the job specification for adding. Gen- 
eral Motors' instructions for using this kind of form are as follows : 

The value and accuracy of this analysis are dependent on the care exercised 
in evaluating the various factors. Differences of opinion and judgment will 
practically disappear if reasonably intelligent and thorough consideration is 
given to each item. 

1 . Enter at the top of the third column of the center page any remarks 
or special notes that will help to indicate just what this job is. 

2. Enter the code letter for the chosen degree of each job factor in the 
space marked "Code" on the center sheet. 

3. Enter, in the space immediately below, your comments on what you 
found in observing or considering the job that caused you to select 
the code letter you have just entered. Keep in mind that these com- 
ments collectively form a sort of job description and should tell the 
story of the job. 

4. At the foot of each column, enter after the word "Code" all the 
code letters appearing in the column above, as "JDRY." There 
should be 14 code letters. 

5. Points should be entered from the point charts only after the first 
rating and the review have been made. 

The degree definitions with their code letters, ^^ also the tables of 
weights, are given for the characteristics Knowledge and Responsi- 
bility, Chapter 6, Figures 31 and 32. We have a high regard for the 
managements which have adopted this procedure but we still doubt 
the necessity of using such fine scales and of the consequent large 
number of total points. The ratio between the lowest worth and 
highest worth is also very high. 

Putting Measuring Scales in Hands of Operatives. Complete 
inclusion of all measuring scales in the questionnaire which goes to 
employees seems to violate Principle I for design of forms but in 
exceeding limits there it narrows the limits elsewhere and in effect 

^^ In practice these as well as the instructions are attached to each work sheet. 



160 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 













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162 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

gets compensations which are claimed to be net gains. By way of 
analogy it is a change from full table service to complete automat. 
The service in this case is the work of the job analysts; their judg- 
ment is needed only in allotting weights to the degrees in general. 
For any specific job the degrees are indicated by the employees on 
the blanks. Of course the variations between employee recordings 
must be adjusted. This is done by the committee on a summary 
sheet (Figure 52), which is much like the original questionnaire. 
There are seven major headings, most of which have several sub- 
divisions and most of those are given predetermined degree defini- 
tions. Users of this procedure are enthusiastic for it. Besides the 
elimination of much judging on the part of the management the 
users claim that the questionnaire can be tailor-fitted to special con- 
ditions and thereby meet all needs better than any other procedure. 
By the way, this tailoring may be aided by the shop stewards as well 
as by the foremen so that all sources of job knowledge can be 
brought to bear on the plan before it is frozen. Actually the tailor- 
ing is a matter of detail rather than alteration of the major char- 
acteristics. The allocation of weights need not be done in advance 
of recording, but while the employees are working out their record- 
ings. The trouble with this procedure is that the fine subdivisions 
obscure overlaps and necessitate overlarge point totals. 

Instructions to Employees. A paragraph on each characteristic, 
to guide employee judgment as to degrees, is sent along with the 
questionnaire, also a word of encouragement which might be termed 
an apology for the lengthy procedure. The employee is not given 
the general weightings until after he has made the recording. 



Although the questionnaire is long, it is not difficult to fill out. Most of the 
questions can be answered by just marking "yes" or "no" or by checking. If 
a question does not apply to your job, answer "no" or "none." If there is any 
doubt in your mind about how to answer, or if you do not understand the 
questions, ask your Steward to help you. The success of the whole plan 
depends upon the way the questionnaires are answered. Be frank, be honest, 
and do not exaggerate. 

Keep the questionnaire for a day or two. Consider your answers carefully. 
If you like, seal your questionnaire in the envelope or hand it in as it is. The 
important thing is to return it. Give your filled-out questionnaire to your 
Steward. He will turn it in to the Evaluation Committee. The questionnaires 
are going to be checked by the Committee to assure the correctness and 
accuracy of the information given. 

Please give us your fullest cooperation — this is your plan — you are helping 
to build it. 

The Evaluation Committee 



JOB ANALYSIS 



163 



JOB EVALUATION SUMMARY SHEET 



Date 

Job Title 

Job No Department., 

Job Description: 



Factors 

I Working Conditions 

II Responsibility 

III Leadership 

IV Physical Effort 

V Mental and Visual Effort 

VI Knowledge and Experience. 

VII Manual Skill 



Job Class. 



Evaluated Points 



Total. 
Job Rate. 



Figure 52. Job Evaluation Summary Sheet. (The M. W. Kellogg Company.) 



164 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



A. Is this job injurious or uncomfortable in comparison with other jobs in this plant, 
and to what extent? 



1. Harmful Fumes and Gases, Smoke and 
Odors 

2. Dirt, Dust and Grease 

3. Oil 

4. Acids 

5. Harmful Weather Conditions— Outside 

6. Heat 

7. Eye Strain 

8. Water 

9. Special Clothes, Goggles, Respirators.... 

10. Chips and Shavings. 

1 1 . Noise 

1 2. Drafts _ 

1 3. Vibration 



Vfhit Part ot tbc Day 
Ob dw Avenge Up to 

'A Afl 

D D . 



□ a 



□ 



I. B. What is the probability of the following accidents occurring on this job? 

Slight Average Average 



1. Minor Cuts, Burns or Bruises, etc 

2. Eye Injuries, Severe Strains or Burns, etc. 

3. Amputations and Permanent Disabilities.... 

4. Fatalities 



I. C. Can the following personal property, not supplied by the company, be spoiled or 
worn out on this job and to what extent? 

Yearly Value ol 

Clothing, Shoes and Tools 



Tout I C 

Total I Working ConJilioas .. 



□ 

)oiled or 

n 



II. A. What degree of responsibility is required on this job in connection with 

foltnu/ino? 



the 



following 



1. Hand Tools 

2. Jigs and Fixtures 

3. Equipment or Machines 

4. Product or Material 

5. Clerical Detail or Records. 



a 



Total n A _ I I 

II. B. How many other persons are simultaneously exposed to probable injury because 
of the nature of this job. and to what degree? 



1. Minor Cuts, Burns or Bruises, etc 

2. Eye Injuries, Severe Strains or Burns, etc. 

3. Amputations and Permanent Disabilities.. 

4. Fatalities 



Total n B 

Total n Responsibility .. 

III. A. How many employees are supervised on this job? 

t'3 4-10 11-20 21-30 

D D D D 



III. B. Is the nature of work supervised: 



Routine or repetitious- 
Variable 

Complicated 



Total m A ..._ 

Part Time 



Persons 
4-10 

□ 



31 and over 



□ 



□ 



CJ 



Figure 52. (Continued.) 



JOB ANALYSIS 



165 



III. C. Are any of the following functions a regular part of this job? 

Rart Tim* Full Timt 



1. Teach employees their jobs? 

2. Select the operator for the iob? 

3. Decide which job is to be done next? 

4. Decide the method and machines to be used? «, Q 



Total m c 

Total m Leadtrship.. 



□ 



IV A. Is this job performed in the following manner? 



1. Sitting 

2. Standing 

3. Awkward Position 

4. Mostly Walking .... 



What Part ol the Day - 0«i the Average 
Up to J4 J^ % AU 



D 



□ 



IV. B. Does this job require: 



1. Light Physical Effort Q 

2. Average Physical Effort □ 

3. Heavy Physical Effort □ 

4. Extra Heavy Physical Effort □ 



What Part of the Day - On the Average 
Ut> to >A 'A J4 All 

□ D 



Total IV B 

Total IV Physical Effort. 



V A. Does this job require: 



1. Following written or verbal orders.. 

2. Performing routine operations 

3. Performing clerical duties 

4. Analyzing variable problems 

5. Analyzing complex problems 



What Part of the Day - On the Average 
Up to "^ 'A 'A All 



B 



Total V A 

V. B. In which of the following ways are the eyes used on this job? 

What Part of the Day • On the Average 
Up to ^i H 'A All 

1. Ordinary use, walking, etc D D D 

2. To position pieces in machinery, jigs, etc O IZl CH 

3. Keeping records and reading blueprints IZl [D CD 

4. For ordinary inspection, etc D EH CH 

5. For very close inspection requiring the use of 

precision instruments Q D Q 



□ 



Total V B 

Total V Menial 



Visual Effo rt.. 

VI. A. How much schooling or self-training is required for this job? 

1. Read and write or follow verbal instructions 

2. Add, subtract, multiply and divide 

3. Use fractions and decimals and read ordinary blueprints 

4. Repair machinery or parts 

5. Do complicated shop mathematics and read complex bluprints 

6. Do tool and die work 



□ 



VI. B. How many months or years of shop training and experience are required to do 
this job? 



Months Years.. 



Figure 52. (Continued.) 



166 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



VI. C. What type of decision is necessary on this job and how frequently? 

Very 
Seldom Often Ohen 



Simple— Repetitive operations, methods worked out by 

others D D 

Routine — Repetitive operations, with some variations like 

changes in speed, temperature, etc □ □ 

Variable— Considerable variations in method required be- 
cause only general instructions can be given.... □ □ 

Complex — ■ Considerable variations, not previously 

worked out □ □ 



Total VI Knowledge 6 Experience. . 



VII. A. What degree of coordination of hands and eyes does this job require to obtain 
normal production? 



Some 

D 



Average 

D 



Above 
Average 

D 

Total Vn A ... 



High 

D 



n 



VII. B. What accuracy is required on this job? 



Approximate 

D 



Close 

D 



Very Close 

D 



Exact 

D 



Are jigs, gages, fixtures or machine stops used to obtain accuracy? 

No Yes 

D D 



Total vn B 



VII. C. 1. Does this job require the use of more than one type of machine tool? 

Sometimes Often Very Often 

D D D 



2. Does this job regularly require doing different types of operations? 

imetin 

D 



Often 

D 



Very Often 

D 



3. Does this job require: 

Sometimes Often Very Often 

Routine set-up or layout Q □ O -• 

Complicated set-up or layout □ [2 □ .. 

Grinding of tools □ O [H - 



Total vn C ., ....^. 

Total vn Manual Sldll.. 



Figure 52. (Concluded.) 



JOB ANALYSIS 167 

A Combination Procedure. Listing three ways of gathering data 
for a job description-specification, that is, analyst-supervisor con- 
ference, analyst interview, and employee questionnaire, the Clerical 
Salary Study Committee of the Life Office Management Associa- 
tion ^^ gave a thorough discussion of the advantages and disad- 
vantages of each procedure and then described an example of a 
combination of the three procedures developed by an anonymous 
company as follows: 

1. The employee fills out a two-section form, the first section cov- 
ering the job description, the second section the job specifica- 
tion.^^ 

2. The supervisor fills out only the job specification form. This 
limitation of his contribution acknowledges his inability to know 
in detail the work of all of the employees under him. 

3. The employee description and specification form and the super- 
visor's specification form are returned directly to the Personnel 
Department where they receive careful study by the job analyst 
assigned to that particular department. 

4. The job analyst supplements the information obtained on the 
two forms by an analyst interview. Having the previous knowl- 
edge of the job obtained from the employee description and 
specification and the supervisor's specification he is able to 
proceed much more rapidly toward a well-rounded description 
of the job. 

5. The job description written by the analyst after the analyst in- 
terview is referred to the employee for his acceptance. 

6. The approved job description is then referred by the job analyst 
to the supervisor. Such revisions as the latter thinks necessary 
are made and he then indicates his approval by signing the 
description. 

It will be seen that this combined method maintains the advan- 
tages claimed for the employee questionnaire and adds to it most of 
the advantages of the analyst interview. However, because of the 
number of original forms, this method does require more writing 
to develop a finished description than does the plain analyst inter- 
view. 

Description by Means of Standard Data. Most large companies 
make some use of standard data in determining tasks for new or 



^* Report No. 1, September 1, 1938. 
^^ We do not recognize this distinction. 



168 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

altered jobs. Perhaps many job descriptions will eventually be built 
up by the same means. Such procedure has not yet seemed feasible 
to most of us because this project is only in its "teens" and also be- 
cause the "basic elements" are considerably less definite than those 
coming from good time study. Nevertheless a tryout was made.^^ 
The Edo Aircraft Corporation made descriptions of all basic units 
rather than of complete jobs. Each of these is termed a "basic oper- 
ation evaluation study" and is recorded on Form A. They are then 
classified and all of a class are listed on a "schedule of basic job ' 
operations by class." This Form B carries a code number for each 
basic operation, shows the degree for each of eleven minor charac- 
teristics, and in the last column gives the labor grade. The term 
class here means the kind of operations, such as preparation, cutting, 
forming, drilling, fitting, fastening, etc. Form C is another "schedule 
of basic/operations by labor grade." There are twelve labor grades 
and sequences within each grade, the latter being identified by a 
second number. For instance 10-63 means labor grade 10, sequence 
No. 63. Point values are included on this form, also class symbols. 
Form D, "departmental check list" collects all the operations for 
each department. Form E, "work sheet," is used to build up a total 
job value from the basic data and Form F is a "worker classification 
notice." 

This job evaluation system was designed, studied, and installed at 
Edo before the war as Mr. Bostwick's answer to the special prob- 
lems encountered there. With the advent of the preparedness pro- 
gram, however, rather than go through the long drawn out official 
sanctioning process for getting such a program approved for the 
huge flow of government work, Edo installed the government- 
recommended Cole plan. It is regrettable that Mr. Bostwick's plan 
did not function through such a good proving period as the war 
years offered. It would have presented the best of opportunities for 
testing the principles involved in the system. The normal conditions 
of production may in the future again suggest use of this kind of 
plan. 

Practice in Writing Job Descriptions. The following data on 
two jobs have been used by NEMA to provide new analysts prac- 
tice in writing up a job. Through the courtesy of Dr. John Donald 
we now offer them to users of this text. They will be most valuable 
to graduate classes. 

^® Stanley E. Bostwick, "The Principle of Basic Element Standards Applied to 
Job Evaluation," Advanced Management, IX, No. 2. 



JOB ANALYSIS 169 



I. PAINTER-SPRAYER 

In the manufacture of electric ranges, hot water heaters, washing machines, 
one of the important operations from a quality control standpoint is the spray 
painting of the outside parts with white baking enamel. This is usually done on 
a moving conveyor in a "water wash booth." The fumes and spray from the 
paint are "caught" by the water wash. 
Here are notes made by a job analyst. 

1. Spray paint prime and finish coat on outer jackets with white enamel. 

2. Revolve part on conveyor hanger. Move spray gun up and down to 
apply evenly. 

3. Blow off or wipe surfaces to remove dirt or foreign matter before 
painting. 

4. Dismantle and clean gun; see it is kept clean; adjust air regulator to 
control spray. 

5. Mix paint; add solvents to keep required consistency. 

Following preparatory and cleanup work is required. 

1. Clean out water wash booth at end of shift. 

2. Put in clean screen, remove screen and put accumulated paint in barrel. 

3. Drain system; clean out all excess paint and refill with water. 

4. Strip protective lining from booth once a week; apply grease and paper 
to top, sides, and floor of booth. 

5. Start and stop conveyor, fans, water circulatory pump. 

6. Keep work area clean and orderly. 



Write a job description for this job. 



II. TESTER, A.C. DIESEL GENERATOR UNITS 

This company makes internal combustion engines. One of the departments 

assembles 4, 6, and 8 cylinder gas and diesel engines to generator units to make 

up a "power plant." 

You are asked to write up a job description to cover the job of Tester, with 

the above title. The job involves final test and check to assure conformity with 

specifications prior to shipment. 

You decide to ask the Engineering Department for a copy of the test procedure 

to save your time. In this way you do not need to observe every step in the 

testing. You are given the attached test specification. 



Write up a job description of 250 to 350 words. The Tester has 
to read voltmeters, ammeters, wattmeters, frequency meters, current 
and potential transformers. He keeps log sheets. 



170 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



Test Specifications — OG-183. 

GENERAL TEST PROCEDURE FOR A.C. DIESEL 
GENERATOR SETS 

ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT may modify these test requirements on certain 
units to check performance and conformity to customers' requirements and 
specifications. 

1. Fill cooling system and check for leaks. When required, connect external 
cooling system and provide thermometers in outlet and inlet. 

2. Fill crank case with URSA Two Star SAE 30 Lub. Oil. Lubricate fuel pump 
and governor with the same grade Lub. Oil. Lubricate charging generator and 
starter and other engine accessories with a proper grade lubricant. 

Do not depend upon any bearing being previously lubricated; check each point 
and be sure before starting the engine. 

3. See that the main generator is lubricated in accordance with instructions 
supplied by the manufacturer. 

See that the exciter brushes are in good condition and well seated. The pig-tails 
should be free from interference and firmly fastened to their relative connections. 
Check the connections to the brush holders; see that they are firmly fastened. 
Check the air gap in the alternator and exciter and see that no foreign matter 
exists, such as fiber blocking strips, nuts, bolts, washers, or any material that could 
damage rotating parts. See that the rotating parts do not touch any wiring, studs, 
covers, or brush holders. See that the commutators and slip rings are clean, 

4. Connect the fuel system to the floor connections. All engines will be required 
to run their log time lifting the fuel from below the floor level. 

5. Connect the generator to a load suitable to give Buda name plate full load 
rating, plus %, V2, %, and % loads. Provide volt meters, amp meters, watt meter, 
frequency meter, current transformer, and when necessary, potential transformers. 

The voltage leads shall be connected directly to the generator terminals and not 
at the end of the load cables. 

List on the back of the log sheet the style and serial number of instruments used, 
also the ratio and multipliers used, 

6. Connect batteries with correct number of cells for the charging and starting 
system. Start the engine and warm up. 

After determining that the unit is functioning properly, check the phase rotation 
on poly phase machines with a suitably calibrated instrument. If not standard 
rotation, change lead markings on the generator, change switchboard leads if the 
unit has paralleling requirements, Mark on log sheet that phase rotation has been 
checked and correct, and if change in load markings has been necessary, 

7. Apply full-rated load at the rated voltage and speed; check the switchboard 
instruments against the portable standards. Make sure the standard instruments 
are in the same phase circuit as the panel instruments. The switchboard instru- 
ments shall be accurate within 3% of their full scale markings at the point of the 
rated load and voltage. They shall be accurately set on zero when not in opera- 
tion. Check the various switches and switchboard equipment and see that they are 
functioning properly. With the governor set at rated speed full load, the no load 
speed shall be within plus 5% of the rated full load speed. The governor shall be 
stable within ,5 cycles and no periodic surge at any speed from no load to 25% 
overload. The smoke stop shall be set to enable the engine to carry 25% overload 
and not more than 30% overload. 

Have the inspector check the appearance of the exhaust and record O.K. on log 
sheet. 



JOB ANALYSIS 171 

8. Have the inspector sign the start of the log. Record for two hours on standard 
log sheet at 15-minute readings; standard meter readings, multipliers, calculated 
readings, and switchboard meter readings. Record volts, amps, KW, PF, frequency, 
engine temperature, oil pressure, charging amps, room temperature, and, where 
applicable, oil temperature, top radiator temperature, and inlet and outlet of cool- 
ing water of separately cooled units. 

At the end of the full load run check the ceihng voltage of the generator at full 
Buda name plate rated load in KW and PF. The generator shall be capable of at 
least 10% over voltage under these conditions. Record on log sheet ceiling voltage, 
KW, PF, and speed of this test. 

The regulation test will now be made recording volts, amps, KW, and speed at 
zero %, ^2, '^/■i, Va:, and •% loads. The full load shall be accurate within plus or minus 
3% in KW and PF. The other loads other than full load may vary plus or minus 
5% of the full load rating in their percentage of load, but attempt to keep uniform 
PF. 

After the regulation test, run the unit at 25% overload for 30 minutes, recording 
the proper data at 15-minute intervals. 

9. All safety equipment supplied with the unit shall be tested under operating 
conditions. Adjust safety equipment to normal safety settings and record settings 
on log sheet. 

10. Correct any leaks, make minor repairs, seal governor. Have the inspector 
check the log sheet and the unit. Have the inspector check for the nonexistence 
of any water in the Lub. oil or excessive oil in the cooling water. 

11. Have the inspector's signature on the log. Flush the engine in accordance 
with the specification listed on the B.M. Upon completion of the flushing, the 
inspector will put a test O.K. tag on the unit. It may then be disconnected and 
removed from the test floor. 



8 



RATING THE JOBS 



It is clear that the extent to which each item or factor contributes 
to the total cannot be determined by inspection of the scale alone 
and that the end result may yield results different from those 
intended by the makers of the scale. 

— C. H. Lawshe 

Rating Cannot Rise Above Preparation. It should be obvious 
from the previous chapters that when a framework of values for job 
characteristics is set, be it in the form of a ladder scale or in the 
form of degree definitions, what remains to be done in rating is 
largely a matter of identifying the subdivisions of job content and 
applying to each subdivision the corresponding value from the scale. 
This, of course, explains labor's anxiety about job content, but it 
should also remind management that erroneous rating can be caused 
either by unreliable descriptions of content or by inappropriate scale 
values. Of these two determinates the matter of job content is likely 
to be the more important, partly because content is expressed in 
words which can fail for many reasons, and partly because even a 
poor scale will at least show consistent variations in relative worths. 
So we give a last warning to those who set the scales and to those 
who write the subdivisions of job content. Management is respon- 
sible here for what follows in the way of good or bad rating and its 
consequences. 

Training Is Very Important. The full time analysts usually do 
most of the original rating and the chief analyst must, therefore, 
provide such training and practice for them that they can in due time 
be trusted to do as intelligent and conscientious rating as he himself 
would do. But this is not enough. All members of the job evaluat- 
ing committees and any department heads, supervisors, and other 
personnel who are likely to be asked about job content should even- 
tually be coached as to the pitfalls in subdividing content and rating 
the subdivisions against the various scales. Much of this coaching 

172 



RATING THE JOBS 173 

may have to be done individually but time can be saved by produc- 
ing a clarifying manual and discussing it with small groups. What- 
ever explaining is necessary should be done one step at a time, and 
in short sessions. When the time comes for the rating every one 
should be asked to rate a series of jobs with which he is familiar. 
This can be made interesting by assigning several identical key jobs 
common to all so that comparison of the ratings will be possible. The 
old practice of having each one rerate the same jobs after a lapse of 
several days is disillusioning. The beginners are sure to disagree 
with one another on the key jobs and probably with themselves on 
the repeated trials. That is discouraging at first but discussion 
should soon show up the directions of error, teach the need for real 
objectivity, and impress all with the necessity of pooling judgment. 
Of course, this practice will help in the matter of describing and 
subdividing content as much as or more than in the rating. The 
former, as we have implied, is of primary importance. Don't hurry 
through this practice period. It should begin as soon as the scales 
and forms have been set, if not before, and continue until all con- 
cerned have learned to distinguish the degrees without hesitation, 
and until objectivity becomes habitual. 

Precautions Needed in Any Type of Plan. Under the Weighted- 
in-Money method (Factor Comparison) the greatest danger is that 
the raters will cling too much to the present money rates. For the 
trial rating of select specimen jobs this may be desirable, that is, 
while determining the scales, but it is not permissible thereafter for 
any jobs. Explain that if unreliable values are retained job evalua- 
tion might as well be dispensed with. Under the Weighted-in-Points 
methods — no separation of universal requirements — the greatest 
danger is that the raters will get careless, will think they know the 
degree distinctions when they do not, and thereby drift farther and 
farther away from the correct scales. The only way to head that off 
is to remind the raters of their responsibility. Remind them that such 
looseness will take money from one job and put it on another, which 
amounts to taking cash out of one man's pocket and putting it in 
another's. In short, insist on conscientious adherence to the scales 
and, by close checking at first, random checking ever after, enforce 
meticulous rating. 

The Lockheed Aircraft Corporation organizes its raters in squads 
of three. After each of these has rated a set of jobs independently, 
the three then discuss and compare, characteristic by characteristic, 
so that the final rating is the result of pooled judgment and that is 
reached before memory of job content can lapse (see Figure 53). 



Q 



no c 

O 
H 
U 

;£ 

o 

H 

< 

> 



60 

Q 



60 



>. 

m 



o 
.ti a, 
:5 < 



o "^ 



o -t: ^ 



pj; 



^ o 



60 

3 



U o 

53 

K 1= 

H 5- 

o 

O .'=. 

S< 

i-l 
O 

o 

ci 

o 



I 



174 



RATING THE JOBS 175 

In the case of a multiple duty job the degrees should be deter- 
mined by the highest requirements included even if such portions 
of the job are not in effect much of the time. 

Explanation of Weighted-in-Money Rating. In Chapter 3 we 
have described the Benge method of rating key jobs and from those 
ratings building the ladder scales. The rating of other jobs is essen- 
tially a matter of interpolating the characteristics of the given job 
within those that have been located on the ladder scales. 

Prior to the actual evaluating the analysts reread the job descrip- 
tions of all the original and supplementary key jobs as a general 
refresher. Then each analyst evaluates all the remaining jobs; he 
starts with those jobs for which he prepared the job descriptions 
because of his greater famiharity with them. In either case, he 
arranges the group of job descriptions in a rough sequence with 
those of lowest possible grade on top. Taking one job description 
at a time, the analyst compares each characteristic of the job with 
the corresponding scale. In this comparison account is taken not 
only of the characteristic itself but also of the intensity with which 
it applies. By intensity is meant the proportion of the total time 
during which the abihty or endurance must be used on the job. 

After the comparison is computed the standard step, established 
in accordance with the preferred number series, which seems most 
correct for the job being evaluated is selected. This value, or step 
in the scale, is then recorded both on the job description itself and 
on a "Cross Index Form." The "Cross Index Form" lists on one 
card all those jobs having the same value for a particular character- 
istic and is used as a reference in further evaluation. This procedure 
is followed for each of the five characteristics for one job before 
proceeding to the next job. 

After all the remaining jobs are evaluated by each of the analysts 
the results are compared and correlated. If the five individual rat- 
ings for any job characteristic fall within three successive steps in 
the corresponding scale then the five ratings are averaged out. This 
average value when rounded off to the nearest standard step is taken 
as the final judgment of the analysts. Those job characteristic values 
faUing beyond three successive steps in the corresponding scale are 
discussed and then revalued. If after the third evaluation there is 
still discord, the analysts refer back to the job description and make 
whatever changes may be necessary to reconcile the differences of 
opinion. When all the jobs have been so evaluated the executive 
committee is obliged to review each of the job characteristic lists 
agreed upon by the analysts. After the executive committee has 



176 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



approved each of these hsts the five values are added to get the final 
total value for any one job.^ 

Examples of Kress Type Job Rating. Examples of rating taken 
from one case should not be applied to any other case, so we caution 
the users of this book and the users of other wage and salary liter- 
ature to study such examples, but not to accept them as correct for 
their own jobs. The nine we present next come from NEMA, except 
that of "Burrer-Bench," which comes from the Wright Aeronautical 
Corporation, where the Cole form of the same plan is used. These 
nine jobs fall into consecutive grades Nos. 2 to 10. The description 
subdivisions are definite and easily identified with the predetermined 
degree definitions given in Chapter 6. We suggest that the numerals 
representing degrees and points be covered or folded out of sight 
when using Figures 54 to 62 for training. 

JOB RATING SPECIFICATION 

(Hourly Rated Jobs) 



Job Title: 



MACHINIST (MAINTENANCE) 



GRADE 2 
POINTS 340 



Job Description: 

Plan and perform all operations necessary to the construction, repair, and main- 
tenance of important and expensive standard and special machinery and equip- 
ment. Must be able to diagnose and correct difficult mechanical trouble. Invoh es 
accurate fitting and aligning. Work from complicated drawings, sketches, and 
samples, or where design information is incomplete. 



Factor 


Specification 


Evaluation 


Deg. Pts. 


Education 
Experience 


Requires trades training such as Machinist. In- 
terprets complex machine drawings and makes 
calculations, using advanced shop mathematics. 

In addition to trades training, satisfactory per- 
formance can be attained after a period of 3 to 
4 years consisting of experience on lower graded 
work as a machinist and training on this job. 


4 
4 


56 

88 



^ For further details of rating under this type of plan see E. N. Hay, "Tech- 
niques of Securing Agreement in Job Evaluating Committees," Personnel, XXVI. 
No. 4. 

Figure 54. Example of NEMA Rating 



RATING THE JOBS 



177 



Factor 



Initiative and 
Ingenuity 



Physical Demand 



Mental and/or 
Visual Demand- 



Responsibility 
for Equipment 
or Process 



Responsibility 
for Material 
or Product 



Responsibility 
for Safety 
of Others 

Responsibility 
for Work of 
Others 

Working 
Conditions 



Hazards 



Specification 



Uses high degree of judgment in diagnosing 
machine difficulties on complicated equipment 
and takes corrective action on own initiative. 
Handles unusual or very difficult jobs on a wide 
variety of shop machinery requiring considerable 
ingenuity. 

Occasionally handles heavy machine parts and 
motors; however considerable time is spent 
planning operations and directing helpers and 
co-workers in performing the physical work. 

A high degree of concentrated mental and visual 
attention is necessary to determine cause of ma- 
chine trouble and plan course of action in mak- 
ing repairs. 

Uses tools such as portable drills, machines such 
as grinders, and instruments such as micrometers. 
Damage to equipment will normally range be- 
tween $5.00 and $20.00 for any one loss because 
of carelessness. 

Makes repairs and instructs others in making 
repairs to expensive machines. Carelessness re- 
sulting in damage to equipment and tieup of 
production may cause losses from $250.00 to 
$350.00 but seldom over. 

Care required in properly fastening, tightening, 
and balancing revolving machine parts, and in- 
stalling guards securely to insure safety of 
others and prevent lost-time accidents. 

Responsible for instructing and directing help- 
ers and co-workers who may be assigned to work 
with Machinist. 

Maintenance and repair work on machine shop 
equipment and machines involves dirty, oily, or 
noisy conditions that are somewhat disagreeable 

Exposed to lost-time accidents, such as eye in- 
jury, severe abrasions of hand, loss of fingers 
and hernia from awkward lifting, while making 
repairs to, trying out, or operating machines. 



Evaluation 



Deg. Pts. 



56 



20 



20 



10 



20 



15 



10 



30 



15 



Figure 54. {Concluded.) 



178 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



Job Title: 



JOB RATING SPECIFICATION 

(Hourly Rated Jobs) 

TOOL, DIE, OR GAUGE MAKER 



GRADE 3 
POINTS 330 



Job Description: 

Plan and perform all bench and required machine operations, including experi- 
mental work, to construct, alter, or repair tools, jigs, fixtures, dies, molds, and 
gauges, involving ordinary skill and knowledge. Generally of average design and 
construction such as box or stand type drill jigs, milling fixtures, single and com- 
bination perforating and blanking dies, the simpler types of die casting or molding 
dies and average location gauges or profile gauges, etc. 




Education 



Experience 



Initiative and 
Ingenuity 



Physical 
Demand 



Mental and/or 
Visual Demand 



Responsibility 
for Equipment 
or Process 



A broad trades training as commonly required 
for Toolmakers is necessary to interpret com- 
plex tool drawings, understand operation of a 
variety of machine tools, fitting and assembling 
procedures, and tool construction. 

In addition to trades training, satisfactory per- 
formance can be attained after a period of 3 to 
4 years consisting of experience on a wide 
variety of lower graded toolmaking and training 
on this job. 

Requires a high degree of ability to plan course 
of action and sequence of diversified operations 
in the absence of general instructions. Uses in- 
itiative and ingenuity in determining need for 
and taking independent action in clearing diffi- 
culties and occasionally developing methods of 
procedure, working without aid of direct super- 
vision. 

Involves frequent handling light tool details in 
performing operations and occasional handling 
of heavier tool details and machine attachments. 
Involves standing, walking, and sitting on an 
intermittent basis. 

Concentrated mental and visual attention re- 
quired to interpret information, plan and lay 
out work, perform machine and bench opera- 
tions, and maintain close dimensional require- 
ments. 

Uses a wide range of machine tools and pre- 
cision measuring instruments, where failure to 
exercise proper care in setup or operation could 
result in damage. Cost of repair and replace- 
ment of defective and damaged parts would sel- 
dom exceed $250 for any one loss. 



56 



88 



56 



15 



Figure 55. Example of NEMA Rating 



RATING THE JOBS 



179 







Evaluation 


Factor 


Specification 












Deg. 


Pts. 




Failure to exercise proper care in planning and 








laying out work, setting up and operating ma- 






Responsibility 


chines, or in checking work could result in de- 






for Material 


fective tool details or damage to details with 


3 


15 


or Product 


considerable previous work completed, where 
cost of repair or loss of material and labor 
could reasonably exceed $250 in any one case. 

Considerable care required in setting up and 
operating machines and in moving machine at- 






Responsibility 


tachments and heavier tool details to prevent 






for Safety 


lost-time injuries to others in the nature of 


3 


15 


of Others 


broken bones and eye injuries from flying parts, 
broken tools, and contact with revolving parts or 
parts dropped during handling. 






Responsibility 


Involves responsibility for instructing lower 






for Work 


graded Toolmakers assigned to assist with the 


2 


10 


of Others 


job (up to 2). 






Working 
Conditions 


Involves good working conditions with minor 






exposure to oil and grease on machines and tool 


2 


20 


details and to low-level machine shop noise. 








Involves exposure to loss of fingers and broken 








bones in operating machines and handling ma- 






Hazards 


chine attachment and heavier tool details, and 








to cuts, bruises, and abrasions when using hand 


3 


15 




tools, and from sharp edges or burrs on ma- 








terial. 







Figure 55. {Concluded.) 



180 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



Job Title: 



JOB RATING SPECIFICATION 

(Hourly Rated Jobs) 

BORING MACHINE OPERATOR- 
HORIZONTAL 



GRADE 4 
POINTS 306 



Job Description: 

Set up and operate 3Vi" x 36" Giddings and Lewis horizontal boring machine, to 
bore and face a variety of parts where accuracy of bores and interrelated surfaces 
must be held to close tolerances. Setups exacting, requiring care to avoid distor- 
tion, assure rigidity, and maintain alignment between several interrelated surfaces. 
Work from layout or locating surface. Usually fixture work, using blocks, shims. 
parallels, clamps, bolts, indicators, level to set up. Select tools, speeds, and feeds. 
Check work to assure sufficient stock to clean up on later operations. Bore, face, 
drill, tap, straddle mill; use tools such as boring bars, fixed and floating cutters, fly 
cutters, face mills, drills, taps, reamers. Tools ground by others. Load and unload 
work; gauge from time to time. Keep machine clean and lubricated. Tolerances 
as close as plus or minus .001"; usually .002" to .005". 



Factor 



Specification 



Evaluation 



Deg. Pts 



Education 



Experience 



Initiative and 
Ingenuity 



Physical 
Demand 



Mental and/or 
Visual Demand 

Responsibility 
for Damage 
to Equipment 



Use shop arithmetic. Work from drawings. Use 
rule, micrometers, dial indicator, depth gauges. 
Knowledge of shop practice, cutting qualities of 
metals, tooling, feeds, speeds on horizontal bor- 
ing mill. Equivalent to 2 years high school plus 

2 to 3 years trades training. 

3 to 5 years. 

Plan and perform difficult work where only gen- 
eral methods are available. Make decisions 
which require considerable ingenuity and judg- 
ment to make complicated setups involving care- 
ful blocking to avoid distortion, plan sequence 
of cuts, select speeds, feeds, tools, diagnose and 
remedy trouble to correct distortion or misalign- 
ment. Independent action required in dealing 
with new problems. 

Most of time light physical effort operating ma- 
chine, checking, adjusting, waiting for cuts. Han- 
dle clamps, blocks, tools during setups. Heavy 
work handled by crane. 

Continuous mental or visual attention to make 
setups, adjust cutters, check work, load work. 

Careless setup or operation may result in break- 
ing gears, feed mechanism, damage to boring 
bars or tools. Probable damage seldom over 
$250. 



42 



88 



56 



20 



15 



15 



Figure 56. Example of NEMA Rating 



RATING THE JOBS 



181 



Responsibility 
for Material 
or Product 



Responsibility 
for Safety 
of Others 

Responsibility 
for Work 
of Others 

Working 
Conditions 



Hazards 



Careless setup or operation may result in under- 
size work, boring or reaming oversize, poor fin- 
ish, or wrong dimensions. Probable loss seldom 
over $250. 

Compliance with standard safety precautions 
necessary in loading and unloading work and 
handling tools to prevent lost time accident to 
others. 



None. 



Good working conditions. 

Exposed to crushed fingers or toes handling 
material, clamps, tools, possible eye injury from 
flying chips, finger or hand injury from rotating 
tools, any of which may result in lost-time acci- 
dent. 



15 



15 



20 



15 



Job Title: 



Figure 56. {Concluded.) 

JOB RATING SPECIFICATION 

(Hourly Rated Jobs) 
WELDER— ARC OR ACETYLENE 



GRADE 5 
POINTS 285 



Job Description: 

Arc or acetylene weld, braze or metallize a variety of castings to be salvaged which 
have been machined over-size or which are cracked. Mostly all downhand weld- 
ing. Prepare castings for welding; drill, tap, and plug large cracks; grind out cracks 
with portable grinder; clean with wire brush; chip out any defect to bright metal; 
select welding rod, adjust and set voltage for thickness of material; select flux, 
tips, pressures, gas mixtures. Maintain arc or flame and speed to produce sound 
weld of proper thickness, penetration, and fusion. Clean flux accumulations, 
grind weld to smooth finish; metallize as required. Spot- or torch-anneal parts 
such as gears on shafts, end of shaft. Use a variety of hand and power tools such 
as flexible shaft grinder, chisels, hammer, file, wire brush, emery wheel. Keep 
work area and equipment clean and orderly. 



Factor 



Specification 



Evaluation 



Deg. Pts 



Education 



Use shop arithmetic. Work from drawings, 
sketches, specifications, instructions. Use rule, 
scale, square, calipers, level, plumb bob. Trade 
knowledge of welding methods. Equivalent to 2 



42 



Figure 57. Example of NEMA Rating 



182 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



Factor 



Specification 



Evaluation 



Deg. Pts 



Experience 



Initiative and 
Ingenuity 



Physical Demand 



Mental and/or 
Visual Demand 



Responsibility 
for Equipment 
or Process 

Responsibility 
for Material 
or Product 

Responsibility 
for Safety 
of Others 

Responsibility 
for Work 
of Others 

Working 
Conditions 



Hazards 



years high school plus 2 to 3 years trades train- 
ing in welding methods. 

1 to 3 years. 

Plan and perform a sequence of operations where 
standard methods are available. Make general 
decisions which require initiative and judgment 
to determine sequence of welding, set up work, 
prepare surfaces, select size and type of rod, 
set current, select tips, pressures, determine num- 
ber or passes; maintain alignment and size; 
assure homogeneous weld; check work. Inde- 
pendent action required within limits of stand- 
ard methods. 

Sustained physical effort handling and position- 
ing work, holding welding rod or torch steady, 
using hammer, chisel, wire brush, bending, 
stooping. Sometimes difficult work positions. 

Must coordinate a high degree of manual dex- 
terity with close visual attention to effect suc- 
cessful weld. 

Careless operation handling or moving work 
may result in burning out or damaging arc 
welder, damage to cable, electrode holders, tips, 
regulators. Probable damage seldom over $25. 

Careless welding may result in cracked or burned 
welds, distortion, misalignment requiring re- 
work. Probable loss seldom over $100. 

Compliance with standard safety precautions 
necessary in handling and moving work, using 
tools to prevent lost-time accident to others. 



None. 



Somewhat disagreeable due to noise, dirt, fumes 
from electrodes, torch, flashes from electric arcs, 
none of which is continuous. 

Exposed to crushed fingers or toes, handling and 
moving work, burns, eye injury from intermit- 
tent flashes, any of which may result in lost-time 
accident. 



66 



42 



30 



20 



10 



10 



15 



30 



15 



Figure 57. {Concluded.) 



i 



RATING THE JOBS 



183 



Job Title: 



JOB RATING SPECIFICATION 

(Hourly Rated Jobs) 
TESTER— GENERATOR UNITS 



GRADE 6 
POINTS 258 



Job Description: 

Perform standardized test for AC diesel-generator sets to check performance and 
conformity with specifications prior to shipment. Set unit on test stand; fill cooling 
system, check for leaks; use thermometers in outlet and inlet as required. Fill 
crankcase with oil; lubricate fuel pump and governor, charging generator, starter, 
accessories, before starting engine. Check main generator for lubrication; check 
exciter brushes, air gap in alternator and exciter, assure no foreign matter present; 
check to see rotating parts do not touch wiring, covers, brush holders. Connect 
fuel system to floor connections. Connect generator to load, connect voltage leads, 
batteries. Start engine and warm up. See that unit functions properly. Check 
phase rotation on polyphase units; change lead markings on generator, change 
switchboard leads. Apply full-rated load at rated voltage and speed; check switch- 
board instruments against portable standards; see that switches and switchboard 
equipment function properly. Record at specified time intervals standard meter 
readings, multipliers, calculated readings, switch board meter readings, volts, am- 
peres, kilowatts, power factor, temperatures, oil pressure. Run unit for regula- 
tion and overload test. Test and adjust safety equipment; record settings. Make 
minor repairs, correct leaks, seal governor. Flush engine on completion of test, 
disconnect unit, remove from test floor. Use voltmeters, ammeters, wattmeters, 
frequency meters, current and potential transformers. Keep log sheets. Keep 
work area clean and orderly. 



Factor 



Education 



Experience 



Initiative and 
Ingenuity 



Physical 
Demand 



Specification 



Use shop arithmetic. Work from assembly 
drawings, wiring diagrams. Use electrical meas- 
uring instruments, temperature and thermometer 
gauges. Trade knowledge of elementary elec- 
tricity. Equivalent to 2 years high school plus 2 
to 3 years trades training. 

6 to 12 months. 

Plan and perform a sequence of operations where 
standard methods are available. Make general 
decisions which require initiative and judgment 
to perform standard tests, diagnose and remedy 
trouble as short in wire, motor off scale, cur- 
rent breakers open up before full load, open 
fuses, engine or governor trouble. Independent 
action required within limits of standard 
methods. 

Light physical effort on the average. Heavier 
work while setting engines on test stand (1 or 2 
a day). Most of time spent observing tests, 
reading data. 



Evaluation 



Deg. Pts. 



42 



44 



42 



20 



Figure 58. Example of NEMA Rating 



1S4 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



Factor 



Specification 



Evaluation 



De^. Pts 



I 



Mental and /or 
Visual Demand 

Responsibility 
for Equipment 
or Process 

Responsibility 

for Material 
or Product 

Responsibility 

for Safety 
of Others 

Responsibility 
for Work 
of Others 

Working 
Conditions 



Hazards 



Continuous mental or visual attention to per- 
form assigned duties. 

Careless operation may result in damage to 
measuring instruments. Probable damage sel- 
dom over $100. 

Carelessness in performing test may result in 
damage to engine or require field service. Prob- I 
able loss seldom over $250. , 

Compliance with standard safety precautions 
necessary in handling or moving generator sets, 
connecting up engines, to prevent lost-time acci- 
dents to others. 



None. 



Exposed to some noise, fumes, heat, which makes 
job somewhat disagreeable. 

Exposed to crushed fingers or toes handling en- 
gines, possible burns from exhaust pipe, ex- 
posure to possible shock, any of which may re- 
sult in lost-time accident. 



15 



15 



15 



30 



15 



FiGLTiE 5S. {Concluded.) 



RATING THE JOBS 



185 



Job Title: 



JOB RATING SPECIFICATION 

(Hourly Rated Jobs) 
BURRER— BENCH 



GRADE 7 
POINTS 240 



Job Description: 

Remove burrs, hangers, break sharp edges, form and blend radii according to 

specifications on a variety of parts. Use various types of scrapers, files, air guns, 

flexible shafts, etc., equipped with burring tools, small abrasive wheels, etc. Shape 

wheels to suit job. Select proper type of tool for various jobs and occasionally 

make up a simple special tool. Occasionally use dental lights and mirrors while 

performing internal burring operations. 

Parts are placed on bench or on holding fixture where applicable. May mount 

part in speed lathe to facilitate burring operation. Use tampico brush (mounted 

on polishing jack) or emery cloth to finish some surfaces after breaking edges. 



Factor 


Specification 


Evaluation 


Deg. Pts. 


Education 

Learning 
Period 

Initiative and 
Ingenuity 

Physical 
Demand 

Mental and/or 
Visual Demand 

Responsibility 
for Equipment 
or Process 

Responsibility 
for Material 
or Product 

Responsibility 
for Safety 
of Others 

Responsibility 
for Work 
of Others 


Use decimals, fractions and scale. Read simple 
blueprints and operation sheets. 

Approximately 9 months to meet production 
standards. 

Repetitive work. Follow detailed instructions. 
Some judgment in the use of hand operated tools 
to remove burrs, hangers, break all sharp edges, 
corners, and blend radii. Use care to avoid 
mutilating finished surfaces. 

Sustained physical effort working on average 
to heavy weight parts. 

Continuous visual and some mental attention to 
remove all burrs and hangers, break all sharp 
edges, and blend radii. 

Possible damage to hand tools, such as files, 
gauges, scrapers, flexible shaft tools. Seldom 
exceeds $25. 

Mutilation of finished surfaces or excessive 
grinding may scrap part. Seldom exceeds $150. 

Flying particles from grinding wheels or from 
hand tools may cause eye injury to others. 

Occasionally assist or instruct others. 


■-> 
2 

2 

3 
3 

2 

2 

4 

2 


28 
44 

28 

30 

15 

10 
10 
20 
10 



FiGUHE 59. Example of Cole Rating 



186 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 







Evaluation 


Factor 


Specification 












Deg. 


Pts. 




Somewhat disagreeable. Exposed to dust from | 






grinding and burring. Tampico brushes used on \ 




Working 


some jobs throw emery powder and metal par- 
tides onto clothing and body. May require wear- 1 


30 


Conditions 




ing a respirator at times. Suction fans are pro- 








vided on some benches. 








Possible eye injury from flying particles or 








emery. May receive cuts on fingers or hands 






Hazards 


from sharp edges on parts. Possible abrasions 
from flexible shafts or burring tools. Crushed 


3 


15 




hand or foot handling heavy parts. ' 





Figure 59. (Concluded.) 



Job Title; 



JOB RATING SPECIFICATION 

(Hourly Rated Jobs) 
METALLIZER 



GRADE 8 
POINTS 225 



Job Description: 

Operate metallizer gun to metal spray a variety of parts such as machined sur- 
faces, bearings, shafts, cylinder blocks for repair or straightening, using copper, 
zinc, steel, and stainless steel wire. Metallize castings which show sand holes, 
porous metal defects, welded cracks. Build up shafts, machined surfaces, to proper 
thickness. Prepare parts for metallizing; clean, grind, wire brush surfaces. Insert 
wire in metallizing gun; set air and flame to desired pressure; apply coating uni- 
formly. Handle heavy work with hoist. Keep equipment and work area clean and 
orderly. 



Factor 


Specification 


Evaluation 


Deg. 1 Pts. 


Education 
Experience 

Initiative and 
Ingenuity 


Use simple arithmetic. Work from drawings, 
sketches, standard practice instructions. Use rule, 
square, calipers. Equivalent to 2 years high 
school. 

3 to 6 months. 

Work from detailed instructions given by Fore- 
man. Make minor decisions which require some 
judgment to set up machine, set rotating speed, 
current, voltage on fuse bonder; check work for 
uniform metallizing. Repetitive nature of work 


2 
2 


28 
44 

28 



Figure 60. Example of NEMA Rating 



RATING THE JOBS 



187 



Factor 



Physical 
Demand 



Mental and/or 
Visual Demand 

Responsibility 
for Equipment 
or Process 

Responsibility 
for Material 
or Product 

Responsibility 
for Safety 
of Others 

Responsibility 
for Work 
of Others 

Working 
Conditions 



Hazards 



Specification 



limits independent action to minor decisions not 
difficult to make. 

Light physical effort on the average, lifting and 
handling light and average weight parts, hold- 
ing metallizing spray gun. 

Must coordinate a high degree of manual dex- 
terity with close visual attention to assure uni- 
form thickness of metal, watch flame. 

Careless handling of spray gun, tubing may re- 
sult in damage seldom over $25. 

Careless operation, failure to build up metal 
evenly, may result in re-work or scrap. Prob- 
able loss seldom over $25. 

Compliance with standard safety precautions 
necessary in handling and moving work, using 
tools to prevent lost-time accident to others. 



None. 



Somewhat disagreeable due to noise, fumes from 
electrodes, flashes from electric arcs, none of 
which is continuous. 

Exposed to crushed fingers or toes handling and 
moving work, burns, eye injury from intermit- 
tent flashes, any of which may result in lost- 
time accident. 



Evaluation 



Deg. Pts 



20 



20 



10 



10 



15 



30 



15 



Figure 60. (Concluded.) 



188 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



Job Title: 



JOB RATING SPECIFICATION 

(Hourly Rated Jobs) 
INSPECTOR AND/OR TESTER 



GRADE 9 
POINTS 195 



Job Description: 

Visual, mechanical, or electrical inspection and check, using standard methods, on 
somewhat diversified work under frequent supervision involving handling of aver- 
age weights. Work from simple to average drawings and specifications. Use simple 
gauges and DC or simple AC test sets. 




Education 



Experience 



Initiative 
and Ingenuity 

Physical 
Demand 

Mental and/or 
Visual Demand 

Responsibility 
for Equipment 
or Process 

Responsibility 
for Material 
or Product 

Responsibility 
for Safety 
of Others 

Responsibility 
for Work 
of Others 

Working 
Conditions 



Hazards 



Requires reading and interpreting simple assem- 
bly drawings, manufacturing layouts and speci- 
fications to check for requirements. 

Requires 8-9 months experience and job training 
to become familiar with the various types of 
work inspected, requirements and the setup and 
operation of test sets used. 

Some judgment is required and minor decisions 
must be made in rejecting defective work or de- 
termining acceptability of products. 

Work requires continuous handling of lightweight 
material; occasional handling of average weight. 

Continuous visual and mental attention required 
to read drawings, layouts, and test set values and 
to inspect for proper completion of operations. 

Damage to test equipment would seldom involve 
loss over $25.00. 

Failure to detect improper work could result in 
losses which could exceed $10.00 in perform- 
ance of subsequent operations but would seldom 
exceed $10.00 in any one instance. 

Involves minimum responsibility for the safety 
of others as work is performed at an individual 
work position. 



No responsibility for work of others. 

Good shop conditions involving some noise from 1 
adjacent machines and some dirt and grease from 
work inspected. 

Carelessness in handling items inspected could 
result in minor cuts, bruises or abrasions. 



28 



44 



28 



20 



15 



10 



10 



20 



10 



Figure 61. Example of NEMA Rating 



Job Title: 



RATING THE JOES 

JOB RATING SPECIFICATION 

(Hourly Rated Jobs) 

ASSEMBLER— WIRE, CABLE & HOSE 



189 



GRADE 10 
POINTS 173 



Job Description: 

Perform various bench operations to make up a wide variety of wire, cable, and 
hose assemblies for all types of engines. Refer to sketches, drawings, or specifica- 
tions to ascertain lengths and types of terminals. Measure wire and cable to speci- 
fied lengths; strip insulation from ends, attach and solder terminals; tape ends; 
bundle and tag assemblies by sets. Cut hose to specified lengths. Use a variety of 
hand tools such as pliers, file, hammer, rule, soldering iron, shears, electric saw, 
and wire stripper. Keep work area clean and orderly. 



Factor 


Specification 


Evaluation 


Deg. 


Pts. 


Education 
Experience 

Initiative and 
Ingenuity 

Physical 
Demand 

Mental and/or 
Visual Demand 

Responsibility 
for Equipment 
or Process 

Responsibility 
for Material 
or Product 

Responsibility 
for Safety 
of Others 


Use simple arithmetic to compute dimensions. 
Work from simple drawings and specifications 
to select dimensions. Use rule. Equivalent to 2 
years high school. 

Up to 3 months. 

Work from detailed instructions. Make minor 
decisions which require some judgment to meas- 
ure material to correct lengths, select material 
specified, select correct couplings, inserts, clamps, 
connections, bundle, and tag sets. Repetitive 
nature of work limits independent action to 
minor decisions not difficult to make. 

Light physical effort most of time assembling 
wire, cable, hose with couplings, inserts, clamps, 
connections. 

Continuous mental or visual attention to cut 
material to proper lengths, select proper type and 
fittings, assemble. 

Little probable damage to equipment. 

Careless cutting of wire, cable, hose or use of 
fittings may result in scrap or re-work. Prob- 
able damage seldom over $25. 

Only reasonable care necessary to prevent in- 
jury to others. Work in isolated location, sel- 
dom any other employees around. 


2 
1 

2 

2 
3 
1 

2 

2 


28 

22 

28 

20 

15 

5 

10 
10 



Figure 62. Example of NEMA Rating 



190 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



Factor 


Specification 


Evaluation 


Deg. Pts. 


Responsibility 
for Work 
of Others 

Working 
Conditions 

Hazards 


None. 

Good working conditions. 

Accidents outside of minor abrasions, cuts or 
bruises improbable. 


1 

2 
2 


5 

20 
10 



Figure 62. (Concluded.) 



Occupation 



Boring 

Mill 

Operation 



Labor 
Grade 



Job 
Rating 
Points 



343 



311 



265 



225 



Description 



A. Highly diversiiied. Turn, bore, and face 

wide variety of large and expensive 
parts. Close tolerances. l3ifficult 
setups requiring blocking and ahgning 
of parts of irregular shape. Deter- 
mine feeds, speeds, tooling, operation 
sequence for considerable range of 
unusual and difficult operations. 
(Usually very large mills such as 
16' or 20'.) 

B. Highly diversified. Turn, bore, and face 

wide variety of intricate castings of 
medium size. Close tolerances. Diffi- 
cult setups requiring extensive block- 
ing and aligning of parts of irregular 
shape. Determine feeds, speeds, tool- 
ing, operation sequence for consider- 
able range of unusual and difficult 
operations. (Usually 6' to 12' mills 
and vertical turret lathes.) 

C. Turn, bore, face small and medium size 

parts. Close tolerances. Setups exact- 
ing but not usually involved or diffi- 
cult. Determine speeds, feeds, tool- 
ing, operation sequence for variety of 
ordinary operations where a large 
number of cuts need not be made. 

D. Repetitive types of turning, boring, and 

facing operations. Fairly close toler- 
ances. Simple setups or use of fix- 
tures. Speeds, feeds, tooHng pre- 
scribed. 



Figure 63. Family of Boring Mill Jobs, Labor Grades 2, 4, 6, and 8. This is 

an occupation summary made from the data on four separate job descriptions 

shown below. Together they are a sample of analyzing a family of jobs. (National 

Metal Trades Association.) 



RATING THE JOBS 



191 







ncr Cndp. Nn 


DpDt 


JOB RATING— SUBSTANTIATING DATA 


Job Name Boring Mill Operator — Vertical (Usually 16' and up) Class A 




Factors 


Deg. 


Basis of Rating 


Education 


3 

(42) 


Use shop mathematics, charts, tables, handbook 
formulas. Work from complicated drawings or job 
layouts. Use micrometers, depth gauge, surface 
gauge, vernier calipers, bevel protractors. Knowl- 
edge of turning, boring, facing methods; cutting 
tools; cutting qualities of metals. Equivalent to 2 
years high school plus 2 to 3 years trades training. 


Experience 


5 
(110) 


5 to 8 years on a wide variety of vertical boring mill 
work, including very large mills. 


Initiative 
AND Ingenuity 


4 

(56) 


Wide variety of very large and expensive parts. Close 
tolerances. Difficult setups, requiring extensive 
blocking of irregularly shaped parts. High degree 
of ingenuity and judgment to plan and lay out varied 
and unusual operations, handle very large work. 
Select speeds, feeds, tools. Check castings or parts 
to insure adequate finish allowance. 


Physical 
Demand 


2 
(20) 


Handle large clamps, blocks, tools, during setup. 
Chmb over large work during operation. Most of 
time light physical effort operating machine, check- 
ing, adjusting, waiting for cuts. 


Mental or 

Visual Demand 


4 
(20) 


Must concentrate mental and visual attention closely 
to a large number of details, making setups, plan- 
ning complex operations on diversified work, check- 
ing, adjusting to close tolerances. 


Responsibility 
FOR Equipment 
or Process 


4 
(20) 


Careless setup or operation, jamming of tools, drop- 
ping castings on table, allowing clamp to strike ram, 
breaking worm feed on ram may cause damage. 
Probable damage seldom over $500. 


Responsibility 
for Material 
OR Product 


4 
(20) 


Careless setup or operation may result in spoilage and 
possible scrapping of expensive castings, forgings, 
etc. Probable losses seldom over $500. 


Responsibility 
for Safety of 
Others 


3 
(15) 


Flying chips may cause burns, cuts, or eye injuries. 
Clamps or rail may be set in such a position as to 
injure employee walking past machine. Careless 
handling or setup may be hazardous to others. 


Responsibility 
for Work of 
Others 


1 
(5) 


None. 


Working 
Conditions 


2 
(20) 


Good working conditions. May be slightly dirty, 
especially in setups. Some dust from castings. 


Unavoidable 
Hazards 

Remarks 


3 
(15) 


May crush fingers or toes in handhng heavy castings; 
dropped tools or clamps may cause injury. Possible 
burns, cuts, or eye injury from flying chips and 
particles. 


343-2 



Figure 64. Job Rating — Substantiating Data 



192 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



Occ. Code No. 
Dept 



JOB RATING— SUBSTANTIATING DATA 

Job Name Boring Mill Operator — Vertical Class 



Factors 



Education 



Experience 



Initiative 

AND Ingenuity 



Physical 
Demand 


2 
(20) 


Mental or 
Visual Demand 


4 
(20) 


Responsibility 
FOR Equipment 
OR Process 


3 
(15) 


Responsibility 
FOR Material 
OR Product 


(15) 


Responsibility 
FOR Safety of 
Others 


3 
(15) 


Responsibility 
for Work of 
Others 


1 
(5) 


Working 
Conditions 


2 
(20) 


Unavoidable 
Hazards 


3 
(15) 


Remarks 


311-4 



Deg. 



3 
(42) 



4 
(88) 

4 
(56) 



Basis of Rating 



Use shop mathematics, charts, tables, handbook 
formulas. Work from complicated drawings or job 
layouts. Use micrometers, depth gauge, surface 
gauge, vernier calipers, bevel protractor. Knowl- 
edge of turning, boring, facing methods; cutting 
tools; cutting qualities of metals. Equivalent to 2 
years high school plus 2 to 3 years trades training. 

3 to 5 years on a wide variety of vertical boring mill 
work. 

Wide variety of castings and parts of complicated 
form requiring considerable amount of turning, 
boring, facing, etc. Very close tolerances. Difficult 
setups requiring extensive blocking of irregularly 
shaped parts. High degree of ingenuity to plan and 
lay out varied and unusual operations. Select 
speeds, feeds, tools. Check castings or parts to in- 
sure adequate finish allowance. 

Handle clamps, blocks, tools during setup. Most of 
time light physical effort operating machine, check- 
ing, adjusting, waiting for cuts. 

Must concentrate mental and visual attention closely 
to a large number of details, making setups, plan- 
ning complex operations on diversified work, check- 
ing, adjusting to close tolerances. 

Careless setup or operation, jamming of tools, drop- 
ping castings on table, allowing clamp to strike ram, 
breaking worm feed on ram, may cause damage. 
Probable damage seldom over $250. 

Careless setup or operation may result in spoilage and 
possible scrapping of expensive castings, forgings, 
etc. Probable losses seldom over $250. 

Flying chips may cause burns, cuts, or eye injuries. 
Clamps or rail may be set in such a position as to 
injure employee walking past machine. Careless 
handling or setup may be hazardous to others. 

None. 



Good working conditions. May be slightly dirty, 
especially in setups. Some dust from castings. 

May crush fingers or toes in handling heaving cast- 
ings; dropped tools or clamps may cause injury. 
Possible burns, cuts, or eye injury from flying chips 
and particles. 



Figure 65. Job Rating — Substantiating Data 



RATING THE JOBS 



193 







Ore Code No 






Tipnt 


JOB RATING— SUBSTANTIATING DATA 






MASTER SHEET 


Job Name Boring Mill Operator — Vertical Class C 




Factors 


Deg. 


Basis of Rating 


Education 


3 
(42) 


Use shop mathematics, charts, tables, handbook 
formulas. Work from ordinary drawings or job 
layouts. Use micrometers, depth gauge, surface 
gauge, vernier calipers, bevel protractor. Knowl- 
edge of turning, boring, facing methods; cutting 
tools; cutting qualities of metals. Equivalent to 2 
years high school plus 2 to 3 years trades training. 


Experience 


3 
(66) 


1 to 3 years on a variety of vertical boring mill work. 


Initiative 
AND Ingenuity 


3 
(42) 


Variety of castings, forgings, parts. Setups exacting 
but not usually difficult. Close tolerances. Select 
speeds, feeds, tools. Judgment to plan and per- 
form a normal range of operations, including muhi- 
head work, where a large number of interrelated 
dimensions need not be considered. 


Physical 
Demand 


2 
(20) 


Handle large clamps, blocks, tools during setup. 
Climb over large work during operation. Most of 
time light physical eflfort operating machine, check- 
ing, adjusting, waiting for cuts. 


Mental or 
Visual Demand 


3 
(15) 


Continuous mental or visual attention setting up, 
operating, checking, and making adjustments. 


Responsibility 
FOR Equipment 
or Process 


3 
(15) 


Careless setup or operation, jamming of tools, drop- 
ping castings on table, allowing clamp to strike ram, 
breaking worm feed on ram. Probable damage sel- 
dom over $250. 


Responsibility 
FOR Material 
or Product 


2 
(10) 


Error in setup or checking may result in spoilage and 
possible scrapping of castings, forgings, etc. Prob- 
able loss seldom over $100. 


Responsibility 
FOR Safety of 
Others 


3 
(15) 


Flying chips may cause burns, cuts, or eye injuries. 
Clamps or rail may be set in such a position as to 
injure employee walking past machine. Careless 
handling or setup may be hazardous to others. 


Responsibility 
FOR Work of 
Others 


1 

(5) 


None. 


Working 
Conditions 


2 
(20) 


Good working conditions. May be slightly dirty, 
especially in setups. Some dust from castings. 


Unavoidable 
Hazards 


3 
(15) 


May crush fingers or toes in handling heavy castings; 
dropped tools or clamps may cause injury. Possible 
burns, cuts, or eye injury from flying chips and 
particles. 




Remarks 


265-6 





Figure 66. Job Rating — Substantiating Data — Master Sheet 



194 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 







Ore Code No 






Dent 


JOB RATING— SUBSTANTIATING DATA 


Job Name Boring Mill Operator — Vertical Class D 




Factors 


Deg. 


Basis of Rating 


Education 


2 
(28) 


Use simple shop arithmetic. Work from simple draw- 
ings. Use micrometers, scale, and calipers. Equiva- 
lent to 2 years high school. 


Experience 


2 
(44) 


6 to 12 months on simple vertical boring mill work. 


Initiative 
AND Ingenuity 


2 
(28) 


Repetitive turning, boring, and facing operations. 
Simple setups, or use of fixtures. Fairly close toler- 
ances. Speeds, feeds, tools prescribed. Minor deci- 
sions to check work and make machine adjustments, 
replace dull tools. 


Physical 
Demand 


3 
(30) 


Sustained physical effort handling tools and material 
during setup, operating machine and making adjust- 
ments. Short cycle work. 


Mental or 

Visual Demand 


3 
(15) 


Continuous mental or visual attention setting up, 
operating, checking, and making adjustments. 


Responsibility 
FOR Equipment 
OR Process 


3 
(15) 


Careless setup or operation, jamming of tools, drop- 
ping castings on table, allov/ing clamp to strike ram, 
breaking worm feed on ram may cause damage. 
Probable damage seldom over $100. 


Responsibility 
FOR Material 
or Product 


2 
(10) 


Careless setup or operation may result in spoilage and 
possible scrapping of castings, forgings, etc. Prob- 
able losses seldom over $100. 


Responsibility 
FOR Safety of 
Others 


3 
(15) 


Flying chips may cause burns, cuts, or eye injuries. 
Careless handhng or setup may injure others. 


Responsibility 
for Work of 
Others 


1 
(5) 


None. 


Working 
Conditions 


(20) 


Good working conditions. May be slightly dirty, 
especially in setups. Some dust from castings. May 
use coolants. 


Unavoidable 
Hazards 

Remarks 


3 
(15) 


May crush fingers or toes in handling heavy castings; 
dropped tools or clamps may cause injury. Possible 
burns, cuts, or eye injury from flying chips and 
particles. 


225-8 



Figure 67. Job Rating — Substantiating Data 



RATING THE JOBS 195 

Page No. 2250 

File Code BG 0930 or 



0940 (CWSB) 

Department TEMPER PASSING & COLD ROLLING 

Sub Division SHEET MILL COLD REDUCTION 

Job Title ( Std. ) ROLLER— COIL TEMPER MILL 

Job Title ( Plant ) ROLLER— COILS 

JOB DESCRIPTION 

Primary Function 

Operates a four-high temper mill in processing coil product to obtain desired 
flatness, surface, and physical properties. 

Tools and Equipment 

Uncoiler, four-high single stand temper mill, recoiler, stripper, auxiliary 
equipment, etc. 



Material 



Stainless Coils Regular Low Carbon Coils 

Min. Max. Min. Max. 



Gauge .015 .125 .015 .060 

Width 20^' 48'' 24'' 80" 

Source of Supervision 
Supervised by turn foreman. 

Direction Exercised 

Closely directs one catcher and three feeders. 

Working Procedure 

Charging coil — Remains at mill controls while crew threads strip through mill 

to delivery reel. 
Acceleration — Drafts and starts mill. Operates controls adjusting strip tension 

between entry reel and mill, and mill and delivery reel, inspects surface of 

strip and adjusts draft and strip tension to obtain desired flatness, surface, and 

physical requirements. 
Rolling — Observes mill load, tension fluctuation, and strip shape. Inspects for 

flatness, strip shape, and surface defects. Observes closely for trouble that 

may occur due to a bad coil end. Operates controls in running up screws. 

Checks elongation using scribe. 
Removing coil — Operates controls in stripping coil off delivery reel. 
Roll Change — Selects rolls for correct crown, finish desired, hardness, and size. 

Directs craneman and crew in roll change. Drafts mill after roll change. 
Weighs and identifies each coil or directs members of crew to perform these 

tasks and makes out a complete production report of material rolled during 

turn. 



Figure 68. Specimen Example of Job Description and Classification. (Rppre- 
sents an Actual Case in Fact.) 



196 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 
JOB CLASSIFICATION 



Factor 



Pre-Employment 
Training 

Employment 
Training and 
Experience 
Mental Skill 



Manual Skill 



Responsibility 
for Material 



Responsibility 
for Tools and 
Equipment 
Responsibility 
for Operations 
Responsibility 
for Safety 
of Others 
Mental Effort 



Physical Effort 

Surroundings 
Hazard 



Reason for Classification 



Requires mentality to learn to: Read 
gauges, meters, micrometers, calculate 
elongation, adjust mill. 
Requires experience of up to 30 months 
on this and related work. 

Considerable judgment and planning re- 
quired in determining proper draft, ten- 
sion, and rolls to obtain desired results. 
Requires high degree of coordination to 
manipulate controls at rapid pace when 
starting mill and in making of adjust- 
ments to mill. 

Damage material by failure to obtain cor- 
rect temper, roll marks strip thus reducing 
material to rejects. 
Estimated Cost 

Va turn before detection = 25 ton 

$45 cost/ton $27/ton rejects 

25 X ($45-$27) = $450 

regular estimated stainless — 100 

15 ton $550 total 
High degree of care required on a high 
speed production unit to prevent damage 
to rolls and equipment. 
Sets pace on a major production unit and 
is responsible for production. 
Considerable care and attention required 
to prevent injury to others while changing 
rolls, starting and stopping mill. 
Close mental and visual application re- 
quired to plan drafting and roll shape to 
obtain proper elongation and surface roll- 
ing of coils at high speed, direct roll 
changes, control mill while threading 
strip, standing and observing operations, 
coil changes, strip coil, adjust reel and 
minor adjustments. 

Minimum physical exertion required to 
observe, direct operations, inspect rolls, 
inspect product, and assist in roll changes 
(operate controls during threading). 
Slightly dirty and noisy — good plant 
conditions. 

Works in close proximity to moving strip. 
Subject to cuts, punctures, and bruises, 
also exposed to crane hazards during roll 
changes. 



Code 



Classi- 
fication 



1.0 



2.0 



2.2 



1.0 



4.5 



MED 
E 

E 
C 



2.0 
3.0 



.5 



Base 



Base 



Job Class 



18 



Total 



.4 



18.4 



Figure 68. {Concluded.) 



RATING THE JOBS 197 

Page No. 

File Code LM-0010 ZA-03 



Department MAINTENANCE 



Sub Division COKE PLANT 



Job Title ( Std. ) LEAD BURNER 



Job Title (Plant) LEAD BURNER 'A' 



JOB DESCRIPTION 



Primary Function 

To inspect, dismantle, install, repair, fabricate, and test any type of lead lining 
or parts for process equipment. 

Tools and Equipment 

Hydrogen torch and tanks, shears, forming tools, miscellaneous hand tools, etc. 

Materials 

Lead or lead alloy sheet, pipe, rod, pig, and bar stock oxygen, hydrogen, etc. 

Source of Supervision 

Foreman or immediate supervisor. Performs work with a minimum of direction. 

Direction Exercised 

Works alone or directs helpers and other workmen as required. 

Working Procedure 

Receives blueprints, sketches, and instructions regarding work assignment. 

Inspects equipment, interprets prints, and plans working procedure and tool 
and material requirements. 

Removes damaged sections; lays out, cuts, and forms new lead sheet or piping 
for any size, shape, or type of process vessel such as stills, agitators, saturators, 
drain tables, troughs, etc. Scrapes, bevels, and drosses edges for making 
joint. 

Fits new sections of lead sheet or pipe into position. Molds and fuses lead 
bar into joint, skillfully using hydrogen torch in down-hand, vertical, or 
overhead position. May prefabricate linings or sections of linings before instal- 
lation in equipment or build up directly as work progresses in either open or 
partially closed vessels. 

Fabricates lead or lead alloy parts and equipment such as pipes, valves, open 
and closed containers, protective coatings for fans and fan casings, etc. 

Makes lead or lead alloy castings as required. 

Performs work requiring a thorough knowledge of the various lead forming 
and burning techniques, physical and working properties of lead and lead 
alloys, and the skillful use of tools and equipment used in the trade. 

Figure 69. Specimen Example of Job Description and Classification. (Repre- 
sents an Actual Case in Fact.) 



198 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



Job Title (Plant) 



JOB CLASSIFICATION 

LEAD BURNER 'A" File Code LM-0010 ZA-03 



Factor 


Reason for Classification 


Code 


Classi- 
fication 


Pre-Employment 
Training 


Requires mentality to learn to: Read blue 
prints, lay out and accurately form lead 
sheets. 


C 


LO 


Employment 
Training and 
Experience 


Requires experience on this and related 
work of 37 to 48 months of continuous 
progress to become proficient. 


H 


3.2 


Mental Skill 


Plan work detail in installing and repair- 
ing lead lining. 


E 


2.8 


Manual Skill 


Uses hand tools, lead burning torch, mal- 
let, and forms in forming, shaping, and 
applying lead lining to close tolerances. 


D 


L5 


Responsibility 
for Material 


Requires close attention for majority of 
turn. Lose labor and material by improper 
cutting or forming. 
Estimated Cost: $250 or under. 


D 


1.6 


Responsibility 
for Tools and 
Equipment 


Some attention and care to prevent dam- 
age to torch, regulators, tanks, etc., by 
careless or improper use. 


B 
LO. 


.2 


Responsibility 
for Operations 


Performs tradesman's work to get the pro- 
ducing unit into operation. 


C 


1.0 


Responsibility 
for Safety 
of Others 


V/orks as a member of crew where indi- 
vidual acts may injure others. Ordinary 
care and attention required. 


B 


,4 


Mental Effort 


Close mental or visual application required 
in layout from blue print details and in 
forming sheets. 


D 


L5 


Physical 
Effort 


Moderate physical exertion in using torch, 
and in shaping lead. 


C 


.8 


Surroundings 


Exposed to considerable fumes. 


C 


.8 


Hazard 


Exposed to lead fumes, severe cuts and 
bruises. Exposed to burns from molten 
metal. 


D 


1.2 



Job Class 



16 



Total 



16.0 



Figure 69. (Concluded.) 



RATING THE JOBS 199 
Page No. 



File Code LCX 0010 CWSB 



Department 


MAINTENANCE 




Sub Division 


ELECTRIC SHOP 




Job Title (Std.) 


ELECTRICIAN 


(ARMATURE WINDER) 


Job Title (Plant) 


ARMATURE ^ 


WINDER 



JOB DESCRIPTION 



Primary Function 

To test, dismantle, repair, rewind, and assemble armatures, stators, rotors, com- 
mutators, and field coils for any size, type, and style of electric motors and 
generators in shop or field. 

Tools and Equipment 

Soldering equipment, preheating torch, testing apparatus, arbor press, com- 
mutator under cutting machine, handing lathe, drill press, saw, hand tools, etc. 

Materials 

AC and DC armatures, stators, rotors, various types of coils, commutators, 
commutator parts, solder, insulating materials, banding wire, etc. 

Source of Supervision 

Foreman or immediate supervisor. Performs work with a minimum of direction. 

Direction Exercised 

Works alone or directs work of helpers and other workmen as required. 

Working Procedure 

Receives instructions, winding diagrams, and work orders. Inspects and tests 
equipment to determine extent of damage and nature of repairs necessary, 
basing decisions on a thorough knowledge of armature winding principles and 
established shop practice. 

Reads and interprets any type of winding diagram or makes sketch of windings 
to aid in reassembly when prints are not available. 

Strips down, repairs, or rewinds armatures and coils for any type of motor, 
generator, transformer, or solenoid-operated equipment. Repairs, replaces, 
or fabricates, fits, and assembles replacement parts as required. Repairs or 
restacks laminated iron cores. Dismantles, replaces segments, or rebuilds 
commutators as required, fabricating mica V-rings when necessary. Cleans 
and tins risers. Winds, insulates, shapes, varnishes, and bakes form and hand- 
wound coils. Assembles coils in slots and insulates, wedges, and bands into 
position. 

Solders leads to commutator or groups connections and brings out to leads of 
slip ring. 

Turns commutators, under-cuts mica, straightens journals, checks fit on bear- 
ings, and balances armatures for rated speed. 

Tests for polarity, grounds, shorts, and brake load and adjusts equipment for 
proper operating characteristics. Changes windings on AC machines to suit 
voltage and speed requirements. 

Does "on the job" planning. 

Analyzes trouble on emergency breakdowns, cuts out faulty coils, and makes 
temporary repairs on equipment still in service to minimize operating delays 
until such time as equipment may be shut down for complete overhaul. 



Figure 70. Specimen Example of Job Description and Classification. (Repre- 
sents an Actual Case in Fact.) 



200 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



JOB CLASSIFICATION 

Job Title (Plant) ARMATURE WINDER File Code LCX 0010 CWSB 



Factor 



Reason for Classification 



Code 



Classi- 
fication 



Pre-Employment 
Training 



Employment 
Training and 
Experience 
Mental Skill 



Manual Skill 



Responsibility 
for Material 



Responsibility 
for Tools and 
Equipment 

Responsibility 
for Operations 

Responsibility 
for Safety 
of Others 
Mental Effort 



Physical Effort 



Surroundings 
Hazard 



Requires the mentality to learn to: Make 
sketches of wiring. Read drawings and 
diagrams. Dismantle and repair arma- 
tures, stators, etc. 

Requires experience on this and related 
work of from 37 to 48 months of con- 
tinuous progress to become proficient. 
Read drawings and diagrams. Make 
sketches of wiring. Use testing equipment, 
determine correct winding procedure. 
Dismantle and repair motors and gene- 
rators. 

Use tradesman's tools in a wide variety of 
tasks. Test, dismantle and repair arma- 
tures, stators, motors, etc. 
Use close attention for majority of turn. 
May damage insulation or make wrong 
connection resulting in burned-out coils. 
Repair or rewind — labor and material. 
Estimated Cost: $250 or under. 
Moderate attention and care to prevent 
damage. May damage hand tools by care- 
less or incorrect use. Damage testing 
equipment by overloading. 
Repair mill motors and generators. Occa- 
sionally works on rush jobs for mill de- 
partments. 

Little care required to prevent injury to 
others. Usually works alone. 

Close mental and visual application, wind, 
undercut commutators, make connections, 
wedge, solder, trace connections, and 
make electrical tests. Strip and clean 
coils. Read wiring diagrams. Hook up 
for crane. Get supplies. 
Light physical exertion. Read drawings 
and plan work. Use light hand tools. 
Clean motors. Wind armatures. Cut com- 
mutator slots. Dismantle and assemble 
motors or generators. 
Inside — machine shop conditions. 
Works on electric equipment. Cuts, punc- 
tures, bruises. Subject to shock. 

Job Class 14 Total 



H 



D 



C 
MD. 



3.2 



2.8 



1.0 



1.6 



1.0 



Base 



1.5 



Base 



13.9 



Figure 70. (Concluded.) 



RATING THE JOBS 201 

Page No. 

File Code HAX 0011 CWSB 



Department MAINTENANCE 



Sub Division FOUNDRY 



Job Title ( Std. ) CORE MAKER 



Job Title (Plant) CORE MAKER 



JOB DESCRIPTION 



Primary Function 

To make any type of sand cores to be used in dry or green sand foundry molds. 

Tools and Equipment 

Core boxes, patterns, pneumatic rammers, and miscellaneous tradesman's hand 
tools, including hammers, mallets, lifters, slicks, spoons, trowels, shovels, 
etc. 

Materials 

Used: Core sands, bonding materials, paste, wire, steel rods, vent wax, mold 

wash, graphite, chills, sea coal, etc. 
Produced: Sand cores. 

Source of Supervision 

Foreman or immediate supervisor. 
Performs work with a minimum of direction. 

Direction Exercised 

Works alone or directs helpers and other workmen as required. 

Working Procedure 

Receives prints, sketches, and instructions for the job. 

Interprets blue prints or sketches as required for making and assembling cores. 

Plans working procedure and material and equipment requirements. 

Prepares proper sand mixture. Assembles and clamps core boxes or sweep 
patterns. 

Places adequate reinforcing wires and rods. Fills core box with sand and packs 
with hand or pneumatic rammers, making sure that core is adequately vented 
to carry off gases and that chills of various types are accurately placed. 
Removes core from core box, patches any breaks, and applies core wash. 

Transports or directs movement of core to core oven drying buggy. After cores 
have been thoroughly dried, assembles and pastes sand core sections together 
to form completed core. Fills in cracks and seams with silica paste and applies 
graphite facing to entire surface of core. 

Performs work requiring a thorough knowledge of core making practice, in- 
cluding the physical properties of various sand mixtures, various methods of 
reinforcing, the adequate venting of cores, and the skillful use of various types 
of tools and equipment of the trade. 

Figure 71. Specimen Example of Job Description and Classification. (Repre- 
sents an Actual Case in Fact.) 



202 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



JOB CLASSIFICATION 

Job Title (Plant) CORE MAKER File Code HAX 0011 CWSB 



Factor 



Reason for Classification 



Code 



Classi- 
fication 



Pre-Employment 
Training 



Employment 
Training and 
Experience 
Mental Skill 



Manual Skill 



Responsibility 
for Material 



Responsibility 
for Tools and 
Equipment 

Responsibility 
for Operations 
Responsibility 
for Safety 
of Others 
Mental Effort 



Physical 
Effort 



Surroundings 
Hazard 



Requires mentality to learn to: Read core 
charts. Visualize core construction and 
plan work details. 

Requires experience on this and related 
work of from 37 to 48 months of con- 
tinuous progress to become proficient. 
Reason through problems and work details 
using considerable judgment in making 
cores. 

Exercise considerable dexterity with trowel 
and finishing tools to finish simple and 
complex cores. 

Close attention for a majority of turn to 
produce properly constructed and finished 
cores. Poor coremaking will result in 
loss of casting. Break or destroy cores 
by careless handling — poor workmanship. 
Cost to remake cores — labor and ma- 
terial. Estimated cost: $100 or under. 
Some attention and care required to pre- 
vent damage to air powered rammers and 
core drying ovens. Damage core boxes by 
careless handling. 

Perform an individual processing opera- 
tion. 

Works in such a manner that injury to 
others due to carelessness or negligence is 
very remote. 

Moderate mental application to prepare 
sand, ram sand manually or with pow- 
ered rammer, place chills and reinforcing, 
jolt and draw cores, patch and finish 
cores. 

Moderate physical exertion to shovel and 
ram sand; lift and carry heavy cores and 
core boxes, place reinforcing pieces. Plan 
work, read core charts, inspect cores. 
Inside, dirty, dusty, not uniformly heated. 
Exposed to slight bruises, cuts, scratches. 
Handle moderate weight material manu- 
ally. 



H 



B 
LO 



1.0 

3.2 
2.2 
1.5 

1.1 

.2 

1.0 
Base 

1.0 



Job Class 



12 



Total 



.4 
Base 

12.4 



Figure 71. {Concluded.) 



RATING THE JOBS 203 

It was pointed out in Chapter 3 that the Weighted-in-Points plan 
does not always use the predetermined degree definitions for rating a 
new job. When the new job is one of a "family" it is safe and time- 
saving to interpolate its characteristics among those of previous 
rated jobs in its family. Figures 63-70 from the N.M.T.A. provide a 
sample of such a family of jobs, namely, vertical boring mill jobs. 

Page No. 673 



File Cod e EB 0710 Q-14 

Department FINISHING & SHIPPING 

Sub Division BAR & STRIP MILLS 

Job Title ( Std. ) SHEARMAN 



Job Title (Plant) STOCK SHEARMAN 



JOB DESCRIPTION 



Primary Function 

To shear to ordered length piles of Merchant Mill recut or stock. 

Tools and Equipment 

Stock shear, roll entry line, hooks, or pry bars, delivery table, wrenches, tape, 
hand tools, etc. 

Materials 

Various sections of Merchant Mill material up to 3V^" rounds and squares. 

Source of Supervision 

Stock shear foreman is directed in cutting procedure by checker. 

Direction Exercised 

None. 

Working Procedure 

Secures cutting information as to cutting from checker and tags. 

Sets bar stop and tapes for length. 

Operates controls on roller line to position material at shear. May use hook or 

pry bar to position manually. 
Operates foot pedal to shear. 
Checks length and adjusts to stop if necessary. 
Length tolerance Vs" over and under. 
Places tags on completed pile. 
Shears test pieces. 
Changes shear knives and adjusts. 



Figure 72. Specimen Example of Job Description and Classification. (Repre- 
sents an Actual Case in Fact.) 



204 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



JOB CLASSIFICATION 

Job Title (Plant) STOCK SHEARMAN File Code EB 0710 Q-14 



Factor 


Reason for Classification 


Code 


Classi- 
fication 


Pre-Employment 

Training 


Requires mentality to learn to: Exercise 
judgment in setting up and operating 
stock shear. 


B 


■ 
.3 


Employment 
Training and 
Experience 


Requires experience on this and related 
work of from 7 to 12 months of con- 
tinuous progress to become proficient. 


C 


.8 


Mental Skill 


Exercise judgment in setting up and oper- 
ating shear to shear materials within the 
required tolerance. 


C 


L6 


Manual Skill 


Uses hand tools to change shear blades 
and to make minor adjustments. 


B 


.5 


Responsibility 
for Material 


Requires close attention for part of turn. 
May cut material too short. Checker 
would detect and hold loss down. 
Estimated cost: 100 T. @ 5% 
(45-15) X 5 = $150. 


C 


1.2 


Responsibility 
for Tools and 
Equipment 


Moderate attention and care required. 
Damage shear and shear knife by im- 
proper adjustment. 


C 
MED. 


.7 


Responsibility 
for Operations 


Responsible for maintaining production 
of shearing on stock shear. 


C 


1.0 


Responsibility 
for Safety 
of Others 


Exercise care and attention in operating 
shear — material is handled manually by 
Helpers. 


B 


.4 


Mental Effort 


Moderate mental or visual application in 
setting stop and controlling movement of 
material into shear. Changes and adjusts 
knives. 


C 


1.0 


Physical 
Effort 


Moderate physical exertion required. 
Assisting in pulling material into position. 
Use bars, wrenches, and hand tools. 


C 


.8 


Surroundings 


Inside finishing department building. 
Dirty — noisy. 


A 


Base 


Hazard 


Accident hazard moderate. Exposed to 
fractures — mashed fingers, etc., handling 
material manually. 


B 


.4 



Job Class 



Total 



Figure 72. (Concluded.) 



RATING THE JOBS 205 

Example of Rating for Weighted-in-Points Above Base. The 

Basic Steel case already discussed gives no weighting to the first 
degrees, merely uses the word "base." Other degrees have weighted 
points in small numbers (one digit, one decimal place). Reference 
to these is by code letters A, B, C, etc. The original specimen jobs 
were ranked one characteristic at a time and assigned these values 
by the "characteristic comparison" technique, but subsequent rating 
for nonspecimen jobs is done by the other technique, namely, by 
matching description subdivisions with predetermined degree defini- 
tions. Since these definitions have been tailor-fitted to the steel 
industry and will not fit any other industry we have given only one 
set by way of a sample (see Chapter 6). For the complete set of 
these predetermined degree definitions see the CIO booklet. Inequi- 
ties Program — Agreements Between Carnegie-Illinois Steel Cor- 
poration and the United Steelworkers of A merica. Thus we have a 
situation where the techniques are used in inverse order from the 
way they are used in the Kress-Cole plans. Ingeniously the total of 
the degree values for any one job has been planned to constitute 
labor grade. By the courtesy of Mr. Wilham Jacko, member, Wage 
Division, U.S. of A., we present five of their job descriptions, all for 
specimen jobs and ranging from Grade 18 to Grade 9 (see Figures 
68 to 72). At the bottom of each description is the reminder, "The 
above statement reflects the general details considered necessary to 
describe the principal functions of the job identified, and shall not 
be construed as a detailed description of all the work requirements 
that may be inherent in the job." 



9 



CLASSIFYING THE JOBS 



At some point in any procedure having to do with the human 
factor, the ability to obtain results on a scientific basis ceases, 
and the judgment of a competent, unprejudiced group must be 
pooled to arrive at the final result. It is recognized that this 
result will be subject to all the errors of human judgment. The 
only way to reduce the number of such errors is to obtain as 
many opinions as is consistent with the progress in the work. 

— Samuel L. H. Burk 

Classification Is a Check on Evaluation, We select the above 
quotation for this chapter because we believe that both analysis and 
judgment should come in whenever job relationships are considered. 
In the first place we must not be confused by the kind or field of 
activity, such as construction, accounting, clerical, etc. It is the 
level and scope of activity which should determine the relativity of 
job worth. In the second place we should not attempt to set up many 
gradations with fine distinctions. An eminent psychologist has said: 

Increased reliability in job evaluation calls for a drastic reduction in the 
number of points assigned to each factor. Limiting the number of points, it 
is true, will tend to promote a clustering of final scores and to restrict the 
number of groups or grades of jobs. However, the final results will tend to 
be more exact, because they are the outcome of a logical approach based 
upon the recognition that the results of any summation cannot possibly be 
more accurate than the most inaccurate measurement taken and used in 
the formula. 1 

In the third place we advocate that the original assignment of 
points to a job should not unalterably determine its relative worth. 
Of course the pooled judgment can and should be applied at the 
time the degree measurements are made but we think it should be 
tentative at that stage and that further use of pooled judgment 
should be used as a check at the time of classification. 

^ Morris S. Viteles, "A Psychologist Looks at Job Evaluation," A.M. A. Person- 
nel, XVII, No. 3. 

206 



CLASSIFYING THE JOBS 207 

Tendency Toward Fewer Classes. Early practice in the factory 
used too many gradations. The International Harvester Company 
in 1919 put its 400 time-paid jobs into 18 grades. The American 
Rolling Mill Company and Atlantic Refinery used the same number 
but the latter extended above hourly paid jobs. An unnamed com- 
pany classified 500 jobs into 15 grades. A case reported by E. J. 
Benge in 1932 cited: 

9,800 hourly paid employees. 
757 distinct jobs. 
70 different rates of pay ($.415 to $.975). 

reduced by evaluation to 

294 distinct jobs. 
14 different rates of pay. 
Even in 1952 one study of hourly rates came up with thirteen levels of pay. 
There are at least two reasons for preferring fewer grades. First, the 
rate differentials are larger and that in turn sets the grades apart more dis- 
tinctly and lessens expectation of frequent upgrading. Second, there is greater 
chance of finding two or more key jobs for each grade. 

Usually the point range for classes of hourly paid jobs is kept 
constant and at first thought there seems little need for doing other- 
wise, but one of our highest authorities, S. L. H. Burk, has given 
arithmetic increases to a succession of such ranges, probably because 
he extends his structure to include jobs of high worth. His lowest 
grade (1) has a range of about ten points and his highest grade 
(18) has a range of nearly thirty-five points. Such increases are 
definitely needed in the money rate ranges to allow for greater varia- 
tion in job content. There may also be greater job worth variation 
for similar jobs as the worth ascends. We recognize that phenom- 
enon in jobs which can be expanded and even created by their 
occupants. For hourly paid jobs this has not been generally recog- 
nized, but variation can be used to correct lapovers and provide 
more room for merit increases in the higher grades. Since the trend 
is toward fewer job grades there is likely to be a trend toward this 
variation in point range; there will be more room for it (see Chap-, 
ter 11). 

Certain consultants are still using as many as seventeen classes 
for hourly paid jobs and Basic Steel has a possibility of thirty-two, 
but the influence of the National War Labor Board, which favored 
eleven brackets for mechanical work, and of the CIO, which 
insisted on ten grades, is now showing results. By way of sampling: 
The Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company has ten 



208 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



grades for men's jobs and five grades for women's and boys' jobs, 
the latter lapping over to leave a total of twelve rate grades. The 
American Machine and Foundry Company has ten grades. The 
Farrel-Birmingham Company has nine grades, the Goodyear Tire 
and Rubber Company has six grades and the Worthington Pump 
and Machinery Company, Wellsville plant, has only five grades. We 
think ten to twelve grades are optimum for hourly paid jobs. Deter- 
mination of labor grades is merely a matter of convenience. Varying 
increments between grade midpoints of from ten to twenty-five cents 
is the usual practice at present. 

Government Action Has Spurred Classification. The Fair Labor 
Standards Act of 1938 made it necessary to classify borderline jobs 
on the basis of service levels so that an accurate distinction could 
be made between executive and operative positions. Then the 
National War Labor Board directed many companies to classify 
jobs, and it used the terms classification and evaluation without 
distinction. In short, the federal government exerted considerable 
influence in extending systematic classification. 

Start With a Broad Frame. It is logical and probably helpful 
to start with a broad classification of all work from top to bottom. 
Two such classifications are harmonized as follows: 



The Westinghouse Electric and 
Manufacturing Company - 

Policy 

Administrative I Top 

Executive f Management 

Creative 



Interpretive 

Skilled 

Unskilled 



Shop 

Management 



The Philadelphia 
Electric Company ^ 

[ General Management 
] Dept. Associate Management 
1 Major Supervision or Highly 
Technical Service 

Highly Skilled Service or 

Minor Supervision 
Skilled Service 
Semiskilled Service 
Slightly Skilled Service 
Primary 



Mr. Hopwood's scheme, at the right, is not so simple as we have 
indicated because he recognizes wide lapovers. We present this in 
full (Figure 73) because it demonstrates how complex such matters 
actually are and because it carries a caution against arbitrariness in 

^ W. G. Marshall, Developing a Supplementary Compensation Program, A.M. A. 
Personnel Series No. 30. 

"J. O. Hopwood, A.M.A. Personnel, XI, No. 4. 



CLASSIFYING THE JOBS 



209 



fixing demarkations. There must, however, be definite demarka- 
tions. 

Key Jobs for Bench Marks. Classification for any single depart- 
ment would be of itself simple but it must be set up to be in harmony 
with the classifications of other departments. This problem might 
be approached by setting up independent classifications for all de- 
partments, leaving the harmonizing to be done afterwards, but we 
think it sounder practice to select several jobs in each department, 
at least one of which is clearly equivalent to one in another depart- 

GRADES AND SUB-GRADES 



General Management: Establishes general proce- 
dure, organizes and directs the enterprise as a whole; 

■makes decisrons of general scope; adjusts relations 
with investors, the public and the personnel. (Presi- 
dent, Vice President, General Manager, etc.) 

Departmental _ and Associate Management: Estab- 
lishes, organizes and directs procedure of major de- 
partmental scope or of inter-departmental scope but 
specialized or limited as to function — administration 
of a major department or subdivision of the organiza- 
tion, original investigation or research, invention, 
composition of data for informational and advisory 
purposes in general or major departmental adminis- 
tration. (Managers of departments and principal 
subdivisions, higher executive and staff assistants 
or their equivalents.) 

Major Supervision or Highly Technical Service: Exe- 
cution of intricate operating practice by delegating 
activities and giving general directions to others in 
diverse occupations, depending upon their knowledge 
and experience for the performance of the taslcs in- 
volved; observation and judgment of high order, 
involving the application of standards and analyses 
of established character; or, directly performing ac- 
tivities of a highly technical character but essentially 
established by higher authority and experience; re- 
sourceful application of coiirses of action. (Inter- 
mediate subdivision chiefs, technical assistants, 
superintendents, foremen, etc.) 

Highly Skilled Service or Minor Supervision: Service 
involving observation and judgment of high order 
with the application of standards and analyses of 
established character, and intricate, complicated or 
exacting details dictated by authority and long experi- 
ence, subject to general supervision only — necessita- 
ting at least several years' experience in training; or 
supervision of others in work of less technical char- 
acter but requiring some degree of skill. 

Skilled Service: Service with features as in the next 
higher grade but less intricate and exacting and sub- 
ject to more supervision, necessitating experience of 
from one to two years in training; may include de- 
tailed direction of others in service of lower grade. 

Semi-skilled Service: Routine work pf limited scope 
requiring only short periods of experience or training 
(several months: for its successful performance; may 
include detailed direction of others in service of 
lower grade. 

Slightly Skilled Service: Tasks of simple character 
requiring only simple observations and responses 
with little learning and experience for their successful 
performance — subject to close direction. 

Primary Service: Tasks and routine of very simple 
character such as ^ may be performed by junior 
workers, workers in early apprenticeship or similar 
elementary training and workers in manual service 
of simplest ciiaracter. 



I. Management — Formula- 
tion and development of 
general procedure and 
courses of action or 
policies, involving origi- 
nal observations, anal- 
yses, the establishing of 
standards, etc.; the origi- 
nal planning, organizing 
and executing of opera- 
tions. 



II. Operating Practice — Su- 
pervision of or the direct 
performance of activities 
essentially established by 
aiithority, instruction or 
direct experience. 



Figure 73. Classification Scheme for Grading Positions. (J. O. Hopwood, 
Salaries, Wages and Labor Relations. The Ronald Press Co., 1945, p. 47.) 



210 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

ment, and so on. By this means a skeleton of jobs can be found 
which will set a single classification for the whole plant. Such select 
jobs are generally called specimen or key jobs. Considerations for 
selecting a key job are: (a) One which has escaped the specializing 
effects of tool or method refinement, but this need not rule out a 
widely standardized machine; {b) one which is stable as to content 
and rating and preferably has been proved satisfactory as a bench 
mark, by previous use as such; (c) one which has a fair number of 
operatives with no handicaps to free competition in the labor mar- 
ket; {d) as a series of key jobs, ones which represent all the grades 
of job worth. 

Classification Work Sheet. Any selection of key jobs should be 
studied with particular care, that is, the descriptions and degree 
weightings must be so well accepted that no serious question can be 
raised regarding them later on. As an aid to checking the relation- 
ship of these bench marks a classification work sheet such as Figure 
74 is needed. Since this is only a work sheet, a special form may be 
avoided. In fact, we used a regular Gantt Progress Chart for this 
illustration. It is particularly helpful if the total points for successive 
jobs happen to show fairly regular intervals, allowing these values 
to be taken as representative of their classes. Note that the maxi- 
mum potential of 100 points facilitates the process of comparison. 

Typical Key Jobs. Naturally the jobs that quahfy for key jobs 
vary by industries although there are a few which can usually be 
found in all industries, for instance, toolmakers job and sweeper's 
job. Certainly some of them must be common to the various indus- 
tries in one locality. The importance of this will be treated in a later 
chapter. The National War Labor Board descriptions for which it 
recorded brackets of "sound and tested rates" were much used to 
guide classification work but E. N. Hay estimates that these pub- 
lished job descriptions "cover considerably less than 5 per cent of all 
jobs that a large company may have." The trouble here is identifica- 
tion. The National War Labor Board descriptions used terms such 
as "large and expensive assemblies," "medium-size work," "small- 
size work," "fairly close tolerances," "fairly complicated circuits." 
and many others which are indefinite and subject to a great deal of 
pulling and hauling.^ 

Job Descriptions for Job Foundries, published jointly in 1938 by 
the Division of Standards and Research, U. S. Department of Labor, 

'^ See Conversion of Electrical Manufacturing Industry Basic Job Descriptions to 
"Dictionary of Occupational Titles" Job Definitions and Code Numbers, prepared 
by NEMA with the War Manpower Commission, June, 1943. 



CLASSIFYING THE JOBS 



211 



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212 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

and the U. S. Employment Service, have the same shortcoming. 
The Wage Administration Manual for Ungraded Civilian Jobs in 
the Services of Supply, published in 1942 by the Civilian Personnel 
Division, U. S. Army, provides a much better set of descriptions. In 
fact, they were described and ranked by Weed, Burk, and Balder- 
ston. We submit these for 44 key jobs, together with a 20-rung 
ladder diagram (Figure 75 ) . They are preceded by three definitions 
which fix the usage of the terms supervision and direction. 



LIST OF KEY JOBS 

U. S. Army, Service of Supply 

Immediate Supervision: Supervisor watches and follows the actual doing 
of the work in order that the workers may know what to do at any step in 
the operation which deviates from the routine, and in order that the correct 
routine may be followed efficiently in accordance with routine and or de- 
tailed instructions. Gives attention to one worker, or group of workers, in 
one place for a large part of the worker's time. 

General Supervision: Supervisor watches the actual doing of the work 
in order that the workers perform efficiently in accordance with instructions 
received. Divides attention among several workers or groups of workers so 
that no one worker is watched during the greater part of his working period. 

Direction: Supervisor directs and confers with subordinates who are 
charged with carrying on actual operations, employing records and reports in 
order to be certain that employees are operating within limits of predeter- 
mined policies and programs. May make "spot" checks of employees at work 
and may confer frequently with them in order to determine need for making 
changes in instructions to complete effectively the work program. 

Descriptions of Key Jobs 

1. Janitor: Under immediate supervision, keeps area assigned to him in 
clean and orderly condition. Sweeps, scrubs, mops, waxes and polishes floors. 
Dusts office furniture. Opens and closes windows. Empties waste baskets. 
Washes windows. Cleans light globes and Venetian blinds. Moves office 
furniture. Washes walls and glass partitions. Cleans and cares for toilets 
and rest rooms. Makes minor repairs to windows or occasionally to doors. 
such as replacing screws, catches, and latches. 

2. Laborer Common: Under immediate supervision, performs wide 
variety of simple tasks, involving muscular rather than mental effort. (Usu- 
ally works as member of group, so that every laborer receives close attention 
from supervisor, including instructions as to what to do, when to do it, and 
how to do it.) Does work of a generally preparatory nature, such as digging, 
hauling materials, and heavy Ufting to facilitate efforts of more skilled 
workers. Also acts as rough helper to skilled workers, holding material in 



CLASSIFYING THE JOBS 213 

place, fetching tools, and generally performing the unskilled, heavy tasks 
requiring minimum mental exertion. Is not expected to show initiative, think 
for himself, or assume responsibility. Uses only rough tools, such as shovels, 
picks, crowbars, jacks, ropes, and similar articles designed for crude work. 

3. Labor Skilled: Under immediate supervision, performs simple tasks, 
principally involving muscular effort. Does work of a generally preparatory 
nature, such as hauling materials, heavy lifting, and holding material in 
place while journeyman works on it. Knows nomenclature of one or more 
trades to which he may be assigned, and is familiar with location of tools 
and materials so that minimum instruction is required. Gains this knowledge 
through repetitive experience while assigned to a particular trade or shop. 
Uses only rough tools of the trade and is not expected to perform any but 
the simplest preparatory operations. 

4. Labor Pusher: Under general supervision, performs work of laborer, 
but at same time acts as leader of small group of from 6 to 8 laborers. Per- 
forms all manual work done by laborers. Transmits orders from foreman 
to laborers, and acts as working foreman. Uses some initiative, thinks for 
himself, and exercises minor degree of authority over laborers, subject to 
constant check from foreman. (Purpose of this position is to insure close 
supervision over laborers, by providing a sort of sub-foreman to direct and 
watch every six or eight men, when total labor gang is too large for one fore- 
man to supervise closely.) 

5. Ironer Flat Pieces: Under general supervision, operates any one of 
various types of flat piece ironers and general apparel presses for ironing 
flat articles. Operates hand iron to do touch-up work on flat pieces or nearly 
flat garments such as nurses' uniforms. 

6. Elevator Operator Freight: Under general supervision, transports mate- 
rials, equipment, and employees between floors of an industrial or com- 
mercial establishment by manipulating control levers or other starting or 
stopping devices to regulate movements of an elevator cab. Opens and closes 
safety gate and door at each floor where a stop is made. Assists employees 
to load and unload freight. 

7. Packer: Under immediate supervision, packs non-fragile materials 
after they have been assembled previously by others. Selects proper size box, 
counts and places contents and excelsior in box, nails or straps covers on 
boxes, makes shipping tickets, and stencils directions on boxes. Is not re- 
quired to transport boxes after packing. 

8. Operator Tractor Inside: Under immediate supervision, operates elec- 
trically or gasoline powered tractor to tow smaller trucks within a building. 
Is expected to know building locations and routes. Does not load or unload 
trailers but is expected to couple or uncouple trailers. 

9. Operator Nailing Machine: Under immediate supervision, makes boxes 
by feeding shooks into machine, holding them in place and operating machine 
to nail shooks into boxes. Oils machine but does not repair. 

10. Helper Trades: (May be helper in any one of several trades: such as 
carpenter, plumber, painter, steamfitter, electrician, or sheet metal worker). 
Under immediate supervision, assists journeyman in particular trade by fetch- 



214 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



LADDER DIAGRAM 


Grade 


! 

Job 


1 


Charwoman 
Janitor 


2 


Ironer, Flat Pieces 
Painter or Sprayer, Productive 
Laborer, Common 
Elevator Operator, Freight 


3 


Operator Tractor — Inside 
Laborer, Skilled 


4 


Operator Nailing Machine 
Packer 


5 


Laborer, Pusher 
Helper Carpenter 
Helper Machinist 


6 

1 


7 


Jr. Electrician 

Jr. Painter 

Jr. Cement Finisher 


8 


Jr. Blacksmith 
Jr. Steamfitter— Plumber 
Jr. Carpenter 
Fireman, Boiler 


9 


Truck Driver 


10 


Jr. Welder 


11 


Cement Finisher 
Painter 



Figure 75. Ladder Diagram 



CLASSIFYING THE JOBS 215 



LADDER DIAGRAM {Continued) 


Grade 


Job 


12 


Carpenter, Construction 
Carpenter, Shop 
Roofer 


13 


Blacksmith 
Sr. Painter 


14 


Sheetmetal Worker 
Steamfitter— Plumber 
Machinist, Maintenance 


15 


Bricklayer 
Welder 
Electrician 
Auto Mechanic 


16 


Sr. Steamfitter— Plumber 

Sr. Sheetmetal Worker 

Automatic Screw Machine — Set-up Man 


17 


Sr. Carpenter 
Sr. Electrician 
Operating Engineer 


18 


Principal Carpenter 
Sr. Auto Mechanic 


19 


Machinist, All Around 


20 


Tool, Die, or Gauge Maker 



Figure 75. {Concluded.) 

ing tools, holding material in place so that work may be done, doing rough 
preliminary work, and generally performing the heavy, unskilled labor 
peculiar to that trade. Does work requiring some initiative and intelligence, 
and is required to learn repetitive operations at least, thus being distinguished 
from laborer. Does not require previous experience, however, to begin work 
as helper. Uses tools of the trade, but only for rough preliminary work. 

11. Helper Machinist: Under immediate supervision, assists machinist 
in the performance of his regular work, but does more routine parts of 



216 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

machinist's work. May work on lathes, milling machines, and drill presses. 
Some bench work. Uses no measuring instruments. Does not set up ma- 
chines. 

12. Painter or Sprayer, Productive: Under immediate supervision, per- 
forms simple brush or spray operations, or repetitive spraying of products on 
conveyor. Does hand or conveyor dipping in japans or enamels, etc. 

13. Jr. Painter: Under immediate supervision, performs rough painting 
work only. Applies prime coat to flat surfaces such as walls and fences. 
May apply finish coats only in cases where appearance is a secondary con- 
sideration to protection. Under some circumstances may brush-coat ma- 
chinery and other objects. Works only with and under supervision of jour- 
neyman or senior, except for very occasional assignments where he is given 
specific instructions to perform a very rough assignment such as priming 
coats by himself. May work inside or outside on ladders, scaffolds, and 
wherever regular painter works. Assists painter in all operations but does 
not do any real finish work. 

14. Painter: Under general supervision, performs painting duties inci- 
dent to maintenance and repair of buildings and equipment. Does both brush 
and spray painting. Mixes own paints when necessary. Paints buildings, 
inside and outside. Paints or stains or sprays furniture and equipment, 
including machinery. May paint signs, either free-hand or by stencil. In 
some localities may be called upon for glazing work. 

15. Sr. Painter: Under direction, paints exterior and interior of buildings, 
furniture and metal material. Work performed is of highest grade, such as 
finish work on hardwood, furniture, and striping. Supervises work of 
painters, junior painters, and helpers on jobs requiring more than one 
individual. In absence of foreman painter, acts in that capacity. Mixes 
paint and matches colors. May paint signs either freehand or by stencil. 
Uses both brush and spray guns. Supervises and participates in rigging and 
moving of rigging. In some localities does glazing work. 

16. Jr. Cement Finisher: Under immediate supervision, hand tamps and 
finishes surface of concrete and cement work poured by others. Applies 
grout and smooths on vertical surfaces to obtain smooth finish. Smooths 
flat surfaces with screed and float. Observes pouring by laborers and signifies 
whether mixture is satisfactory or not. 

17. Cement Finisher: Under general supervision, performs cement finish- 
ing work on structures of a plant. Floats and finishes horizontal surfaces 
by hand, such as floors and walks. Applies grout and patches and smooths 
vertical surfaces by hand. May assist in rodding or hand tamping concrete 
in forms to insure homogeneity. Works only upon concrete and cement 
already mixed and placed by others. May supervise one or two laborer 
assistants on large jobs but generally works alone. Observes consistency of 
concrete as it is poured and indicates to foreman of concrete gang whether 
or not the mixture is satisfactory. Suggests wetter or dryer mix to foreman 
as needed to achieve best results, but exercises no supervision over concrete 
gang. 



CLASSIFYING THE JOBS 217 

18. Jr. Electrician: Under immediate supervision, performs minor elec- 
trical work. Performs some of the duties of an electrician, including in- 
stallation of new equipment and maintenance and repair work, but receives 
much closer supervision and works only on the simpler tasks. Usually works 
in a group, but may occasionally work alone on such things as lighting cir- 
cuits and on smaller motors of less than 1 H.P. Does no radio or telephone 
work. Seldom works with voltages beyond those found in regular lighting 
circuits: 110 to 220. Does no rewiring of motors. Makes no diagnoses. 
Corrects trouble if of simple nature after it has been located by supervisor. 

19. Electrician: Under general supervision, performs general electrical 
work, including installation of new equipment and maintenance and repair 
work. Installs new wiring, working from blueprints or other diagrams. In- 
stalls motors, generators, or lighting fixtures. Works on usual problems 
only, and does not do work of highly complicated nature. Repairs and main- 
tains wiring and fixtures. Rewinds motors. Usually performs this type of 
work after preliminary diagnosis of trouble by foreman electrician, but can 
make simple diagnoses himself. Works with high voltages, 2,300 volts and 
up, but seldom encounters anything over 4,400 volts. Does no radio or tele- 
phone work. Usually supervises helper or laborers where volume of work 
warrants added help. 

20. Sr. Electrician: Under direction, performs more difficult electrical 
work, including installation of new equipment and maintenance and repair 
work. Supervises lower grades of electricians, and helpers on jobs requiring 
more than one individual. In absence of foreman electrician, acts in that 
capacity. Diagnoses trouble and, if difficulty is reasonably simple, assigns 
actual repair work to electrician or junior electrician after explaining what is 
to be done. In cases of major repair on work involving great difficulty, per- 
forms work himself. Works alone on more intricate work such as laboratory 
equipment or special motors. Works on transformers and primary lines 
carrying high voltages; 2,300 volts up. Does no radio or telephone work, 
but may rewind motors. Works from sketches, blueprints, or diagrams. 
In absence of foreman electrician, lays out work and interprets same to other 
workers. In absence of foreman electrician, prepares estimates on work to 
be done as necessary. 

21. Jr. Blacksmith: Under immediate supervision, performs the simpler 
blacksmith duties. Forges small, simpler parts alone, such as putting bends 
in small, flat pieces. Occasionally forges larger pieces of rough nature. 
Performs regular duties of helper, such as carrying material, swinging sledge, 
operating shears, or benders. Duties of this job differ from those of helper 
job to the extent that junior blacksmith uses all tools and actually fabricates 
some parts, while helper does not. Does acetylene cutting in connection with 
dismantling operations, and may occasionally do acetylene welding under 
close supervision of blacksmith. Does not turn out finished parts without 
close inspection from blacksmith. 

22. Blacksmith: Under general supervision, performs forging operations 
to repair and make metal parts. Forges metal for machine parts. Makes 
star drills and chisels. Forge welds broken parts and repairs and tempers 



218 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

concrete drills, picks, or shovels. Fabricates iron fences, gates, and railings 
and installs. Substitutes for foreman but does not do planning or layout 
work. Is seldom required to read blueprints. 

23. Jr. Steamfitter-Plumber: Under immediate supervision, performs the 
simpler tasks involved in the installation, maintenance and repair of pipe- 
line systems, gas, water, waste and drain pipes and other connections through- 
out the post including steam distribution systems. Usually works under close 
inspection, assisting on such jobs as removing piping from tunnels, replacing 
gaskets, repacking expansion joints, repairing leaks in steam lines, repairing 
or renewing traps, cutting threads and bending pipe. On individual assign- 
ment, may repair leaking faucets or clogged drain pipe, repair minor leaks, 
renew gaskets, etc., subject to immediate or complete inspection. 

24. Steamfitter-Plumber: Under general supervision, repairs, maintains 
and installs gas, water, waste and steam distribution systems on post. Works 
on both high and low pressure steam systems. Installs, maintains and repairs 
Unes and pumps, valves, dials, gauges, and other apparatus. Cuts, threads, 
and bends pipe or supervises performance of such activities. Fits and solders 
joints, installs fixtures, and does general plumbing work. May work in group 
under supervision or may, upon occasion, perform routine tasks himself. In 
latter case supervises laborers or helpers. 

25. Sr. Steamfitter-Plumber: Under direction, performs most difficult 
steamfitting and plumbing work. Lays out work and prepares estimates and 
bills of material. Inspects material received. Supervises journeymen, juniors, 
helpers, and laborers where work requires. Works from plans and sketches 
and interprets same to subordinates. 

26. Jr. Carpenter: Under immediate supervision, works in group of sev- 
eral employees and performs simple carpentry work. Uses all carpentry 
tools but is limited to simple and rough work such as concrete forms, scaf- 
folds, flooring, roof sheeting, or nailing on construction work. In shop, 
works as member of group, repairing doors, sash, performing simple opera- 
tions as nailing. Operates power machinery very infrequently and only on 
simplest work such as sawing lumber to lengths. Works under supervision of 
carpenter or senior carpenter except for very occasional minor assignments 
involving a minimum degree of skill, such as nailing back loose boards and 
simple repairs. 

27. Carpenter Construction: Under general supervision, performs general 
carpentry work in connection with maintenance, repairs, additions, and 
minor new construction. Usually works with carpenter foreman or senior 
carpenter, but may occasionally do minor jobs without supervision. May also 
supervise laborers or carpenter helpers on rough preliminary work. Erects 
new structures, additions or makes repairs to existing structures, including 
framing, building forms for concrete, hanging doors and sash, exterior and 
interior trim, siding and insulation. May be required to do roofing, glazing, 
and some sheet metal work, such as placing gutters and down-spouts. 

28. Carpenter Shop: Under general supervision, performs all shop car- 
pentry work incident to maintenance and repairs, using carpenter's tools and 
woodworking machinery. Cuts, saws, joins, nails, glues, assembles lumber 



CLASSIFYING THE JOBS 219 

and allied materials, both in the repair of broken objects and the construc- 
tion of needed new equipment. Runs power saws, planers, as well as uses 
hand tools and sandpaper. May construct simple articles of furniture, such 
as desks, tables, as well as screens, sash, and trim, but is not a fine cabinet- 
maker. May crate furniture and other objects, building crates to fit particu- 
lar piece. Seldom works outside shop. 

29. Sr. Carpenter: Under direction, performs the more highly skilled 
carpentry operations. May work either in the shop or in field. Usually exer- 
cises supervision over other carpenters, carpenter helpers and laborers. On 
building maintenance and repair, acts as supervisor in absence of carpenter 
foreman. Personally does the more intricate finish work himself such as 
cabinet-making. 

30. Principal Carpenter: Under direction, supervises group of approxi- 
mately thirty carpenters and several laborers engaged in building cabinets, 
desks, and tables, making molding and millwork, repairing doors, sashes, or 
trailers. Assigns, coordinates and follows up work of group, lays out work, 
answers questions of subordinates and sees that safety precautions are taken. 

31. Fireman Boiler: Under general supervision, tends 2500 H.P. boilers 
rated 75,000 # per hour usually generating steam at 200 # pressures. Regu- 
lates manual controls to feed pulverized coal to fire boxes. Observes opera- 
tion of automatic water feed. Regulates drafts. Remains on firing platform 
at all times due to fact that pulverized coal may fail to ignite. Adjusts oil 
feed with coal feed when necessary to insure ignition and prevent blow backs. 
Takes coal samples while on day shift. When extra fireman is on duty, 
assists operating engineer in making repairs. 

32. Operating Engineer: Under general supervision, supervises, assigns 
work to junior operating engineers and laborers. Makes frequent tours to 
see that temperatures, pressures, and combustion are regulated properly and 
that equipment is in proper running order. Treats water by adding chemi- 
cals, according to instructions of chief operating engineer. Maintains boiler 
log. 

33. Truck Driver: Under general supervision, operates motor trucks such 
as the following: IVi ton cargo, 5 ton dump, tractor trailer (IV2 ton tractor- 
3 ton pay load), ^4 ton utility truck, 10 ton cargo trucks. Operates within 
plant, throughout city and occasionally between cities. Performs drivers 
maintenance. Helps load and unload trucks and is assisted by helper when 
on short hauls. 

34. Welder: Under general supervision, performs welding operations, 
using electric or acetylene equipment according to needs of work. Works on 
material from Vs inch to IVi inches. Selects type of welding rod to be used. 
Works both in shop and field. Welds on flat work, as well as some vertical 
and overhead. Does not weld pipe or pressure vessels. Generally works on 
tractor wheels, machine parts or gates. 

35. Roofer: Under general supervision, performs roofing work incident 
to mdustrial or commercial establishment. Lays roofing-asphalt, tin, shingles, 
etc., depending upon type of construction. Repairs leaks in roof. Installs 
and repairs flashing. Assembles and erects sky-lights, ventilators or gutters. 



220 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Under supervision, erects and dismantles scaffolding. Usually works in gang 
if size of force permits, but may work by himself on smaller jobs. 

36. Sheet Metal Worker: Under general supervision, maintains, and re- 
pairs sheet metal work. May supervise helpers or laborers as work requires 
their services. Cuts, bends, and fits sheet metal to sizes and shapes required 
for new or maintenance work, using shears, benders, and other sheet metal 
working tools. May supervise helper in some of these operations. Makes 
layouts from blueprints of pieces needed. Installs or repairs down-spouts, 
gutters, metal sheathing, stacks, heater and ventilation ducts. 

37. Sr. Sheet Metal Worker: Under direction, performs the more intri- 
cate sheet metal work. Makes calculations as to size and type of installa- 
tion, and repairing of down-spouts, gutters, metal sheathing, stacks, heater 
and ventilation ducts. Performs the more intricate operations in connection 
with this work himself. In absence of foreman, acts in that capacity. 

38. Bricklayer: Under general supervision, performs any work with brick, 
hollow tile, concrete, cement finish and plastering. Points up brick. Makes 
all necessary construction or repair work with bricks. Responsible for work 
of helper. 

39. Automatic Screw Machine-Setup Man: Under general supervision, 
sets up Brown and Sharpe automatic screw machines #0. Must be able to 
read blueprints. Obtain proper tools and cams. Must adjust tools and ma- 
chine for correct speeds and feeds until pieces are being produced according 
to specifications. Occasionally may lay out cams; however, most cams are 
purchased from the outside. 

40. Auto Mechanic: Under general supervision, diagnoses motor trouble. 
examines rings, pistons. Makes major repairs and overhauls motor. Times 
motors. Determines whether brake linings should be replaced. Lubricates 
autos. May cut and weld (acetylene). 

41. Sr. Auto Mechanic: Under supervision, supervises three to five auto 
mechanics and helpers. Diagnoses motor trouble, examines rings and pistons. 
Makes major repairs and overhauls motor. Times motors. Determines 
whether brake linings should be replaced. Acts for foreman auto mechanic 
in his absence. Keeps record of work performed, parts and material. Makes 
inspection of repaired equipment. 

42. Machinist Maintenance: Under general supervision, installs and main- 
tains ordinary engine lathes, milling machines, or radial drills. Lays out and 
performs difficult machining operations on replacement parts. Diagnoses 
and remedies trouble, tears down and reassembles machines. Performs 
skilled fitting of bearings, spindles, scraping of ways. 

43. Machinist All- Around: Under general supervision, sets up and oper- 
ates various types of machines such as lathes, milling machines, boring mills, 
or grinders, and performs progressive machining operations for any equip- 
ment with tolerances up to ±.0025 inch. Fits and assembles where neces- 
sary. Does work of highly diversified nature. Does maintenance work as 
required. 

44. Tool, Die or Gauge Maker: Under direction, plans and constructs 
highly intricate tools, dies, fixtures, gauges to extremely close tolerances. 



CLASSIFYING THE JOBS 221 

Involves considerable development work, highly skilled fitting, timing and 
adjusting. Constructs tools where no design is available, selects allowance, 
devises mechanism details; e.g., multistation progressive and deep drawing 
dies, complex indexing fixtures, sub-press dies for parts of delicate outline, 
optical gauges. 



Comparison Technique the Better Guide to Classification. Job 

analysts who use the technique of predetermined degree definitions 
have not made much use of key jobs as a guide to classification. 
Usually they apply the degree measures to key jobs before going on 
to other jobs but they depend largely on the degree measures to give 
the point weightings and let the classification follow automatically. 
At best this procedure will conform to the key jobs throughout a 
plant but there is a danger that the interdepartment relativity will be 
less consistent than the intradepartment relativity. Left to subordi- 
nates this system can become too mechanistic. E. J. Benge and 
others who use the characteristic comparison technique are safer 
here, because they depend wholly on the key job relativity to meas- 
ure the relativity of other jobs. We see merit in both techniques and 
find it difficult to choose between them. Perhaps we are trying to 
keep our cake and eat it too but we feel that for a few bench mark 
jobs a company could afford to use the comparison technique as an 
over-all check, even if it intends to use the degree definitions for the 
original evaluating. In short, we would take considerable pains 
with the classification and would check it on bench mark jobs re- 
gardless of individual job measurement, but as Paul M. Edwards 
says, "It should be pointed out that promiscuous tampering with 
broad relationships in existing wage structures is dangerous. The 
modifications advocated should be confined to relatively small 
changes in the rank order of individual jobs or small groups of jobs." 

Method of Paired Comparisons. This term is given by psychol- 
ogy investigators to the method of successively comparing each unit 
in a series with every other unit in the series, thereby increasing the 
validity of appraisal, or for classifying jobs, increasing the consist- 
ency of the classification. In the case of key jobs this would mean 
comparing job 1 with all the other key jobs successively, appraising 
its worth relative to job 2, job 3, etc. The process would then be 
repeated for job 2 relative to job 1, job 3, etc. Nothing more than 
a plus or minus need be used for scoring, one or the other at each 
comparison to indicate more or less worth. At completion the plus 
signs for each job are counted to constitute its score. The whole 
series of key jobs can then be arranged in the order of scores. Of 



222 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

course this should be done by several analysts independently. It 
seems like a lot of foolishness, but investigators who have had ex- 
perience in this sort of thing, specifically Dr. Viteles, claim that "the 
reliability and validity of the judgments obtained in this manner are 
so far superior to those obtained in the ordinary manner [of rank- 
ing] as to more than compensate for the extra time and effort in- 
volved." The characteristic comparison practitioners have come 
close to this standard of validity not by going around the circle with 
each whole job but by comparing one major characteristic of a key 
job with the like characteristic of all other key jobs and then another 
characteristic, etc. 

Ranking by Characteristics. S. L. H. Burk in his excellent "A 
Case History in Salary and Wage Administration" ^ gives a picture 
of his treatment of key jobs as follows : 

The new committee of 10 people, composed of five job analysts and five 
operating representatives, was given copies of the specifications for the 15 key 
jobs selected. The entire committee was requested to study the job specifica- 
tions and to raise any questions in connection with job content, responsibili- 
ties, and requirements which would be necessary for a complete understand- 
ing of the key jobs. The first committee meeting was devoted entirely to an 
explanation of the method to be used and a thorough discussion of the 15 
key jobs. 

At the conclusion of the first meeting the members of the committee were 
given a key job ranking sheet, on which they were asked to rank all the key 
jobs for each of the five critical factors — mental effort, skill, physical effort, 
responsibility, and working conditions. The jobs were ranked in such a way 
that the job requiring the least mental effort, skill, physical effort, or responsi- 
bility was placed as No. 1 on the scale, and the job with the highest amount 
was listed as No. 15 on the scale. In the case of working conditions, the job 
with the most agreeable conditions was ranked No. 1 on the scale, and the 
job with the least favorable conditions was ranked No. 15. Each member of 
the committee, at the expiration of about 10 days' time, returned his ranking 
sheets, and after approximately another 10-day interval was asked to rerank 
the 15 jobs. When the results of this reranking had been turned over to the 
chief job analyst, the committee was asked to rank the jobs for a third time. 

When each of the 10 members of the committee had ranked the 15 key 
jobs three times in each of the five critical factors, 30 ranking estimates had 
been secured, from which an average estimated rank for each job in each 
critical factor was computed. Analyses of the results of this ranking were 
sent to all members of the committee, and at a subsequent meeting the aver- 
ages for each factor were discussed by the entire committee. After very 
lengthy discussion, the average ranks of a few of the key jobs were changed 
by majority vote of the committee, and final agreement was secured. 

""A.M.A. Personnel, XV, No. 3. 



CLASSIFYING THE JOBS 



223 



Series of Jobs as a Standard Comparison Scale. The General 
Electric Company, which combined the characteristic comparison 
technique with a weighted point method, calls its master list of jobs 
a "key hst of jobs," not a list of key jobs. Perhaps this is because 
Mr. Weed selected 

. . . jobs having the highest rating in each characteristic and other jobs hav- 
ing the lowest rating in each characteristic. Jobs in between these are 
selected until finally a key list of some fifty jobs is developed. In selecting 
the additional jobs, it is essential that only one characteristic should be con- 
sidered at a time and the rating for this characteristic should be on the basis 
of known jobs. It is also necessary that the work of preparing this key Hst 
should be done with extreme care and should have the benefit and support 
of supervisors. 

Nevertheless inspection indicates that the jobs so selected fulfill 
the specifications we have made for key jobs; certainly they are used 
in the same way. Because the General Electric key lists are segre- 
gated by characteristics and thereby make a most interesting study 
we reproduce all six lists and a summary of the 35 jobs involved 
(Figures 76 to 82, inclusive). Such listing can also be used advan- 



Mentality is the prerequisite mental development necessary to factory training 
for the normal development of skill and knowledge required for the job. It is 
a complement of skill and should be so considered on assigning points. 



Job 



Points 



Diemaker, 1st, combination dies 

Toolmaker, 1st, compile, large jigs. . 
Boring mill, 1st 16' stator frames. . . 
Machinist, maint. 1st diagnose 

Lathe, engine, 1st, intricate 

Tinsmith, maint. 1st, layout 

Lathe, turr. mfg. compl. arm. spiders 

Diemaker, 4th, plain shear dies 

Lathe, engine, 2nd turn for grind . . . 
Punch press, over 200 T, irregular . . 
Spray, loco, finish large surfaces. . . . 

Auto, screw mach., no set up 

Lathe, engine 3rd roughing of stk. . . 
Milling mach. to fractional dimen... 
Truck, shop electric 

Chip large castings, air hammer 

Labor, inside, bar stock 

Sweeper, sweep & remove chips 



100 
95 
90 

85 
80 
75 
70 
65 
60 
55 
50 
45 
40 
35 
30 
25 
20 
15 
10 
5 




Figure 76. Mentality — Mental Power — Intelligence 



224 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



tageously to test the composition of jobs. If skill and effort are high 
in the same job it may be desirable to revamp, that is, make two jobs 
to allow the skilled operator to spend less time on mere physical 
effort. The war encouraged this to make suitable jobs for women 
but it ought to be done anyway on the principle of keeping each 
individual at his highest level as much as practicable. The same 
purpose can be furthered by care in scheduling jobs for skilled 
individuals. 

Putting Jobs into Classes. With key jobs for all departments 
satisfactorily related it is fairly simple to fix the desired number of 
classes and as other jobs are rated to put each into its appropriate 
class. By the characteristic comparison technique each job is fitted 
successively into each scale and finally by summation finds its classi- 
fication. The Monard V. Hayes & Associates' comparison scale for 
a candy factory (Figure 83) will indicate one way of doing this. 
Figure 84, from S. L. H. Burk, further illustrates the give and take 
which is necessary to keep within the chosen number of classes. By 
the predetermined degree definitions technique used in connection 
with weighted point methods the classification, as we have said, is 
automatic after degrees are determined. 



Skill has been authoritatively defined as "Trade knowledge and the ability to 
apply it." The relative degree of skill required for dissimilar jobs and occupa- 
tions can best be evaluated on the basis of length of training necessary for an 
individual of given mentality to be able to perform the work. 



Job 



Points 



Diemaker, 1st, combination dies 

Patternmaker, wood, difficult 

Toolmaker, 1st, complicated jigs 

Patternmaker, metal, difficult 

Boring mill, 1st 16' stator frames 

Patternmaker, metal, ordinary 

Planer, 7' & over, fab. frames 

Auto, screw mach., 1st, die work & S.U, 
Assemb. floor, 1st, align, large appara, 

Planer under 7', motor frames 

Drill, radial, 1st, complicated, to L/O. . 
Drill, sensitive, 1st, complicated to L/O. . 
Weld, arc, gas, large mach. strength. . . . 

Weld, arc, gas, repet. ref . cab 

Auto screw mach., no setup 

Truck, shop electric 

Weld, resistance & spot 

Laborer, inside bar stock 

Sweeper, sweep & remove chips 



400 

380 

360 

340 

320 

300 

280 

260 

240 

220 

200 

180 

160 

140 

120 

100 

80 

60 

40 

20 





Figure 77. Skill 



CLASSIFYING THE JOES 



225 



The degree of responsibility involved in a job depends upon the hazard of 
error and its probable cost. The use of expensive materials or equipment of 
itself does not necessarily involve a high degree of responsibility unless a slight 
mistake will involve a serious loss. The subfactors to be considered therefore 
are: chance of error, value of materials or equipment, extent to which they 
could be damaged by temporary carelessness. 



Job 



Boring mill, 1st, 16' stator frames 

Diemaker, 1st, combination dies 

Machinist, maint., 1st, diagnose correct 

Toolmaker, 1st, comp. large jigs 

Patternmaker, metal, ordinary 

Assem. floor, 1st, align, large appara.. . 
Assem. bench, 1st, fit, scrape, align. . . . 
Auto, screw mach. & S.U. die head .... 
Weld, arc, gas, large, mach, strength . 

Truck driver, shop electric 

Weld, arc, gas, high rep. ref. cab 

Auto, screw mach. operator, no S.U. . . . 

Weld, resistance & spot 

Sweeper, sweep & remove chips 



Points 

100 
95 
90 
85 
80 
75 
70 
65 
60 
55 
50 
45 
40 
35 
30 
25 
20 
15 
10 
5 




Figure 78. Responsibility 



Application is the degree and continuity of applied effort called for on the 
job. When lepetitiveness of the work is sufficient to form motion habit, very 
little concentration of mental application is required. The degree and con- 
tinuity of direct thought necessary in directing or performing motions on mental 
planning each should be in the process. 



Job 



Points 



Diemaker, 1st, combination dies 

Planer 7' & over fab. frames , 

Weld, arc, gas, large mach. strength. 
Grind, precision, 1st, gas, eng. cranks 
Drill, radial, 1st, comp. to layout. . . . 

Weld, resistance & spot 

Laborer, inside 

Sweeper, sweep & remove chips 

Assem. conveyor, simple short cycle. 



50 
45 
40 
35 
30 
25 
20 
15 
10 
5 




Figure 79. Mental Application 



226 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



Application is the degree and continuity of applied effort called for on the 
job. The subf actors to be considered are: physical exertion called for on the 
job (pulling, pushing, lifting, etc.); the degree of continuity of such effort. 



Job 



Points 



Chip, large castings air hammer. 



Labor, inside 

Sweeper, sweep & remove chips 

Assem. floor, 1st, align appara 

Weld, resistance or spot 

Auto, screw mach., all grades , 

Lathe turret, all grades 

Lathe, eng, all grades , 

Craneman, 30 to 200 Ton single hook. 
Gateman, no patrol, direct visitors. . . , 



50 

45 
40 
35 
30 
25 
20 
15 
10 
5 




Figure 80. Physical Application 



In evaluating working conditions it should be kept in mind that the Company 
is a good place to work and that the low-rated job, such as a sweeper, is not 
undesirable for the type of individual normally engaged in that class of work, 
except where he may be exposed to unusual hazards. The subfactors to be con- 
sidered in the evaluation of working conditions are: hazards to health or cloth- 
ing, hazard of injury, exposure to disagreeable conditions (fumes, heat, cold, 
etc.). 



Job 



Points 



Sand blast, room castings. 



Weld, arc, gas, large mach. strength, 



Spray loco. fin. large surfaces 

Chip, large castings, air hammer. . . 
Weld, arc, gas, high, sep. ref . cab. . . 

Electrician, maint., lead, man 

Labor, foundry, remove scraps, etc. 

Machinist, all grades 

Lathe, eng., all grades 

Weld, resistance & spot 



100 
95 
90 
85 
80 
15 
70 
65 
60 
55 
50 
45 
40 
35 
30 
25 
20 
10 
5 




Figure 81. Working Conditions 



CLASSIFYING THE JOBS 



227 



Total variable points on thirty-five selected jobs covering the entire point 
range are as follows: 





Points 






R 


MA 


PA 


WC Total 








35 





435 


5 


10 


40 





490 





10 


20 


15 


510 


25 


20 


15 


10 


565 


20 


20 


20 





540 


10 


20 


20 


5 


570 


10 


10 


40 


30 


580 


15 


10 


50 


30 


595 


25 


20 


30 


15 


605 


15 


20 


20 


25 


615 


20 


20 


20 





640 


15 


10 


50 


100 


645 


70 


30 


10 





665 


25 


20 


20 


5 


680 


25 


30 


40 


55 


720 


30 


30 


20 


5 


745 


30 


30 


10 


5 


755 


30 


30 


15 


5 


760 


30 


30 


20 


5 


765 


35 


30 


20 





765 


40 


30 


30 


5 


765 


40 


25 


20 


5 


770 


25 


30 


25 


20 


770 


30 


30 


10 


5 


785 


30 


30 


25 


15 


805 


40 


25 


30 


25 


820 


60 


35 


10 


10 


825 


50 


40 


10 





860 


60 


30 


25 


20 


875 


55 


30 


30 


10 


885 


70 


40 


10 


10 


890 


50 


30 


20 





890 


50 


40 


20 





920 


60 


40 


20 


5 


965 


60 


40 


20 





980 



Sweeper, sweep, remove chips 

Laborer, inside 5 30 

Spray paint, supply parts 20 45 

Gateman, directs visitors 35 60 

Truck driver, shop, elec 20 60 

Screw mach. auto., no setup 35 80 

Grind, large cast, portable 10 80 

Chip, large cast, air hammer 10 80 

Punch press 80-150 arm. P 35 80 

Weld, arc, gas, repet. ref. cab , . 35 100 

Drill, sensitive, coml. layout 40 140 

Sand, blast, room, castings 10 60 

Crane. 200 T. double hook 35 120 

Drill, rad., compl. L/0 50 160 

Weld, arc, gas, large, mech. strg 50 120 

Screw mach. bar. mic. & S.U 60 200 

Milling machine, ordinary, index... 60 220 

Lathe, turret, irreg. compile . 60 220 

Screw mach. auto, die head & S.U. . . 60 220 

Assem. bench, 1st, fit, scrape, etc. . 60 220 

Assem. floor, 1st, align, large 60 200 

Grind, precision, 1st, gas, eng. cr 60 220 

Carpenter, 1st, finish work 60 220 

Lathe, eng. 1st, intricate 70 240 

Sheet metal, 1st, L/0 develop 65 240 

Plumber & steamfitter, 1st 60 240 

Planer 7' & over fab. frames 70 240 

Mach. oper. jig borer toolroom. ... 80 280 

Electrician, 1st, leading man 80 260 

Machinist, 1st, diagnose 80 280 

Bor. mill, 1st, 16' stator frame 85 280 

Patternmaker, metal, difficult 90 300 

Toolmaker, 1st, compl. jigs 90 320 

Patternmaker, wood, difficult 100 340 

Diemaker, 1st, comb, dies 100 360 



Note: On a maximum evaluation of 1,000 points for the highest theoretical job, 
the bottom job is given 400 points and all other jobs are given the same 400 
points as foundation. {Job Evaluation, by D. W. Weed, A. M. A. Production 
Series No. 111.) At the time these weightings were adopted, 1932, most wage 
rates ranged between $.40 and $1 per hour and 10 points made a convenient 
amount to use per $.01. This recognized that at least 40 per cent of all require- 
ments are a normal body plus sanity and perhaps the ability to converse satis- 
factorily in an acceptable language. 



Figure 82. Job Evaluation Summary 



228 






^/ 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



KEY JOB SCALE 





MENTAL 
EFFORT 


SKILL 


PHYSICAL 
EFFORT 


RESPONSIBILITY 


WORKING 
CONDITIONS 


26 












25 




Mechanic 




Mechanic 




24 












23 


Mechanic 










22 












21 












20 




Caramel M.Op. 


Trucker 


Cook 




19 








Caramel M.Op. 




18 






Supply Boy 


Candy Bar Op. 




17 


Order Filler 










16 




Cook 




Order Filler 




15 


Cook 


Order Filler 




Candy Feeder 




14 


Caramel M.Op. 


Candy Bar Op. 








13 






Order Filler 






12 


Candy Bar Op. 


Candy Feeder 


Cook 


Trucker 


Order Filler 


11 


Candy Feeder 






Supply Boy 




10 










Cook 


9 






Mechanic 




Mechanic 


8 


Trucker 


Trucker 


Caramel M.Op. 




Caramel M.Op. 


7 


Supply Boy 




Candy Bar Op. 




Candy Bar Op. 


6 




Supply Boy 


Candy Feeder 




Trucker 


5 










Supply Boy 


4 










Candy Feeder 


3 












2 












1 

























26 

25 

24 

23 

22 

21 

20 

19 

18 

17 

16 

15 

14 

13 

12 

11 

10 

9 

8 

7 

6 

5 

4 

3 

2 

1 



Figure 83. Key Job Scale a Measuring Scale for All Jobs. 
(Monard V. Hayes & Associates.) 

Framework for Classification Is Arbitrary. NEMA and N.M.T. A. 

use the same point allotment and until recently both put No. 1 on the 
top grade, but in 1953 N.M.T. A. put No. 1 on the bottom grade. 
The Cole version keeps No. 1 for the top grade and has virtually 
the same degree definitions as NEMA but Cole divides the points 
into 10 grades while the NEMA has 12. If point values run from, 
say, 118 to 381 and you want A^ grades (12) you merely take the 
difference (263), subtract N—\ to allow 1 point clearances 
(263-11=252), and divide by A^ (252^12 = 21). This 



CLASSIFYING THE JOBS 



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230 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

gives 21 points for worth variation in each of the 12 grades and the 
limits for the grades will be as follows under NEMA Score Range. 





N.M.TA. 


NEMA 




Cole 


'-ade 


Score Range 


Grade 


Grade 


Score Range 


— 


Up to 139 
140 - 161 


n 

2| 


10 


Up to 177 


10 
9 


162 - 183 
184 - 205 


31 
4| 


9 


178 - 201 


8 


206 - 227 


5 


8 


202 - 225 


7 


228 - 249 


6 


7 


226 - 249 


6 


250 - 271 


7 


6 


250 - 273 


5 


272 - 293 


8 


5 


274 - 297 


4 


294 - 315 


9 


4 


298 - 321 


3 


316 - 337 


10 


3 


322 - 345 


2 


338 - 359 


11 


2 


346 - 369 


1 


360 - 381 


12 


1 


370 - — 



Some NEMA members set aside a separate set of grade numbers 
for "Women's and Boys' Jobs" running from 25 to 21 and parallel- 
ing regular numbers 12 to 8! We are not convinced that the "Wom- 
en's or Boys' Grades" should have such separation and we would 
prefer to reverse N.M.T.A. grades. It is more likely that a new 
job may exceed the present maximum value than that any will ever 
come below the present minimum. If grade 1 is assigned to the job 
of least worth it will cause no trouble to add a grade 13 for a job 
of greater worth when needed. With point ranges established the 
jobs are sorted according to their point values (Figure 85). The 
a, b, c, etc., indicate subdivisions for the general titles. For classi- 
fication of foundry jobs see Figure 37. 

Increasing Worth Ranges in Classification. It is not necessary 

to use a constant worth range for classification. For positions of 
highest worth it is definitely preferable to lay out worth classes with 
increasing ranges. When all jobs are included in a single structure 
it is therefore logical to arrange a consistent variation into the 
hourly paid classes. The question is important because it has a con- 
siderable effect on the whole rate structure; in fact, we postpone 
further treatment of the subject in order to show its whole involve- 
ment (see Chapter 11). 

Class Description-Specification. Tentative classes,^ more com- 
monly called grades, can be set at this time. Where practicable, 
natural cleavages may be followed but other considerations must 
not be ignored. The main thing is to show the dividing lines dis- 
tinctly in the class descriptions. As in the case of job descriptions, 

■^ Some reserve the term class to designate the levels within a family of kindred 
jobs as shown in Figure 85. We see little need for this and prefer to stick entirely 
to one or the other term for both kinds of designation. 



CLASSIFYING THE JOBS 



231 



Former Grade Numbers 



OCCUPATIONS - MEN 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 






Tool and Die Maker 


a 


b 


c 


d 


















Tool Room Machine Operator 




a 


b 




c 
















Machinist - Production 




a 


b 


c 


















Machinist - Service 




a 


b 


c 


















Millwright - Service 




a 


b 


c 


















Electrician - Service 




a 


b 


c 


















Pipe Fitter - Service 






b 




c 
















Autom. Screw Mach. Operator 




a 


b 




c 
















Boring Mill Operator 




a 




b 




c 














Layout Man 




a 




b 




c 














Carpenter - Service 






a 


b 




c 














Lathe Operator (Engine > 






a 




b 




c 












Lathe Operator (Turret 






a 




b 




c 












Milling Machine Operator 






a 




b 

















Planer 






a 




b 




c 












Sheet Metal Worker 






a 




b 




c 












Welder (Arc or Gas) 






a 




b 




c 












Assembler, Ad .luster, Wireman 








a 


b 




c 


d 


e 








Grinder- 








a 


b 








c 








Painter - Service 








a 


b 
















Craneman 








a 




b 














Painter (Apparatus, Metal) 








a 




b 




c 










Drill Press Oper. (Radial) 








a 




b 




c 










Polisher 








a 




b 




c 










Winder 










a 




b 




c 








Punch Press Set-up Man 










X 
















Truck Driver 










X 
















Punch Press Operator 












a 


b 


c 


d 








Drill Press Op. (Sensitive) 












a 




b 


c 








Packer, Crater 














a 




b 








Plater 














JC 












Welder (Spot or Resistance) 














a 


b 










Stock or Toolkeeper 














X 












Helper Trades) 
















X 










Platers Helper, Plckler 
















X 










Truck Operator 
















X 










Watchman 
















X 










Stock Selector 


















X 








Common Laborer 


















■^ 








Elevator Operator 




















X 






Janitor, Sweeper 




























OCCUPATIONS - WOMEN & BOYS 
















a 


^ 


25 


2i 


25 


Assembler & Ad.luster 
















n 


h 


r, 


d 


ft 


Inspector or Checker 
















a 


h 


c. 


(} 




Winder 
















a 




b 







Welder 


























Punch Press Operator 




















f\ 


b 




Drill Press Operator 






















Al 


_b 


Insulator 






















X 




Packer 






















f\ 


b 


Matron 






















Ti 




Labor - Unskilled 






1 
















^ 



Figure 85. Occupations Classified by Labor Grades, 
(NEMA Industrial Relations Bulletin, No. 43.) 



232 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

the class descriptions become specifications when they are com- 
pleted. These cannot be as narrowly specific as the job description- 
specifications upon which they are based, but they must embrace the 
similar essentials and exclude the dissimilarities of the jobs involved. 
If the doing of this gives trouble a recheck must be made. In fact, 
the writeup of a class is itself a check on all that has been done up to 
this stage. A proper classification, well described, will be very use- 
ful both in hiring and in classifying the employees as well as in 
classifying any new jobs. 

Classification a Last Chance to Do Justice. We now revert to 
our original contention that the determination of the class in which 
a job belongs may transcend in importance the sacredness of stand- 
ard procedure. It is a last chance to render justice. If the employees 
express a lack of confidence in the results of standard procedure we 
think it behooves management to listen. If management cannot 
convince the employees concerned it is far wiser to make the system 
bend a little than to save the system and lose the confidence. Doubt- 
less such a situation should not arise, but in arbitrating we have 
seen it arise and threaten to destroy a whole evaluation program. 
After all, no job evaluation is above human judgment and the judg- 
ment of the employees, despite subjectivity, may at times be closer 
to truth than a mechanistic determination. As much as we admire 
systematic evaluation, in case of emergency we would put it second 
to honest conciliation. We substantiate our position with a quota- 
tion which refers to characteristics rather than to classification, but 
an error of human judgment regarding worth of characteristics will 
affect classification and may be first exposed by classification. When 
we finally classify we deal with net effects and we should treat net 
effects with reasonableness. 

The determination of the relative importance of these characteristics in- 
volves a broad visualization of the conditions applicable to the organization 
under consideration and the greatest care must be exercised not to allow a 
narrow consideration of individual cases or minor variations to influence 
the minds of those engaged in the evaluation. ^ 

Checking Measurements. To check the correctness of degree 
measuring the N.M.T.A. takes the following steps: ^ 

a) Sort all job rating sheets by labor grades. 

b) Sort all sheets within each labor grade in order of decreasing point 
value. 

® W. W. Finlay, "Comparative Valuation of Occupations in Industry," N.A.C.A. 
Bulletin, XIX, No. 3. 

'^ NMTA Industrial Relations Policies and Procedures, Bulletin No. 3, Part II. 



CLASSIFYING THE JOBS 



233 



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234 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

c) Tabulate all ratings on a job rating summary form (Figure 86) in 
order of decreasing labor grades and point values. 

d) After this tabulation is completed, all jobs should be compared for 
each factor. For example, considering education, it should be deter- 
mined if all jobs rated fourth degree on education have the same 
educational requirements, then if all rated third degree have the 
same requirements, and continue to first degree in the same manner. 
The same procedure should then be followed for each of the other 
ten factors. 

In cases where inconsistencies are found, it is necessary to make the cor- 
rection on the job rating substantiating data sheet as well as on the sum- 
mary sheet. In making the correction on the substantiating data sheet, the 
write-up must be changed to conform with the change in degree. For ex- 
ample, if the original write-up shows fourth degree initiative and ingenuity 
factor and the review indicates that it should be third degree on this factor, 
the write-up should be changed to agree with the third degree definition in 
the manual. 

Relationship Between Evaluation and Existing Rates. After 
all jobs have been rated and reviewed to the satisfaction of manage- 
ment, the next step is to get a picture of existing wage differentials. 
To record the wage data, the National Metal Trades Association 
has prepared a simple record card (Figure 87). In using this card 
the following procedure is recommended: 

a) One such card should be made up for each occupation and the em- 
ployees classified by occupation. For example, if a card was made 
out for Engine Lathe Operator — Class C, labor grade 8, points 215, 
all employees working on this occupation should be listed on this 
card by clock number and name. 

b) In the column headed "Day or Base Rate" opposite each employee's 
name, the base rate or day rate should be recorded. 

c) In the column headed "Average Hourly Earnings," the incentive 
earnings should be recorded. It is recommended that a representa- 
tive period be selected, preferably one month, and the average 
hourly earnings for each employee computed for this period. 

d) The period selected should be recorded in the space provided above 
the columns containing rates and average hourly earnings. 

e) A study of the rates on each card will usually disclose considerable 
difference in rates or earnings of individuals in each job. When 
these differences are found, it is recommended that the employee 
classification be checked to be sure all are classified correctly and 
are doing the same type of work. 

With these cards filled in for all key jobs a company is ready to 
furnish the data needed in the survey. 



CLASSIFYING THE JOBS 



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10 



LOCALITY SURVEYS— SETTING THE 
GENERAL WAGE LEVEL 



A survey must be based upon carefully drawn descriptions of the 
work performed and not simply upon job titles or designations. 

— D. W. Weed 

The Problem Widens. Final classification is as far as any one 
management can go alone in this program. Figure 88 shows a plan 
for rate structure, but notice the rate scale is in percentage. From 
there on it is important to have data which will give an adequate 
sample of prevailing practice in the whole locality as to wage dif- 
ferentials. A wage differential may be defined as the difference in 
general or average hourly wage level between any two countries, 
territories, industries, crafts, or plants under comparison; also the 
difference in hourly base rates between any two adjacent labor 
grades in the same rate structure or between different shifts or sexes 
for the same job; also (between any two job holders) total rates of 
pay on the same job and shift. Obviously one of the major purposes 
of systematic evaluation is to attain and to maintain correct wage 
levels. To achieve this ultimate objective comparisons are needed 
periodically. Since this need for intercompany data is mutual most 
industrial neighborhoods have developed some system of periodic 
exchange. The company identities may be hidden behind ABC 
designations but the key is eventually known to all directly inter- 
ested. Wage rates are not as secret as they used to be and perhaps 
it is just as well. Only a low-pay company has anything to worry 
about and if there is a union its officers will know all about the low 
rates and will provide plenty of publicity regarding them. It seems 
that every local union has an intercompany survey of its own, plus 
local color. Square managements do not like subnormal rates any 
better than unions do. More than once in arbitration we have heard 
managers tell union leaders to go out and organize the employees 
of the low-pay competitors. 

236 



LOCALITY SURVEYS 



237 



Intercompany Standardization of Titles. At the time of in- 
stalling job evaluation it is desirable to compare job descriptions as a 
guide to the revision of job titles. In fact, it is a good idea to prepare 
for this by collecting existing job description forms at the time of 




FOUNDRY 
LABOR 



ASSISTANT 
FOREMAN 



REPRESENTATIVE COMPARISON 

Figure 88. Base Wages in Percentage. (National Founders' Association.) 



designing your own form. It is not necessary to have these forms 
identical but it may make subsequent comparisons easier if the forms 
are similarly arranged as to certain essentials. With all job descrip- 
tions in order someone familiar with a group of jobs should visit the 



238 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

plants whose managers have agreed to exchange data, compare de- 
scriptions, check variations or omissions by observing actual opera- 
tions, and finally note how the other companies have titled the jobs. 
Companies do not always conform on job titles after making the 
comparisons but there is little excuse not to do that. In fact, there is 
some advantage in conforming to the Dictionary of Occupational 
Titles ^ if you can make sure the dictionary description is really the 
job in question. Sometimes job titles are clarified in the process of ne- 
gotiation between a union and a management. Preferably they should 
be settled in advance. The trend is to use fewer words and more 
letters or numbers, such as assembler a, b, c, carpenter 1, 2, 3, etc. 
Personally we prefer one adjective apiece, such as machinist-produc- 
tion, machinist-service, etc. You can still use the a, b, c, or 1, 2, 3 
for the several levels of the same kind of work, or better yet use the 
grade numbers and thereby obviate any trouble from the insertion 
of a new job in a family. When differences in function need to be 
recognized as well as differences in level of worth, it is an excellent 
idea to use letters for the former and numbers for the latter.- Of 
course the No. 1 level for one "family" will not line up with the 
No. 1 of another family, that is, these numbers used to break down 
an occupation are not necessarily the same as the job class or labor 
grade numbers. There is no reason why the labor grade numbers 
should not be made to do double duty except that for any one family 
of jobs there may be skips, as 1, 3, 5, 7. When all job titles are 
revised to give simple identification, if practicable standardized 
throughout the survey group, it will be possible to exchange data by 
routine. It is not safe to attempt anything of this sort by telephone 
or by mail until key job descriptions and titles have been personally 
checked. 

Routine Surveys. The forms to be used for locality surveys 
should be designed to call forth just what is wanted. Only day shift, 
hourly rates, exclusive of overtime or incentive payment, should be 
reported, unless incentive earnings can be averaged over a month 
and so explained. The data when summarized must show quickly 
and accurately the level of wages paid in the local labor market. 
Data on jobs which are not common among several companies are 
utterly useless. Hence the first essential is to determine which com- 
pany key jobs are truly intercompany key jobs. If the individual 
companies have several key jobs for each job class, it should be 

^ Occupation Analysis Section, Bureau of Employment Security, Social Security 
Board. 

^ See J. O. Hopwood, Salaries, Wages and Labor Relations (New York: The 
Ronald Press Co., 1945). 



LOCALITY SURVEYS 



239 



possible to find at least one key per class which is common among 
the companies. The titles of these intercompany key jobs can be 
printed on the form or typed on each time. It is not satisfactory 
to use only job numbers as in the case of our illustration, Figure 89. 
Separation of the rates, to show the number of employees receiving 
each, is commendable. This "work sheet" is an assembly of two 
company reports on a single job. No. 7. In practice there should 
be reports from ten or more companies, each showing data for at 
least ten or as many key jobs as there are job classes. After the 
original survey a smaller number of companies may be sujfficient, 
if that is satisfactory to the union. 



WAGE SURVEY WORKSHEET 



I nralit y DALLAS 



Data Collected 
Frnm 10/3- tn lo/lZ- 



Job= 7 



Company Code A. 



Summary 



No. of Employees 



Total: 13 



Hourly Rates 



1.20 1.30 1.40 1.60 



Co. Av.: 1.34 



Remarks: 



Job = 7 



Company Code B_ 



Summary 



No. of Employees 



Total: 



Hourly Rates 



1.24 1.28 1.30 1.36 1.38 



Co. Av.: 1.29 



Remarks: 



Figure 89. Wage Survey Work Sheet. (U. S. Army Supply Services Manual.) 



Determining the Prevailing Key Job Rate. Some surveys show 
only maximum, minimum, and average rates but there are often ex- 
ceptional figures at either end of the distribution. These may mean 
new or long-term employees and should be so explained, but it is not 
easy to make a form that will assure that kind of filling out. Many 
managements are content to deal in average rates, company aver- 
ages, and altogether a locahty average, all weighted as to number 
of employees. Of course an average does approach the conception 
of "prevailing," but a management should not be content with any 
average which is badly affected by extreme exceptions. Erratic items 
should be eliminated before averaging or some other basis should 
be used. A choice of range, modal, or between near minimum and 
near maximum, according to policy, is much more satisfactory if 
not more defensible. The point is this — complete inclusion of erratic 



240 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



items may or may not give an average which truly reflects the pre- 
vaihng rate. There is hkely to be some cancellation of extremes 
but a management ought to know whether or not that is the case, 
and it ought to be satisfied with nothing less than reasonable ac- 
curacy. A few managements go to the trouble of making a distribu- 
tion curve for each class rate (Figure 90). With this kind of pic- 
ture it is possible to select modal spreads of various widths, thereby 
allowing a choice of prevaihng limits for a range of rates. This is 
important because when you get a single prevailing rate you still 
have to decide where it is to go in your range and how big a range 
is necessary (see Chapter 11). 



_ 












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The Summary Sheet shows for 384 persons: 

Salary: Max. $312 Min. $138 Average $220 (1 company omitted) 
Service: Years 11.0 Years 2.0 Years 6.5 

Detailed data v^ere secured for 207 persons. The distribution of these 207 
persons is shown graphically above. 

The arithmetic average (Ma on the graph) for the 207 persons was $222 while 
the median (Me on the graph) was $220, which means that half received less 
than $220 and half more. 

The concentration of the salaries of the 207 persons about the $222 average is 
shown also on the graph. Of these, 50 per cent received between $198 and $248. 
while 68.5 per cent received between $188 and $258. The average length of 
service of the 50 per cent was about 8.5 years. 

Figure 90. Distribution of Rates, Stenographer — Women 
(A. L. Kress, A. M. A., Office Management Series, No. 84) 



LOCALITY SURVEYS 



241 





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to 



242 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Recapitulation Should Retain Significance of Data. Going 
back to the Army Supply Service type of survey, the data collected 
for each key job are summarized on a wage survey recapitulation 
sheet (Figure 9 1 a) which carries instructions on the reverse side 
(Figure 9 lb). Unfortunately this example includes only four key 
jobs and three of these are scantily represented. The greater the 
inclusion of companies, large and small, the greater will be the 
rehabihty. Note also that the spread for the tool-, die-, or gauge- 
maker's job extends from $2.27 to $3.44, the latter average coming 
from only four employees of a single company. One would like to 
know if there were any other employees approaching that high 
figure, as might well be, where 20 and 28 employee rates are aver- 
aged. In short we insist that it is important to sort the rates into four 
or six levels for all companies separately and to retain that segrega- 



Instructions: Enter for each job, under the appropriate Company 
Code headings, the total number of employees and the company aver- 
age rate copied from the Wage Survey Work Sheets. Under 'Total 
Employees," enter for each job the total of the entries in the "Em- 
ployees" blocks for all companies for that job. To compute "Locality 
Average Rate," m.ultiply each rate by the number of employees at that 
rate, total the results, and divide by "Total Employees." Omit from 
this recap any data concerning incentives reported on the work sheets. 
If additional "Company" blocks are needed, use the next set of lines, 
putting ditto marks in the "Job" and "Title" spaces and recording the 
appropriate company code letters in the corners of the "Employees" 
blocks. 



Figure 91b. Instructions for Wage Survey Recap 

tion to the end. It is not fair to let a majority of low rates absorb 
such high rates and call $2.37 the prevailing rate. The reverse 
would be equally misleading. It would be much better to leave the 
data in the form of the work sheets, one per key job, all companies 
carrying the selected rate ranges from these direct to the scatter 
diagram upon which each management compares its existing rates 
with proposed rates. Figure 92 shows a recapitulation or wage 
survey summary, as the National Metal Trades Association calls it. 
It is but one of several sheets covering the entire survey. For each 
job title there are two horizontal lines, (D) for day rates, and (I) 
for incentive rates, also twenty-nine vertical columns with narrow 
rate range headings. Here one can see whether or not the high and 
low items cancel and how far the weighted average varies from the 
mode. 



LOCALITY SURVEYS 



243 



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244 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



In order to make these data as complete as possible, a group of questions 
covering fringe benefits is given below. We would appreciate your answers to 
these questions. 

VACATION POLICY: Years of 

Service— V2 1 2 3 5 10 15 25 
Weeks of 

Vacation — 



PAID HOLIDAY POLICY 

New Year's 



Check holidays paid for though not worked. 

Columbus Day 

. . Lincoln's Birthday Armistice Day 

Washington's Birthday Election Day 

Good Friday Thanksgiving Day 

Memorial Day Christmas Day 

Fourth of July Other (Specify) 

Labor Day 

SPECIAL BENEFIT PLANS: Check financing method of your employee plans. 

Company Employee Both 

Finances Finances Contribute 

Group Life Insurance . 

Hospitalization Insurance 

Medical and Surgical Insurance 

Accident and Health Insurance 

Annuity 

Profit Sharing Plan 

Other (specify) 

WAGE ACTIONS: Effective date of last general increase or decrease 

Amount of last adjustment 

JOB EVALUATION PROGRAM: Please check the job evaluation program 

for each type of employee. 



Clerical 



Manual 



Supervisory 
& Administrative 



Ranking . 

Point 

Classification . 

Factor 

None 

JURY DUTY: How is the employee compensated? Full Pay + jurors' fees. 

Full Pay — jurors* fees. 
No pay from company. 

MILITARY SERVICE POLICY: 1. Please attach policy covering Selective 

Service Act of 1948. 
2. Please complete table below for 
reserves. 

Company 
No pay Pay for pay 

in addition weeks — service No 

to vacation + vacation pay for pay 

Must take training 

During vacation 

Weeks + vacation . . 

Leaves of absence 



Figure 92. (Concluded.) 



LOCALITY SURVEYS 245 

Fringe Benefits Must Be Considered. In the last decade most 
companies have gone in for all kinds of "social wages" or fringe 
benefits and sometimes the unions will take less in base rates because 
of them. Hence the extent to which the companies are committed 
must be considered along with the levels of base rates. The follow- 
ing illustrates the way such information is gathered. 

Intercompany Scale for Job Content. Under the leadership of 
the American Type Founders Association, a scale contrived in 1946 
and 1 947 solely to aid the wage survey was developed for use among 
some forty-five machine companies around Elizabeth, N. J. It had 
been found that no two managements talked exactly the same 
language when it came to job content. So after several conferences 
it was decided to create a series of common denominators to cover 
the essential occupational categories. First a job content scale was 
devised for productive jobs common to the various plants. Eleven 
characteristics (A to K), and four degrees for each were used. The 
degrees are: (1) Negligible, (2) Simple, (3) Average, and (4) 
Complex. Each of these was defined in exact but broad enough 
terms to have application throughout the class of work involved.^ 
Several scales were found necessary, Scale I for productive jobs. 
Scale II for service jobs, and so on. Point values were then worked 
out by pooled judgment, providing such a range as 36 to 44 points 
as total for the highest ranking category, in this case that of a first- 
class tool- and diemaker's job. The next category, that containing 
the second-class tool- and diemaker's job, was given a range of 
26 to 35 points, and so on down to laborer, 7 to 12. Thus typical 
total values were derived for the specimen jobs and allotments of 
the points were worked out for all the degree subdivisions. Brief 
job descriptions were then prepared to bring out the degrees and a 
form was designed which provided space for recording and scoring 
by each reporting company. At first the descriptions and scores 
were tried out in a single plant where the shop superintendent 
reviewed each as to job content and degree credits. When a job 
showed multiple duties it was eliminated as a specimen job. Eventu- 
ally the hst included 33 job titles and 78 categories. This seemed 
quite an order, but with experience it was found that the liaison 
could go through the complete report with a local representative 
in from 2 to 3V^ hours. After attaining proper classification the 
rates actually paid could be reported in routine fashion (see Figures 
93 and 94). 

^ Benj. McClancy, Mill and Factory, July, 1948, and W. R. Hanawalt, Personnel, 
XXIV, No. 5. 



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248 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

During the period of checking the plan job loci for each plant 
were plotted between average points assigned and average hourly 
rates paid. The line of central tendency was found by the semi- 
average method. This indicated the hne of wage policy for each 
company. Two additional lines were drawn parallel, one above and 
one below, providing a band of normal job loci. From this excep- 
tional points became conspicuous and such items were investigated. 
By this means each occupational locus which was not properly 
reported, or did not conform to policy, came under the limelight, 
but most loci were within the narrow band and indicated that 
the point allotments and the degree definitions were conforming 
closely to established policy. In a few cases the pattern shown by 
charting was not orderly and in consequence complete reviews of 
those reports were made so that the causes of disorder were discov- 
ered and mostly eliminated. In any case items that were outside 
the band could be eliminated from further consideration, so that the 
middle 50 per cent of the remaining rates for an occupation could 
be narrowed and made reliable for intercompany comparison. 

Liberal Policy Allov^s Simplification. A company that is always 
willing to match the highest rates can approach this matter some- 
what differently. For instance, the Procter & Gamble Company of 
Cincinnati merely selects nine main groups of jobs as follows: 
(a) stationary engineers, (b) firemen, (c) maintenance mechanics, 
(d) apprentice mechanics, (e) semiskilled, (/) unskilled, (g) 
female production, (h) male v/eekly paid, and (z) female weekly 
paid. Every six months, ten or twelve comparable manufacturing 
companies in the community are surveyed as to their rates for the 
nine job groups. The average base rate per job group for each 
of these employees is determined and the five highest averages per 
job group are combined into an interplant average. This interplant 
average is accepted as the community composite for each group. 
These rates are then compared with the average base rates paid in 
similar groups at the P & G plant. If any P & G rate is below the 
composite rate, the P & G rate is automatically made to match the 
composite. One employee, appointed by the union, is entitled to 
sit with the representatives of the employer during the compilation 
of the survey data but it is agreed that all such information shall be 
strictly confidential and that no record of the figures shall be taken. 
Results of the work may be furnished the union if it so requests 
and of course the adjusted base rates are subject to readjustment 
through bargaining. 



LOCALITY SURVEYS 



249 



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250 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 







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LOCALITY SURVEYS 



251 



Determining the General Wage Level. In the foregoing para- 
graphs we have urged the study of exceptional rates, high and low, 
as a natural means of determining the limits for rate ranges. If this 
is not practicable then locality averages for the labor grades must 
be used to set a single line of loci and some percentage of variation 
from these loci used to set the limits for rate ranges. The percentage 
need not be wholly arbitrary. Experience has shown conclusively 
that 10 per cent, or at most 12 per cent, above and below the loci 
of weighted averages for a community is ample variance to embrace 
all the hourly rates which are "sound and tested," i.e., stabilized 
rates. The whole series of such brackets will compose the general 
wage level of the community. There are geographical or regional 
differentials in a country as large as the United States but they have 
been decreasing. For instance, the North-South differential for the 
aluminum industry was reduced in July, 1952, from seven cents to 
four cents per hour.^ The data can be handled in tabular form but 
there are many reasons to use a graphic form in addition. Some 
individuals are good at visualizing the significance of tabulated data 
but most of us are aided by graphs which are unmistakably visual. 
In Figure 95 we show a determination of general wage level by 



Point Range 


Wage Range 


140- 195 


.90-1.00 


200- 250 


.94-1.06 


255- 315 


1.00-1.14 


320- 390 


1.06-1.24 


395- 475 


1.14-1.36 


480- 570 


1.24-1.50 


575- 675 


1.36-1.66 


680- 790 


1.50-1.84 


795- 915 


1.66-2.04 


920-1,050 


1.84-2.26 



Figure 96^. Tabular Rate Structure 



using a straight average trend line and two straight limit lines 
±1V2 per cent from it. Another case, not shown, has ±$.18 normal 
limit lines and ±10 per cent maximum limit hues. The former 
are parallel to the trend line. In Figures 96a and 96b we show a 
determination of the general wage level by using the modal spreads 
direct. This particular rate structure was designed to replace one 

^N. J. Samuels, "Patterns of Wage Variations in the U. S. 1951-1952," Per- 
sonnel, XXIX, No. 2. Also the B. L. S. Community Wage Survey Bulletins jar 
40 Major Labor Markets. 



252 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

that had 33 job classes all laid out between parallel straight lines. 
This change is a great improvement. 

Establishing the Line. The trend line means the line plotted on 
job worths and average job rates in the locahty. Each point on it 
should represent the requirements of work qualification and pre- 
vailing compensation. If we are going to consider all "out-of-line" 
rates as erroneous we must take every precaution to set the trend 
line correctly. It is customary and necessary to set end rates by 
bargaining. It is also common practice, but not necessary, to draw 
a straight line between these end points and estabhsh that straight 
line as the average trend line against which all other rates are 
judged. It is granted that a straight trend line is simple to establish 
and seemingly logical, in lieu of any criteria for lines of other 
shapes, but are there really any criteria for the straight line? There 
are none worthy of being called principles. Unions, if smart, know 
that a straight line overpays all intermediate jobs when the end jobs 
are staked correctly. Hence they concentrate on elevating these two 
rates, particularly the top one, and are content. Managements sus- 
pect that some geometric curve would be more correct but few 
managements have the slightest idea as to what geometric curve 
should be used; the rest consider a straight line practical, and are 
also content if they can hold the top point down to competition 
level. As a matter of fact, a straight line, as the chord of a curve, 
does approximate the curve ever closer as the scale of items lessens. 
In other words, when hourly paid jobs alone are under consideration 
there will not be much curvature anyway. Conversely as supervision 
jobs, and still higher jobs, are brought into a single structure, the 
natural curvature will be extended and accelerated, preventing any 
one chord from being a close approximation (see end of Chapter 
14). Even here a reasonable approximation can be secured by 
using three straight lines as in Figure 88. 

Criteria for an Accelerating Line. Observation of work and 
earning collectively, or by individual careers, should give everyone 
sufficient evidence as to the actuality of acceleration. Reasoning 
alone should account for this on the grounds that as increasing 
degrees of responsibility, education, and other factors are demanded, 
the supply of competent candidates decreases rapidly, thereby bid- 
ding up the compensation. But there is one psychological law 
which covers the phenomenon, namely, Weber's Law of Discrimina- 
tion, which states that when sensations or responses are in arithmetic 
relationship, the corresponding stimuli form a geometric series. 
Even this is not exactly quantitative because there are many "geo- 



LOCALITY SURVEYS 253 

metric series." Doubtless there are also many different series in 
application, evolved to meet practical requirements, and almost 
none of these is predetermined according to any mathematical 
curve. All we can expect at present, therefore, is recognition of the 
accelerating principle and persistent experimentation. Negatively 
we can discard straight lines except as acknowledged approxima- 
tions which, as we have already said, may be as close, if used in 
multiple, as an empiric curve. Until further research is done we 
will have to be satisfied with trial and error. Some recommend 
making the measures themselves "geometric." Others would get an 
accelerating curve by aid of semilog paper. Still others suggest 
using the preferred number series.^ In this state of affairs we would 
rely on key jobs carefully described and personally checked. It may 
be that adherence to key jobs will sometimes result in irregular 
curves rather than exponential curves, but pushing a few exceptions 
nearer the average trend is less highhanded than pushing over a 
whole trend line. 

Substantiation of Accelerating Trend Lines. W. H. Frater, Di- 
rector, Work and Wage Analysis Section, General Motors, says, 
"your normal wage curve is not a straight line, unless your point 
distribution is on a geometrical basis." So far very few point allot- 
ments for degree measurement have been made on a geometrical 
basis but revision in that direction offers one solution worthy of 
consideration. In fact, it is interesting to plot the behavior of point 
allotments by characteristics. The National Founders' Association 
did that and found that the point values of characteristics coming 
from arithmetically predetermined degree allotments gave entirely 
different kinds of curves when plotted on ordinary scales of key jobs 
for abscissa and point values for ordinate. The curves for schooling, 
versatility, and responsibility showed the geometric tendency par- 
ticularly at the right. Job knowledge gave practically a straight 
line and working conditions decelerated in value as might have 
been expected. The composite of these seven curves gave approxi- 
mately a straight line for the lower ten job classes and then turned 
up perceptibly (Figure 88) for the two highest classes. The General 
Electric Company curves are similar. 

A. W. Bass, writing back in 1936,'^ says, "theoretically, any wage 
structure should embody the mathematics of a geometric progres- 
sion." He advocates the use of semilog grids on which an exponen- 

^ See the present author's Wage Incentive Methods, The Ronald Press Co., 1953, 
Appendix A and Chapter 15, "Accelerating Premium Plans." Also E. N. Hay, 
Personnel, XXII, No. 6, pp. 372-73. 

^ The Iron Age, CXXXVIII, No. 11. 



254 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

tial series is represented by a straight line and again depends on the 
position of the two end points. This is, however, for determining 
the point allotment range, that is, maximum and minimum limits for 
each job class (see Chapter 6). It secures the exponential spread 
of values for each class so that jobs evaluated within these ranges 
will give exponential progression in a series of total worths. With 
this exponential progression inserted in some of the measuring scales 
the final building of the rate structure can be done on a plane 
coordinate grid and a straight trend Une used without violating 
Weber's law. 

The Scatter Diagram. A diagram with point values on the 
abscissa and rates in cents per hour on the ordinate between which 
jobs can be represented is called a scatter diagram. Such a diagram 
can be made as soon as the total point values of all jobs are ascer- 
tained. Undoubtedly every evaluating committee is anxious to see 
what this looks like for its plant and so it is generally made before the 
locality survey is made (see Chapter 1). As it is a picture of over- 
all worth as well as one of rate relationships it may have value in 
connection with classification. But the rate relationships, shown by 
the vertical spread, and consequently any trend or limit lines, are of 
little use until the old rate scale is replaced by the new one based on 
bargaining and, by way of preparing for that, a locahty survey. 
With the survey summary in hand, tentative decisions can be made 
as to the correct rates, ranges, or single averages for the key jobs 
and from these the new rate scale can temporarily be staked as a 
basis for bargaining. Figure 97, called by A. L. Kress a correlation 
of average rates and points, has a straight "line of average relation- 
ship" which is determined by averaging the averages after the pre- 
vailing rates are determined. Note that all jobs are identified by 
code numbers so that their titles and descriptions may readily be 
checked. We do not know which of these were the intercompany 
key jobs but doubtless some of them did not fall exactly on the line 
of average relationships. This might still be so if the theoretically 
correct curve were known. Always there must be some compromise 
and readjustment. 

Lower End of Line a Problem. Academically any geometric 
trend line for worth-rate relationship should start at the origin, that 
is, have no (x) or (y) intercept. In practice such a postulate is 
upset by the fact that one or more characteristics for the jobs of least 
worth would not be zero. For instance, there is some intelligence 
and learning time for any job, and both effort and working condi- 
tions are likely to have some value for the lowest jobs. Consistent 



LOCALITY SURVEYS 



255 



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256 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



evaluation of such jobs would still result in very low wage rates but 
most American employers have long been accustomed to pay more 
than the calculated worth for their lowest jobs. In our time the 
subsistence needs of human beings have been legally protected by 
law so that every employer must have a minimum starting wage. 
The federal minimum is now $.75 per hour. This suggests that 
points must be added to actual evaluated worths to the extent that 
these jobs will rate at or above the legal minimum. It is, however, 
better to leave the worths as they come and put the doctoring all on 



1.00 



(X. 

^ .80 

_i 
o 

Q 







THE 


lORETICA 


L ^ 


k> 
















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- ACTUAL 






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• • 


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y". 


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9 












/ 

/ 














/ 

/ 
/ 

















.60 



.40 



.20 



.20 .40 .60 .80 1.00 1.20 1.40 

JOB EVALUATIONS IN DOLLARS 

Figure 98. Actual Trend Line at Variance with Theoretical Line, (E. J. 
Benge and The National Foreman's Institute.) 



the rates. In the case of a straight trend line the requirement may 
be met by lowering its slope, i.e., raising the left end, by elevating 
the whole line, or by curving it at the lower end. Those who insist 
on a straight line usually lower the slope (Figure 98). The Indus- 
trial Management Society uses considerable curvature at the lower 
end and carries some curvature far up the line." If survey-checked 
key job locations are followed regardless of line contour the problem 
is solved. We think that is the correct answer but we do not think 
any data in this connection so reliable that they might not be sub- 

■^ See their Attribute Handbook. 



LOCALITY SURVEYS 



257 



jected to a reasonable amount of smoothing out if that is done 
bilaterally (see Chapter 11, Figure 102). 

Example of Market Comparison Study. 

The industrial relations department, with the cooperation of the job analy- 
sis staff, selected 30 or 40 anchor jobs, and prepared a questionnaire con- 



110 



105 



100 



95 



90 



D 
O 80 

cc 

Id 75 
Q. 

z 

1x1. 
O 65 



60 



55 



50 



45^ 



40 

























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110 

105 

100 

95 

90 

85 

80 

75 

70 

65 

60 

55 

50 

45 
40 



40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 
DIFFICULTY POINTS 



Trend of Comparison, 6 Nearby Petrol. Re- 

fineries. Jan. 1, 1936 
— Trend of Comparison, Non-Petrol. Industries. 

Jan. 1. 1936 (40-hr. week) 
— Trend of Comparison, Atl. Refining Company, 

prior to 3/16/36 

- Trend of Comparison, Atl. Refining Company, 

aftei 3/16/36 

Trend of Comparison, had 5% been added 

to A. R. Co. rates prior to 3/16/36 

Figure 99. Comparisons of Atlantic Refining Company Rates with Outside 
Company Rates Paid for Jobs of Comparable Difficulty. (Samuel L. H. 
Burk, "A Case History in Salary and Wage Administration," A.M.A. Personnel, 

XV, No. 3.) 



258 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

taining condensed job descriptions of the anchor jobs. These jobs were be- 
lieved to be common either to the petroleum industry or industry in general 
around Philadelphia, or both. The questionnaires were mailed to executives 
in other companies. They were asked to study the job descriptions and 
determine whether or not similar jobs existed in their organizations and to 
note outstanding points of difference. Two weeks after the questionnaires 
were mailed, representatives of the job analysis and industrial relations de- 
partments called upon each of the individuals to whom the inquiries had 
been sent, and discussed each job that appeared similar to the jobs described 
in the questionnaire. For purposes of this initial study, only those jobs which 
were similar or contained very minor differences were finally used in the 
computation of the average market rate, although in subsequent studies it 
has been possible to rate major differences on the basis of our mathematical 
evaluation scale, so that a larger sample can be secured for comparative 
purposes. 

In addition to the rate paid for similar jobs, all information in connection 
with hours of work, number of hours per week, privileges granted, vacations, 
sickness pay, etc., was secured in order that outstanding differences in these 
respects could be properly weighted. Actually, it was necessary to eliminate 
rates from the comparison when such differences made it impossible to 
arrive at a reasonably correct mathematical rating. Such factors as number 
of hours a week could of course be equated, but matters having to do with 
sickness allowance, vacation privileges, differences in performance, etc., 
could not be accurately measured.^ (See Figure 99.) 

® Samuel L. H. Burk, "A Case History in Salary and Wage Administration," 
AMA Personnel XV, No. 3. 



11 



BUILDING THE RATE STRUCTURE 



A job takes its position in the wage structure, on the stairs or 
ladder, not because a man, a woman, or a boy does it; it takes 
its place in the wage structure because of the basic requirements 
of the job itself. 

— A. L. Kress 

The Framework of a Rate Structure. Several problems concern- 
ing rate structure have been anticipated in previous chapters. It 
will, therefore, be unnecesary to treat them fully here. For instance, 
the formation of job grades is described in Chapter 9, and with 
classification fixed you have the independent or abscissa scale settled, 
at least tentatively. The dependent or ordinate scale, which is one 
of money rates, is only partly covered in Chapter 10, and remains, 
therefore, the problem for this chapter. Majority practice at present 
works from a straight trend line outward. If geometric progression 
is already in the degree measures this procedure is above criticism, 
but if geometric progression is left to be achieved at this last stage 
then it may be better to work from limit points, ignoring or leaving 
the trend line to depend on the accepted hmits. If the job loci show 
a fairly narrow and regular dispersion it is reasonably safe to set a 
straight trend line by inspection. This is probably the general prac- 
tice anyway because the correct statistical method is cumbersome. 
Most data in this field are, however, neither narrowly nor regularly 
dispersed and we again stress the importance of the trend line as the 
final arbiter of very important conclusions. In the interest of an 
incontestable gauge for these important conclusions, everybody's 
earnings, we recommend the method of least squares as the only way 
to find the exact straight trend Hne. 

Finding a Straight Trend by the Method of Least Squares. We 

leave it to the statisticians to explain the theory of least squares by 
which the correct straight trend hne may be calculated. We merely 
quote Frederick C. Mills, ^ 

^ F. C. Mills, Statistical Methods. 

259 



260 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



Where the measurements or observations relate to functions of a number 
of unknown quantities the most probable values are those for r/hich the 
sum of the squares of the residuals is a minimum. The residuals are the 
differences between the computed and the actual values of the dependent 
variable. 

The two formulas involved derive from the analytical geometry 
formula for any straight line. 

y — mx + b 
y = Value of the ordinate 
X — Value of the abscissa 
m = Slope of the line, altitude divided by base 
b = Intercept of line on ordinate when x — 



i.40 


-14 ] 

-13 




« , 

(17,14) 


1.20 


-12 
-11 




(14,12)X (16.12) 


1.00 


-10 




(12,10) X (15,101 


) 


-9 




/ (13,9) 


J .80 


-8 


® 


^^ 






(9,8) 


/^(10,8) 




-7 




<8> 
(11,7) 


].eo 


-6 yi 


) 
(8,6) 

1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 . 1 




[ II 


m IV V VI vn vui Lx x 


.40 


-4 y^ 

-3 y^ 




Class Numbers 


.20 


-2 y^ 








/l 2 3 4 5 6 7 5 


3 9 


10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 IS 





'^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 


II 1 . ..1 1 1 .1 ._ 1 



10 



20 



30 



40 



50 
POINTS 



60 



70 



80 



90 



Figure 100a. Assumed Loci for Ten Jobs and Trend Line by Method of 

Least Squares 



For purposes of demonstration we have assumed the loci of ten 
hypothetical jobs, one for each class with worths varying from 40 
points up to 85 points. In practice the money rates would have been 
derived from a locality survey (see Figure 100a). Note that full 
scales to the origin are used. The lower left corner can be eliminated 
latei as indicated. To avoid unnecessary digits we suggest that sim- 



BUILDING THE RATE STRUCTURE 



261 



pie abstract scales be used temporarily as we have done here. Start 
by tabulating the (x, y) values as in Figure lOOb, then compute the 
xy and x^ values, all of which must be added. See last Hne 2 for 
summation. 





Job 1 


y = m X -\- b 


xy 


x^ 


6 = m S + b 


48 


64 




2 


8 = /77 9 + h 


72 


81 




3 


S = m 10 + b 


80 


100 




4 


7 = m 11 + b 


77 


121 




5 


10 = m 12 + Z) 


120 


144 


n 


=:: 10 6 


9 = m 13 -i- b 


117 


169 




7 


12 = m 14 + Z? 


168 


196 




8 


10 = m 15 + b 


150 


225 




9 


12 = m 16 + /) 


192 


256 




10 


U = m 17 +> 


238 


289 


2 


96 = m 125 + 10b 


1,262 


1,645 



Figure 100b. Calculations by Method of Least Squares 
Further calculations speak for themselves as follows: 



[The two formulas needed are 
(I) and (II).] 



Multiplying (2) by 12,vf to 
equalize b, 

Subtracting (2a) from (1), 
Substituting (3a) in (1), 



Ixy = m^x^ + b^x (I) 

1,262 = m 1645 + Z7 125 (1) 

^y — ml^x -\' nb (II) 

96 = m 125 + lOb (2) 

1,200 = 1562.5m + 125Z? (2a) 

1,262= 1645m +1256 (1) 



62 

m 

\25b 

b 



82.5m 
.757 
16.73 
.134 (the 



(3) 
(3a) 

y intercept) 

Trend line equation y - .757 x + .134 (4) 

For any value of x, say 17, substitute in (4) from which y — 13. 
Similarly x- 0, y = .134. 

Draw straight line between points (0, .134) and (17, 13). In our 
illustration the slope m comes out .757 and the intercept b is .134, 
so that the equation for the trend line may be written y = .757;c + 
.134 and by substituting in that any x value the corresponding >' 
value appears. We can now locate the straight line from the inter- 
cept point (0, .134) to the highest point (17, 13). As a check on 



262 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



calculations we use Figure 100c in which a set of yt values are 
calculated from the trend line formula to correspond to the x values. 
Differences, r, are made by subtracting yt values from y] values. 
These are added algebraically. The sum should be zero. Finally the 
r values are squared and added. These are the "residuals" and their 
sum is the least possible attainable from the given data. 



Loci of Jobs 


Ordinates for 

X Intervals on 

Trend Line 


Residuals 

Plus and Minus 

r 

+ - 


Residuals 
Squared 


X 


Ji 


8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 


6 

8 
8 
7 
10 
9 

12 
10 
12 
14 


6.19 
6.95 

7.70 

8.46 

9.22 

9.97 

10.73 

11.51 

.27 

13.00 


.19 

1.05 
.30 
1.46 

.78 
.97 

1.27 
1.51 
.27 

1.00 


.04 
1.10 

.09 
2.13 

.61 

.94 
1.61 
2.28 

.07 
1.00 


2 


4.40 - 4.40 


9.87 



yj — Ordinate values of the job loci from the ground line, x = 0. 
yt = Ordinate values of same from the trend line formula 
r = Residuals or differences between yj and yt 

Figure 100c. Proof of Method of Least Squares 



Use of Limit Lines. A trend line shows the loci of averages, 
which means roughly that half of the jobs will lie below and half 
above it. Few managements aim to relocate all the jobs right on 
this line. Even if the unaccountable variations were all eliminated 
there would still be variations due to length of service and other 
man-merit differences which are justly accounted for. These should 
fall between reasonable Hmits, which are usually found to be about 
±12 per cent or not more than ±15 per cent for high-skilled jobs. 
For low-skilled jobs it can be ± 4 per cent. It is therefore per- 
missible and helpful to add Hues indicating such sectors. Figure 101 
illustrates this practice applied to an actual set of job loci. This kind 
of graph makes a good framework for the further construction of a 
rate structure, that is, the rate ranges can now be related vertically 
to the limits while the job worth classes fix the relation of "class-rate 
boxes" to the horizontal scale. Some managements keep both limit 
Hues at, say, ±10 per cent from the trend line while others use a 



BUILDING THE RATE STRUCTURE 



263 



±$0.12. We prefer to reduce the percentages as the job classes 
descend. This convergence reduces an undesirable amount of rate 
range lapover at the left of the chart. Another way of setting the 
limit lines is to proportion their magnitudes so that the minimum 
rates are always a certain percentage, say 75 per cent, of the maxi- 
mum rates. This method seems just but it involves excessive lap- 
overs at the left of the structure (see Figure 1 16a) . 



140 
130 
120 



Q^llO 

o 
^100 

LU 
Q. 

CO 

H- 
Z 
LU 

o 



90 
80 
70 
60 
50 



















• 




1 . 


















J 


y- 


^ 
















• y 


m 


















y'\ 


• 


y 




^y 














yy 


• ^ 






yy'^ 












;y 


^ 


•^^^ 


• 
















^ 


•^x* 


• 


/-^^^ 














y 


' "^ 


'• • 


• ^^ — 
















• y^ 


y^ 


















t 


^•^ 


y. 


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• 
• 














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y^ 


^^ 


















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• ^ 


■•' 


* 














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•^ 


• 


• 












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/./ 


^^ 


• 


• 












y 


^ 


• 






• 












^ 


"^^ 


»_ 




































• 






















Ki- 


h2- 


K-3- 


1-4- 


h5- 


he- 


h-7- 


l-8-> 


h-9-^ 


h-10- 





JOB CLASSES 

Figure 101. Average of Previous Hourly Earnings and Job Rating Points 
Showing Trend with Two Limit Lines. (The job loci from National Metal 

Trades Association.) 



Fixing Line by Inspection Allows Adherence to Pattern. Some 
companies start with a trend line but shun the statistical method. 
They do so, not because the statistical method is cumbersome, but 
because they find that the straight trend line is not their true trend 
line. Among these companies there are two approaches in use, one 
taking only intercompany key jobs and one taking averages of all 
jobs within their own plants. The first approach has the advantage 
of directness and can at once use a money rate scale in harmony 
with the locahty survey while the second approach will give a ten- 



264 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



tative money rate scale which must be checked and perhaps altered 
if it is to conform to the locality survey figures. Nevertheless this 
latter approach, the use of averages, may be preferred by a com- 
pany which has been paying above the prevaiUng rates. It brings 
all jobs into the picture and relies less on interpolation for nonkey 
jobs. A union may want this practice in order to retain a rate pat- 
tern that it has previously influenced. The American Rolling Mill 
Company first averages the rates by classes for each plant, and plots 
an actual irregular curve for each. It then averages the rates by 
classes for all plants and plots that irregular curve (see curve A, 
Figure 102). This curve is now smoothed out by inspection (curve 



14 


- 








1 1 

B -Smoothed-out-\ Z' 


13 


- 










/ 


12 












A /// 


roll 


_ 


A - Actual 


Average for T 


hree Plants — 




JA/ 


3 10 

§ 9 

O 

1 ' 

a 6 

5 5 

2 4 


- 








y 


/ 


- 








^ C - Base Rates 
i 


- 


^^^ 






C=- 


100 B 
115 


3 


























2 


- 












1 


1 1 


1 1 


1 1 


1 1 


1 1 


1 1 



5 6 



7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 
JOB CLASSES 



Figure 102. Job Class-Rate Curves for The American Rolling Mill Com- 
pany, Showing Trend Line and One —15 Per Cent Limit Line 



B ) , and the resulting empiric geometric curve is adopted as the line 
of prevaihng rates. To secure a range for money rates the company 
next plots another curve 15 per cent below the original smoothout. 
This curve C is established as the line of base rates. Thus the com- 
pany may hire at rates below curve C and have more than the 
15 per cent range for increases as new operators become seasoned. 



BUILDING THE RATE STRUCTURE 265 

The General Motors Corporation finds the trend fine but uses a 
dozen trusted key job loci to set two limit lines. 

Working from Limit Lines Inward. As we hinted in the pre- 
vious chapter it is possible to take limits directly from the locality 
survey data (see Chapter 10, Figure 90). It may even seem de- 
sirable to predetermine two limit lines before or even without ascer- 
taining a trend line. This is likely to occur when jobs of very high 
worth are to be included with those of lower worth because there 
would be need for more than one segment of trend line. In fact, 
when higher supervisory jobs are included there is no room for 
doubt about geometric progression. Not even two straight diverg- 
ing limit lines, which provide room for increasing the absolute rate 
ranges, are satisfactory. The divergence would have to be very great 
and at the right end the lower limits would be much too low. For 
these reasons many companies have declined to apply systematic 
evaluation to their higher jobs. Others have devised entirely sepa- 
rate systems for the two categories. Almost alone, at least in 
publication, is the case of the Philadelphia Electric Company (Fig- 
ure 103). The figures given are fictitious but the inclusion of 
departmental and associate management jobs is real enough. No 
average trend line is used. We do not criticize that omission but 
when we calculate mid-loci we notice that the variance begins with 
±35 per cent and decreases to ±16% per cent at the top of skilled 
service, then declines to ± 1 1 V^ per cent at the top of highly skilled 
or minor supervision, etc., ending at ±15^/^ per cent for the last 
grade shown. Perhaps it is the fictitious figures but ±12 per cent 
should be more than ample at the bottom. Ever widening spreads 
are usually needed as you ascend to the highest levels. 

Practical Circumstances Produce a Variety of Job Loci Ar- 
rangements. One should not infer that limit lines are applied in- 
exorably. They are needed as guide lines but for practical reasons 
are not carried into the final structure. For instance, if ranges are 
used, both for job worth and for money rates, each two-way range 
would be set up as a rectangle. This keeps the top, intermediate, 
and bottom money rates on constant levels for any one range of 
worths. If the oblique limit lines were used as boundaries the 
money rate range would have a varying floor and a varying ceiling, 
either of which is obviously impractical. In Figure 104 (A, B, C, 
D, E, and F) we conventionalize some of the arrangements that are 
developed by special conditions in practice. These graphs are 
restricted to the lowest five job classes and the abscissa scale is 
made relatively small to get all six graphs on a single page. The 



266 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



Monthly 
Rates 



-1000 
— 75 

50 

25 

-^00 

^75 

50 

25 

—800 

^75 

50 

25 

—700 
































J 






r~i 




































Departmental 
and Associate 
Management 


































J 
































/ 


/ 




































/ 


/ 




































/ 


/ 




































/ 


/ 




































/ 


/ 




































/ 


/ 


































y 




/ 


































/ 




/ 


































/ 


j 




































/ 


/ 




































/ 


/ 








50 






























/ 


/ 


































feJS- 


f 


/ 








— 600 

^75 

50 

29 




























/ 




/ 


































/ 


1 




































/ 


/ 
























RATE RANGES 


/ 


/ 




































/ 


/ 




































/ 


k 


/ 










50 

25 

— 400 


























/ 


1 




































/ 


/ 




































/ 


/ 


































7 




/ 












50 






















^ 


/ 


,/ 


































7 


/ 














— 30O 
75 

50 

nr 




















7 


f 1 


^ Ma 


or Supe 


rvision c 


r Highly 


Techni 


:al Serv 


ce - — 
















7 


'^J 


k 


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-; 


i 1 

1 


/" 


























1 


r/ 


i A 


'240 


















-200 










7 


.0, 


A 


A'' 




























^/' 


,'^ 


^9o'Hig 


ilyS 


>kiii 


5d Serv! 


;e or Ml 


nor Supc 


rvision 








50 

25 

—100 
15 

50 






^^ 


'\ 


Y^ 


^t7d 


























^P^ 


i 


'iTn 




























^\ 


J 


Sen 


k? 


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J^ 


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rff 


ii-Skilled Service 






















^ 


t^ Slightly Skilled Service 
























25 


r'^0 Primary Service 


1 


J 


J 

























6 5 (-) 5 4B (•) 4B 4A (-) 4A 3B (-) 3B 3A (-) 3A 
SERVICE GRADES 



2B 2A 



Figure 103. Rate Gradation of Minimum and Maximum Rates by Service 
Grades. (A.M.A. Management Series No. 55.) 



BUILDING THE RATE STRUCTURE 267 

"pinpoints" of graph A represent the best structure attainable when 
a union wins the right to negotiate for each job. A single rate for 
each class is fairly common practice for hourly paid jobs. Graph B 
is the arrangement which frequently occurs when a union succeeds 
in blocking any use of money rate ranges. Either of these arrange- 
ments may happen when seniority is carried to the extreme. Graph 
C is the rare case of combining no worth range with wide money 
rate ranges. It invites strong union pressure to raise the lower 
rates. Graph D represents the practice of progression on a time 
basis. Some companies have applied this arrangement to the new 
hires of all classes of hourly paid jobs but we think it should be 
applicable only to apprentice jobs. Unless end rates alone are used, 
favoritism, or the suspicion of it, is bound to develop. Graph E 
illustrates the use of rectangles for two-way ranges. Note that there 
is a one-point gap laterally to preclude the question to which group 
a job belongs. Boxes without money lapover necessitate very low 
money range to prevent impractical stacking as to rate location. 
Note that in Graph E this is already manifested in the first five job 
classes. In Graph F a starting lapover of $.04 brings much more 
practical locations for the end boxes. If floor rates are fixed irregu- 
larly the use of constant ranges will give irregular ceilings. 

Practical Arrangements of Trend and Limit Lines. In Figure 

105 A, B, C, D, E, and F we present six arrangements of these lines 
to illustrate what can and what cannot be obtained by purposeful 
selection. Superficial critics may conclude that any selection of 
lines, choice of arrangement, and the like, will sell out the natural 
results of job evaluation. Well, it does end any illusion of a single 
mathematical solution but one can hardly expect such a simple 
solution if he has taken all the complexities into consideration. 
Building a rate structure is like assembling equipment in a sub- 
marine. Either the over-all dimensions must be set to include all 
the subassemblies or else the latter must be adjusted to fit the 
former. Certainly all interference must be overcome so that ceilings 
and floors will be suited to what they are to house, or vice versa. 
Graphs A and B show the differences between constant money limits 
and constant percentage limits. Graphs C and D illustrate varying 
percentage limits, one with a straight trend line and one with a 
logarithmic trend line. Graphs E and F suggest a way to favor 
the lower worth jobs if that should be desired. We will show sub- 
sequently that the arrangement of graphs A and B have the fault of 
excessive rate lapovers for the lower worth classes and conversely 
graphs C and D have the fault of excessive rate lapovers for the 



268 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 




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saviioa NI 3iva a3noin 



BUILDING THE RATE STRUCTURE 



269 




syvnoo Ni S3iva a3nov\i 



in 


1.32 
1.19 




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JCENTA 
.IMITS 


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in CM CT> 




syviioo NI S3iva a3noiai 



SdVlTOO NI S3iVd A3N0l^ 



270 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



higher worth classes. Graphs E and F avoid both of these fauhs 
and are therefore worthy of serious consideration for that reason 
alone. 

Rate Structure for all Skilled Jobs. Wherever skill is high it 
is customary to hire novices or untried operatives at a rate consider- 
ably below the average. Figures 106 and 107 illustrate the use of 
automatic time increases to build up from low hiring rates to the 
regular rate structure. In Figure 106 progression within each grade 
would be scheduled by abscissa subdivisions, but they are not shown. 



165 



135 - 



105 




175 225 

WEIGHTED POINTS 



425 



Figure 106. Automatic Time Progressions for Semiskilled Jobs (from hiring 
rates to prevailing rates). (Western Electric Company, Inc.) 



In Figure 107 these intragrade schedules are shown as ordinates. 
The latter may be recognized by imagining a minimum limit line 
through the loci marked with zeros. At these points qualified 
operatives are hired. From there on they too progress according 
to time periods as indicated by the numbers (months) within the 
chart. The scale of months for the "learners" is along the right 
ordinate and has the maximum of 33. The topmost two steps are 
not on the automatic basis because they lie above the average trend 
line, not shown. A line along the 9-month points would be the 
maximum limit line. Note that there is a pronounced acceleration 
in this series of ceiling loci. There is also some acceleration in the 
floor (0) loci starting from Class No. 8. 



BUILDING THE RATE STRUCTURE 



271 



Two Kinds of Rate Progression. The use of automatic time pro- 
gressions as described above is definite, does not depend on favor, 
and is in no sense a pretext for hiring below the Hmits for quahfied 
craftsmen. Most employers believe, however, that their use is justi- 
fied only between hiring rate and base rate; that wherever individual 
variance of input can effect substantial variance of output, rate pro- 



I iiU 


- 


















9 
6 


130 


9 


3 




6 





120 


9 


3 




i/) 


6 







d 1 10 


9 


3 






2. 
0: 

o 100 

X 


6 









9 


3 








6 













9 


3 










g 90 


6 













9 


3 












or 


6 

















7 


3 














.80 


b 



















5 


3 
















70 


3 





















1 2 


60 








1 








1 


i 


1 





10 



Figure 107. 



7 6 5 

LABOR GRADES 



7 y 
6 
5 
3 



Automatic Time Progression for Beginners and Qualified 

Operators (from hiring rates to maximum rates). 

Numbers within chart represent the number of months for qualified operators, 

i.e., zeros show levels at which they are hired. (Data from Agreement of February 

6, 1943, between the Curtiss-Wright Corporation, Propeller Division, and Aircraft 

Lodge No. 703, International Association of Machinists, AF of L.) 



i 



gression above mid-line should not be determined solely by the 
lapse of time. The National War Labor Board, after some seesaw- 
ing, came to the same conclusion in 1945. It ordered the use 
of automatic time progressions from hiring rates to quahfied rates 
(mid-line) and merit progressions between quahfied rates to maxi- 
mum rates "subject to appeal through the established grievance 
procedure." This did not please the extremists of either side, but it 
gave each side the part it wanted most and conformed to what the 



272 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Students of wage rate structure had contended for all the time as a 
matter of sound principle. In fact, there are two principles and no 
conflict. First, the lower sector of the rate structure exists primarily 
as a recognition that the employer has the right to hire below base 
rate because he cannot be sure that the new employee is really quah- 
fied. A trial over some reasonable time ^ will prove whether or not 
the new employee is qualified. Retention at the end of this trial 
period is acknowledgment of his qualification. In other words, this 
is a matter of time. Second, the upper sector of the structure exists 
as a recognition that the employee may perform better than the 
qualifying requirement and if he does so he is worth more than the 
base rate, that is. he is entitled to an individual- or man-differential 
in proportion to his degree of excellence regardless of how soon it 
is evidenced. 

Base Rates for Incentive-Paid Jobs. Jobs for which tasks have 
been developed as a gauge for measuring productive efiiciency 
should have base rates set in exactly the same manner as going 
rates are set for the other jobs. Special guarantee rates may be 
different from the regular going rates (see Chapter 5). Rates in 
terms of productivity or efficiency are a different matter. These 
rates per piece, per standard hour, per "B," etc., all depend on the 
tasks which are not comparable between plants but should be con- 
sistent within any one plant. Because this kind of rate setting re- 
quires continuous adjustment we leave its treatment to the next 
chapter. 

More Grades, Smaller Differentials. A larger number of job 
grades provides for more frequent promotion, but unions may ob- 
ject to the smaller differentials. If there is no objection to extra 
grades and to considerable lapover in the money rates it is possible 
to make a consistent structure by laying out a background of hori- 
zontal lines spaced as follows: the first three at $.06 intervals, the 
next seven at $.08 intervals, the next five at $.10 intervals, and the 
last three at $.12 intervals. On this background 16 job grades of 
equal worth range can be set up, using each successive horizontal 
level as the base of each successive rate range. If each of these 
ranges spreads upward over three of the intervals each grade will 
extend one interval higher than the preceding grade and the top of 
each box will be on the level of the bottom of the third grade farther 
along. This causes a four-grade rate lapover but always provides 

^ The National War Labor Board's second directive to Maxson said: "four months 
for unskilled jobs, six months for semiskilled jobs, and eight months for skilled 
jobs." (See Figure 120.) 



BUILDING THE RATE STRUCTURE 



273 



one full step per grade above the top of the preceding grade. With 
clearances of one cent the lapover could be reduced to three grades. 
There is some acceleration in pay along the floors and considerable 
acceleration along the ceilings because of the increase in the magni- 
tudes of the pre-arranged horizontals. This also provides four 
standardized rates A, B, C, and D (3 ingrades) within each box — 
the horizontal lines can be used for keeping the ingrade rates in 
harmonious relationship throughout the whole structure. Figure 
1 08 illustrates this ingenious arrangement. 



2.75 
2.64 
2.52 



2.40 
2.30 
2.20 
2.10 
2.00 
1.90 
1.82 
1.74 
1.66 
1.58 
1.50 
1.42 

1.34 
1.28 
1.22 
1.16 



A 


8 




A 


8 


c 




A 


8 


C 


D 




A 


B 


C 


D 




A 


B 


c 


D 




A 


8 


c 


D 




A 


B 


C 


D 




A 


8 


C 


D 




A 


B 


C 


D 




A 


B 


C 


D 




A 


B 


C 


D 




A 


B 


C 


D 




A 


B 


C 


D 




A 


8 


C 


D 




A 


B 


C 


D 






B 


C 


D 






C 


D 






D 


1 



16 15 14 



13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 
OCCUPATIONAL GRADES BY NUMBER 



Figure 108. Four Grade Lapover. (American Seating Company.) 



The Problem of Money Range Lapover. Some lapping over of 
money ranges is desirable primarily for merit rating but also for 
flexibility. An operative is frequently hired for a job which he or 
she has held elsewhere and must be given a "man-differential" on 
top of the base rate (see Chapter 13). Furthermore, it is impossible 
to keep some jobs going all the time and so an employee must be 
temporarily transferred to some job other than his regular one. 



274 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



When this is carried beyond any one class it raises complications as 
to money rate if there is no lapover of money ranges. Of course the 
width of worth ranges, or number of job classes, also is involved and 
it is apparent that the fewer the grades are, the wider will be their 
worth ranges, which makes for some flexibility without any lapover. 
Excessive lapover of wage ranges is likely to bring disorder and in- 
justice; it will tend to defeat the main purposes of job evaluation. 
So each management must work out some pohcy on how far to over- 
lap. No doubt many rate structures are built without predetermin- 

2.80 



2.60 - 



2.40 



2.20 

2.00 

1.80 

1.60 

1.40 

1.20 
1.00 



- 










y 


y 


y\ 


- 






.^ 


y 


C 


y 


^ 


^""^i 


- 


y 


y 


f^- 


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y 


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1 1 in 1 


I I 


V ! 


1 V II VI 1 


1 VII 


1 1 VIII 1 


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X I 1 X 1 



40 



50 



60 70 

WORTH IN POINTS 



80 
Equal Ranges) 



90 



100 



Figure 109. Theoretical Floor and Ceiling for Money Rates 



ing any specific policy on this matter and we see no objection to 
experimenting with the purpose of finding a practical pohcy; in fact 
we recommend just that. The experimenting is best done by means 
of graphs and tables; always use both. The National War Labor 
Board of World War II approved of a 20 per cent spread through- 
out the structure for shop jobs and 33VS per cent for office jobs. 
The Wage Stabilization Board allowed variations from 15 to 35 per 
cent provided they averaged around 25 per cent. 

Straight Lines and Equal Worth Ranges. Figure 109 continues 
with the data shown in Figure 101. First the limit lines are broken 
into ten parts by drawing vertical lines from the divisions of worth 
or job classes shown in the abscissa. We do this to show the imprac- 



BUILDING THE RATE STRUCTURE 



275 



2.80 



2.60 



2.40 



2.20 - 



-;2.00 



1.80 - 



1.60 



1.40 - 



1.20 



1.00 



- 








x' 


/ 


../ 


^ 


- 






/ 






^ 


/' 
^ 




- 


F 


4 


r5^ 


X 

:^^ 


V^' 


y^ 






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1 

1 


1 
















^.. 


1' 'i 
II i 1 

1 1 ni 1,1 


^ 1 


1 V 1 


1 VI 1 


1 VII 


1 VIII 1 


1 i 
1 'X 1 


1 X 1 



40 



50 



60 70 80 

WORTH IN POINTS (Equal Ranges) 



90 



100 



Figure 110«. Compromise Floor and Ceiling for Money Rates 



Classes 


Dollar Rates 


No. 


5-Point 
Range 


Floor 
Differentials 


Range 
Limits 


Ceiling 
Differentials 


10 
9 

8 

7 
6 

5 
4 
3 

2 

1 


94-99 
88-93 

82-87 
76-81 
70-75 
64-69 
58-63 
52-57 
46-51 
40-45 


.12 
.12 
.12 
.11 
.11 
.11 
.11 
.11 
.11 


2.12-2.73 
2.00-2.56 
1.88-2.39 
1.76-2.22 
1.65-2.05 
1.54-1.88 
1.43-1.71 
1.32-1.54 
1.21-1.37 
1.10-1.20 


.17 
.17 
.17 
.17 
.17 
.17 
.17 
.17 
.17 



Figure 110^. Data from Figure 110a 



I 



ticality of using the limit lines themselves for floors and ceilings. To 
get floors and ceilings which will be practical we use Figure 110. 
By the way, contrast the lapovers here with those in Figure 116. 
Here we take the money values of the mid-locations of the class ceil- 
ings from Figure 109 and draw horizontals, thereby changing the 



276 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



worth-rate boxes into rectangles of varying height. The increasing 
variation in money-rate range as we pass to higher job classification 
is according to facts; but, facts or no facts, the amount of lapover 
becomes excessive for the higher job grades. We tabulate the deter- 
minations found in Figure 110a and get Figure 110b. From this 
tabulation we observe that the differentials between the range floors 
would be constant ($2.12 — $1.10) -^ 9 = $.lli/3 but we made 
the upper three $.12 to use up the thirds and leave the others at 
an even $.11. The differentials between the range ceilings are even 
($2.73 - $1.20) ^ 9 = $.17. We can now set up Figures Ilia 
and 111b. Here we hold the floors just above the hiring line a con- 
stant $.12 differential, and by tabulation we improve the ceiling 



Classes 


Dollar Rates 


No. 


5-Point 
Range 


Floor 
Differentials 


Range 
Limits 


Ceiling 
Differentials 


10 
9 

8 
7 
6 

5 
4 
3 
2 
1 


94-99 
88-93 
82-87 
76-81 
70-75 
64-69 
58-63 
52-57 
46-51 
40-45 


.12 
.12 
.12 
.12 
.12 
.12 
.12 
.12 
.12 


2.20-2.73 
2.08-2.48 
1.96-2.26 
1.84-2.06 
1.72-1.88 
1.60-1.76 
1.48-1.64 
1.36-1.52 
1.24-1.40 
1.12-1.32 


.25 
.22 
.20 
.18 
.12 
.12 
.12 
.12 
.08 



MGURE lllfl. Data for Figure lllb 



differentials: (1) to increase the money range for grade 1 which 
by virtue of the converging limits is too limited. The lifting of this 
roof is in the interests of humanity because some of grade 1 job 
holders will be in need of all they can rightfully earn. (2) to lessen 
the lapovers of the high grades. We have accomplished the latter by 
reducing the total range of all but the first two grades. It is not 
necessary to carry this as far as we have done but we have inci- 
dentafly achieved an arithmetic progression for the ceiling differ- 
entials, grades 6 to 10, and we consider that the next best thing to a 
real geometric progression in the trend line. The National War 
Labor Board came to much the same conclusion, it would seem, by 
approving such bracket adjustments. 

Straight Lines and Increasing Worth Ranges. The concept on 
which increasing worth ranges are justified is none too well estab- 



BUILDING THE RATE STRUCTURE 



277 



lished for hourly paid jobs and it may be difficult to get employees 
to believe in it but it has practical advantages as well as practical 
disadvantages. To bring these out we have made Figure 11 2^, using 
the same scales, same hmit lines, and the same number of grades, 
10, but the latter differently located, of course. In general, we have 
aimed to keep ceiling mid-points on the upper limit line and all the 
floors above the lower limit Hne. The former aim is sacrificed at 
the lower end of the structure in the interest of helping the lowest 
job holders as we did in the previous case. The latter aim is also 



2.80 
2.60 

2.40 

2.20 

2.00 

1.80 

1.60 

1.401- 

1.20 



1.00 















/ 








y 


y 


-z 

^ 


/ 


y- 


- 


r^ 


"3^ 


y- 


/ 

^ 


r" 


1 1 1 


1 


P 


A 


t^ 


i 

1 


1 


1 


y 


f" 








1 




1 1 


I 1 

II 1 
1 1 1 



















40 



50 



60 70 80 

WORTH IN POINTS EQUAL RANGES) 



90 



2.80 



2.48 



2.16 



100 



Figure 111^. Revised Floors and Ceilings for Money Rates 



I 



slightly sacrificed in the upper four grades to get a better consistency 
in the differentials (see Figure 1 12Z?) . These extra aims are fulfilled 
with less deviation from the limit lines than in the previous case but 
the lapovers are not so ideal. Note that for any class n, the n — 1 
ceiling is frequently above the n + 1 floor. This happens only once 
in the previous case and could be avoided there by raising the floor 
of grade 10. The main reason for increasing the worth ranges is 
that they are necessary for the highest jobs and if the latter are ever 
to be added it is more consistent to carry the concept through. If 
there is no objection to crowding the lower grades it is a desirable 
practice. The structure shown in Figures \\2a and \\2h is recom- 
mended for companies whose policy is to provide increases through 



278 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



2.80 
2.60 
2.40 
2.20 
2.00 
1.80 
1.60 
1.40 
1.20 
1.00 





1 










■ 


1 


^. 


y^ 


- 








•^ 


- 










/ ^ 


^ 


y 


X 

J^ 




- 


.X 






y 


^ 






y 




/ 






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^ 






X 

\^^ 


/-^ 












- J , 


y 

dL 

^ 


ri 




r — 


1 > ' 

I 1 1 

I I 1 

















40 



2.80 



2.48 



2.16 



50 



60 70 80 

WORTH IN POINTS (INCREASING RANGES) 



90 



100 



Figure 112^. Revised Floors and Ceilings for Money Rates, Worth Ranges 

Also Revised 



Classes 


Dollar Rates 


No. 


Point 
Range 


Floor 
Differentials 


Range 
Limits 


Ceiling 
Differentials 


Difference 
Between ■ 
Differentials 


10 
9 
8 

7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 


91-100 
82- 90 
74- 81 
67- 73 
61- 66 
56- 60 
52- 55 
48- 51 
44- 47 
40- 43 


.18 
.16 
.14 
.12 
.10 
.08 
.08 
.06 
.06 


2.12-2.73 
1.94-2.42 
1.78-2.16 
1.64-1.94 
1.52-1.76 
1.42-1.62 
1.34-1.52 
1.26-1.44 
1.20-1.38 
1.14-1.32 


.30 
.26 
.22 
.18 
.14 
.10 
.08 
.06 
.06 


12 

10 

8 

6 

4 
') 







Figure Wlh. 



Data from Figure 112fl — Worth Ranges Increasing from 
Three Points to Nine Points 



BUILDING THE RATE STRUCTURE 



279 



merit rating. The one shown in Figures 116a and ll6b is recom- 
mended for companies whose poUcy is to have no merit rating. 
Note that the ceiHng line is approximately parallel to the trend line. 

Comparison of Arithmetic and Geometric Progressions. Besides 
•the choice between constant and variable worth ranges we have a 
choice between arithmetic and geometric progressions. In Figure 
1 1 3 we have taken the end values of the trend line already used in 
Figure 101 and drawn a straight line between these loci on semi- 
logarithmic coordinates, which gives logarithmic rate values and 
will show as an accelerating curve if transferred to plain coordi- 
nates. 



2.80 




50 



60 70 80 90 

WORTH IN POINTS (Increasing Ranges) 



Figure 113. Top Average and Logarithmic Trend, Limits Converging from 

±12 Per Cent Highs 



I 



As previously explained, we alter the lower loci in favor of the 
lower class jobs, in this instance from $1.08 to $1.24. Similarly we 
converge two limit lines from the ±12 per cent at the right, viz., 
$2.80 and $2.16 to $1.28 and $1.20 respectively. Next we lay out 
the worth ranges as shown in Figure 113 and complete the point- 
money boxes. We have not tabulated the money rates from this 
chart because there is obviously excessive lapover, but in Figure 
114^ we transfer the trend line and limit lines to plain coordinates 
and fit new boxes within the limits. Here we can see that both the 
worth range variation and the logarithmic progression reduce the 
lapover to ideal proportions. This is repeated statistically in Figure 
ll4b. For a total money range of $1.24 to $2.50 this arrangement 
is hard to beat. To meet other ranges the vertical scale can be 
altered. In Figures 115^ and ll5b we use a doctored trend line, 
$1.24 to $2.48, and retain the limits of ± 12 per cent variation 
throughout. To illustrate the effects of these limit lines we have 
laid out constant worth ranges ^ and then changed to the varying 

^ See also Farrel-Birmingham structure in Chapter 10. 



280 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



worth ranges of foregoing charts in Figures 116^ and ll6b. In 
these we have kept the same trend and Hmit Hnes as in Figures 1 15a 
and 11 5 Z) to allow comparison. Note that the logarithmic progres- 
sion of itself does not avoid excessive lapover for the lower job 
grades. When it is desired to contain the box comers wholly within 



2.80 




40 



50 



2.80 



2.48 



2.16 



60 70 80 90 100 

WORTH IN POINTS (Increasing Ranges) 
Figure 114a. Transfer to Plain Coordinates, Boxes Leveled Within Limits 



Classes 


Dollar Rates 


No. 


Point 
Range 


Floor 
Differentials 


Range 
Limits 


Ceiling 
Differentials 


Difference 

Between 

Differentials 


10 
9 
8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 


91-100 
82- 90 
74- 81 
67- 73 
61- 66 
56- 60 
52- 55 
48- 51 
44- 47 
40- 43 


.18 
.16 
.16 
.10 
.08 
.08 
.06 
.04 
.04 


2.14-2.50 
1.96-2.24 
1.80-2.00 
1.64-1.84 
1.54-1.70 
1.46-1.58 
1.38-1.50 
1.32-1.42 
1.28-1.36 
1.24-1.30 


.26 

.24 
.16 
.14 
.12 
.08 
.08 
.06 
.06 


8 
8 

8 

4 
4 


2 
2 



Figure 114Z>. Data from Figure 114a 



BUILDING THE RATE STRUCTURE 



281 




40 



60 70 80 

WORTH IN POINTS (Equal Ranges) 



Figure 115a. Equal Worth Grades and Logarithmic Trend, Limits 

Cent Throughout 



12 Per 



the limit lines, shift the minimum line to the right for the range of one 
half a grade so that it will pass through the lower right corners of 
the grade boxes; and shift the maximum line to the left for one half 
a grade so that it will pass through the upper left corners. This 
study conclusively favors the combination of three things, namely, 
the use of expanding worth ranges, with limit lines of varying per- 
centages and the latter lines elevated slightly at the lower end (see 
Chapter 10, Figures 96a and 96b). 

Preferred Numbers. Geometric progression can also be achieved 
by using the formula for "preferred numbers" which has long been 
used for machine tool speeds and other matters needing accelerat- 



\ 



Classes 


Dollar Rates 


No. 


5-Point 
Range 


Floor 
Differentials 


Range 
Limits 


Ceiling 
Differentials 


Difference 

Between 

Differentials 


10 
9 

8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 


94-99 
88-93 
82-87 
76-81 

70-75 
64-69 
58-63 

52-57 
46-51 
40-45 


.14 
.14 
.12 
.12 
.10 
.10 
.10 
.08 
.06 


2.08-2.70 
1.94-2.52 
1.80-2.36 
1.68-2.20 
1.56-2.04 
1.46-1.90 
1.36-1.78 
1.26-1.66 
1.18-1.54 
1.12-1.44 


.18 
.16 
.16 
.16 
.14 
.12 
.12 
.12 
.10 


4 

2 
4 
4 
4 
2 
2 
4 
4 



Figure 1156. Data from Figure \\5a 



282 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 




40 



50 60 70 80 

WORTH IN POINTS (Increasing Ranges) 



Figure 116^. Transfer to Plain Coordinates, but with Varying Worth 

Grades 



Classes 


Dollar Rates 


No. 


Point 
Range 


Floor 
Differentials 


Range 
Limits 


Ceiling 
Differentials 


Difference 

Between 

Differentials 


10 
9 

8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 


91-100 
82- 90 
74- 81 
67- 73 
61- 66 
56- 60 
52- 55 
48- 51 
44- 47 
40- 43 


.24 
.18 
.16 
.14 
.10 
.08 
.04 
.06 
.08 


2.16-2.52 
1.92-2.28 
1.74-2.08 
1.58-1.90 
1.44-1.78 
1.34-1.68 
1.26-1.60 
1.22-1.52 
1.16-1.46 
1.08-1.40 


.26 
.20 
.18 
.12 
.10 
.08 
.08 
.06 
.06 


2 
2 
2 
2 


4 

-2 



Figure ll6b. Data from Figure 116a 



ing rates of progression.^ Values resulting from the formula progress 
by a constant percentage. Hence their logarithms step up by a 
constant value. The formula is: 



^ The late Carl G. Earth used this formula as early as 
rates. 



.904 for machine-hour 



BUILDING THE RATE STRUCTURE 283 

in which / = The factor or rate of progression 
Z = The last item in the series 
A = The first item in the series 
N = The complete number of steps or number 

of items minus one 
n — The number of each successive step 

Applying the formula to hourly rates it is necessary to calculate 
the lowest and highest rates desired and to choose the number of 
steps desired. This means that the key job rates for the two end 
classes, as in the case of a straight line, can be used to set the whole 
series. Rates for each, as per locality survey, are averaged, or better 
than average rates are selected, and substituted in the formula for 
A and Z respectively.^ A^ and n are fixed when you decide the num- 
ber of job classes. Successive items are built up from the one lower 
by multiplying that by the factor /^ viz.: A, fA, fA, fA, . . . f"A 
or Z, or by multiplying each successive item by the factor. 

Use of Standard Series. As a short cut it is convenient to look 
up series of preferred numbers already prepared,^ four of which are 
shown in Figure 120. Each series is circular, that is, you can start 
anywhere as indicated and finish from the top, of course changing 
the decimal places to suit either hourly or salaried rates. Note that 
you can get ten items from the twenty series running from $.80 to 
$2.24. These steps are 12 per cent apart. For weekly salaries you 
might start at $30.00 and come all the way back to it, $300.00 in 
39 steps, or less by regular skipping. These steps are 6 per cent 
apart. "^ We believe that such rates are truly to be preferred over 
arbitrary and irregular progressions, but it is better to use the 
formula for a permanent setup so that you will be free to select any 
kind of limits and any number of steps. For other techniques of 
smoothing out limit lines see J. P. Guilford, Psychometric Methods. 

Ranges. Similar series for floor and ceiling hmits may be worked 
out by setting the range for the bottom grade, say, ±10 per cent 
from the median. For salaried jobs it is necessary, however, to 

^ A log-log slide rule makes it easy to find any N^^^ root. This should be done 
first for the mid-line, then for the two limit lines. 

^ See John Gaillard's article in Mechanical Engineering, November, 1942. 

"^ The thirty series would give 31 items, each successive one about 8 per cent 
higher than its predecessor. 



284 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 





5-Series 


10-Series 


20-Series 


40-Series 






(60% steps) 


(25% steps) 


(12% steps) 


(6% steps) 






10.0 


10.0 


10.0 
11.2 


10.0 
10.6 

11.2 
11.8 








12.5 


12.5 
14.0 


12.5 
13.2 
14.0 
15.0 






16.0 


16.0 


16.0 
18.0 


16.0 
17.0 
18.0 
19.0 








20.0 


20.0 
22.4 


20.0 
21.2 

22.4 




FinishI 










1 



25.0 



40.0 



63.0 



25.0 



31.5 



40.0 



50.0 



63.0 





23.6 


25.0 


25.0 




26.5 


28.0 


28.0 




30.0 


31.5 


31.5 




33.5 


35.5 


35.5 




37.5 


40.0 


40.0 




42.5 


45.0 


45.0 




47.5 


50.0 


50.0 




53.0 


56.0 


56.0 




60.0 


63.0 


63.0 




67.0 


71.0 


71.0 




75.0 



Startl 



80.0 



80.0 
90.0 



80.0 
85.0 
90.0 
95.0 



Figure 117. Four Preferred Numbers Series. 
Note: At end of Chapter 14 a curve for the thirty series is compared with 
semilog curve extending through the same limits. 



J 



BUILDING THE RATE STRUCTURE 285 

allow greater ranges. Before evaluation these ranges run all the 
way from 20 per cent to 50 per cent and the former figure is not 
usually considered enough for high salaries. The extent of lapover 
should be one of the considerations. Thirty per cent at the most 
should give satisfactory results. The National War Labor Board 
accepted 33V^ per cent; as much as 40 per cent is definitely un- 
desirable because it lessens control. For a complete series of, say, 
twenty classes we suggest setting the first and last items at ± 5 per 
cent and ±15 per cent respectively, and then reapplying the 

Z 
formula separately to each of the three sets of—. This accom- 
modates the need for increasing money ranges and is more practical 
than working from each of the grade rates in the median series. 
That technique can, however, be managed easily if a constant pro- 
portion is to be used, such as ± 10 per cent, by multiplying the mid- 
values by Vl -20 for the ceiling items and by dividing the mid-values 
by \/l-20 for the floor items. Thus each grade ceiling value will be 
120 per cent of its respective floor value. 

Application of Principles. We illustrate these techniques with a 
brief study of five sample rate structures, all for the Kress type of 
plan, 12 grades, and points from 1 18 to 381. The first two samples. 
Figures \\%a and 1 19a, use constant worth ranges of 21 points and 
straight trend-limit lines, but one case keeps the money spread con- 
stant at 20 per cent (\/L20 = 1.097) while the other varies the 
money spread from 10 per cent (\/l-10 = 1-05) at the left to 25 
per cent (\/l-25 = 1.12) at the right. This change provides more 
latitude for payment to the higher grades, but leaves the two lowest 
grades without the needed lapover. That can, however, be remedied 
by arbitrarily lifting the ceilings of those two grades. 

Figure 120(3 retains the constant worth range and the varying 
money spread, but derives the trend-limit lines by aid of the semilog 
grid, not shown. Mid-grade values by this technique fall a few cents 
below those derived by the preferred numbers formula but, of course, 
come to the same amounts at the end grades. We have, therefore, 
shown this sample structure, with three grades left off at each end, 
and enlarged to allow portrayal of time-progression ingrades. Notice 
that the first grade left in is considered to be near the bottom of semi- 
skilled work and is given only four ingrades — one per month for 
four months. The next three grades are provided ingrades for five-, 
six-, and seven-month progressions respectively. This is appropriate 
for semiskilled to fairly highly skilled jobs. The last two grades are 
provided with eight ingrades, which allows eight monthly progres- 



286 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



$ 

2.80 


_ 






















y 


?60 




y 


y 






/" 




2.40 




y^ 


y 


2.20 




y 


y 
y- 


y 




y 


X 


^ 




2 00 




/ 




1 




y 


y 








y^ 






1.80 




/ 








^ 


^ 








X 

^ 




1.60 




^ 


r .^ 




1.40 


y^ 


X 


i ^ 


y 




/^ 


^ 


1 








1.20 


X 


1 /^' 


^ 










/^ 


1 


1.00 


^' 


1 ! 


\ 1 


1 ; 


1 ! 








1 







en o ^ CM 



Figure \\%a. Sample Rate Structure. Constant Worth Range of Twenty- 
One Points. Straight Trend and Limit Lines. Constant 20 Per Cent Mon*ey 

Spre.\d. 



Grade 


Nos. 


Floor 
Differ- 
entials 




Job Pricing 


in Dollars 






Floor 
Limits 


Trend- 
Base 
(Qualified) 


Ceiling 
Limits 


Ceiling 


Previous 


Present 


Differ- 
entials 


1 


12 




2.28 


2.50 


2.74 




2 


11 


13 


2.15 


2.36 


2.59 


15 


3 


10 


13 


2.02 


2.22 


2.44 


15 


4 


9 


13 


1.89 


2.08 


2.29 


15 


5 


8 


13 


1.76 


1.94 


2.14 


15 


6 


7 


13 


1.63 


1.81 


1.99 


15 


7 


6 


12 


1.51 


1.67 


1.84 


15 


8 


5 


12 


1.39 


1.54 


1.69 


15 


9 


4 


12 


1.27 


1.40 


1.54 


15 


10 


3 


12 


1.15 


1.27 


1.39 


15 


11 


2 


12 


1.03 


1.13 


1.24 


15 


12 


1 


12 


.91 


1.00 


1.10 


14 



Figure 1186. Data for Sample R.ate Structure. Constant Worth Range. 

Straight Lines for Trend and Limits. Constant 20 Per Cent Money 

Spread (vT20 = 1.097). 



BUILDING THE RATE STRUCTURE 



287 




Figure ll9a. Sample Rate Structure. Constant Worth Range of Twenty- 
One Points. Straight Lines for Trend and Limit Lines. Lower End 10 
Per Cent Money Spread. Upper End 25 Per Cent Money Spread. 



Grade 


Nos. 


Floor 
Differ- 
entials 




fob Pricing 


in Dollars 




o 




Floor 
Limits 


Trend- 
Base 
(Qualified) 


Ceiling 
Limits 


Ceiling 
Differ- 
entials 


c 


Previous 


Present 


c 
o 
















-u 


1 


12 




2.23 


2.50 


2.77 




cd 


2 


11 


.11 


2.12 


2.37 


2.62 


.15 


Q 


3 


10 


.11 


2.01 


2.24 


2.47 


.15 


4 


9 


.11 


1.90 


2.11 


2.32 


.15 


(U 


5 


8 


.11 


1.79 


1.98 


2.17 


.15 


^ 


6 


7 


.12 


1.67 


1.84 


2.01 


.16 


PQ 


7 


6 


.12 


1.55 


1.70 


1.85 


.16 


in 


8 


5 


.12 


1.43 


1.56 


1.69 


.16 


.2 


9 


4 


.12 


1.31 


1.42 


1.53 


.16 


c 


10 


3 


.12 


1.19 


1.28 


1.37 


.16 


(U 


11 


2 


.12 


1.07 


1.14 


1.21 


.16 




12 


1 


.12 


.95 


1.00 


1.05 


.16 



Figure I19b. Data for Sample Rate Structure. Constant Worth Range. 

Straight Lines for Trend and Limits. Lower End 10 Per Cent Money 

Spread (VLIO = 1.05). Upper End 25 Per Cent Money Spread 

(VL25 = L12). 



288 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



$ 


















2.10 
2.00 


- 










- 








1.90 
















1.80 
























CO 






on 






"5 




r< l-"/0 




Q 




Z 
















- 




1— 








g 1.60 






5 






ZD 




O 






^ 1.50 










. 




















1.40 






















- 










1.30 






















1.20 








1 1 


I 1 


1 1 


1 II 


L_ 



in ix> 


r^ 00 


a>o 


o o 


CNJ CM 


■<;1- LO 


CsJCVJ 


OJ CM 


C\J CvJ 



.-1 CM 


00 -^ 


r^ r*. 


(T> (T> 


CM CsJ 


CM CM 



JOB WORTH IN POINTS 



Figure 120a. Sample Rate Structure. Constant Worth Range of Twenty- 
One Points. Semilog Acceleration for Trend and Limits. Lower End 10 
Per Cent Money Spread. Upper End 25 Per Cent Money Spread. Lower 
Halves Divided Into Appropriate Ingrades for Automatic Time Progression. 









Job Pricing 


in Dolla 


rs 




Grade 


Nos. 


Floor 
Differ- 
entials 










Dif. 




Floor 
Limits 


Trend- 
Base 
(Qualified) 


Ceiling 
Limits 


Ceiling 
Differ- 
entials 


Between 
Differ- 


Previous 


Present 




1 


12 




2.23 


2.50 


2.77 






2 


11 


16 


2.07 


2.31 


2.55 


22 


6 


3 


10 


16 


1.91 


2.12 


2.33 


22 


6 


4 


9 


15 


1.76 


1.94 


2.12 


21 


6 


5 


8 


13 


1.63 


1.79 


1.95 


17 


4 


6 


7 


12 


1.51 


1.65 


1.79 


16 


4 


7 


6 


11 


1.40 


1.52 


1.64 


15 


4 


8 


5 


10 


1.30 


1.40 


1.50 


14 


4 


9 


4 


10 


1.20 


1.28 


1.36 


14 


4 


10 


3 


9 


1.11 


1.18 


1.25 


11 


2 


11 


2 


8 


1.03 


1.09 


1.15 


10 


2 


12 


1 


8 


.95 


1.00 


1.05 


10 


2 



Note: The graph from these data drops off three grades on each end because 
they are so closely like the following case. The six grades that are charted are 
enlarged to allow the portrayal of ingrades for automatic time progressions. 

Figure 120b. Data for Sample Rate Structure. Constant Worth Range. 
Semilog Acceleration for Trend and Limits. Lower End 10 Per Cent 
Money Spread (\/T710= 1.05). Upper End 25 Per Cent Money Spread 
(\/l-25 = 1.12). Adjusted to Give Equal Plus and Minus Values from 

Mid-Line. 



$ 

2.80 






















/ 




2.60 


/ 


/ 


2.40 


/ 






/ 


2.20 




/ 


1 1 




_ 


/ 


2.00 


_ 


/ 


X 






X 
X 


L80 




/ 


y 






y 






- 


/ 




L60 


- 


y 


y 

^ 


y 




1 40 




X 


7^^ 

^ 


^ 






^ 


^ 


^ 














1 20 






-^"^^ 






, ^ 








- ^ 


^ ^ 






^^ 




LOO 


^^ 


il 






-" 1 


\ ,1 


1 1 1 


1 1 1 


! 1 1 


1 1 1 


1 1 1 


1 1 1 


\ 1 1 


II 1 



120 140 



160 



180 



200 



220 



240 260 



280 



300 320 340 360 



380 



Figure \l\a. Sample Rate Structure. Constant Worth Range of Twenty- 
One Points. Preferred Numbers for Trend and Limit Lines.- Lower End 10 
Per Cent Money Spread. Upper End 25 Per Cent Money Spread. 

289 



\ 



290 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



Grade Nos. 


Floor 
Differ- 
entials 




Job Pricing 


in Dollars 






Floor 
Limits 


Trend- 
Base 
(Qualified) 


Ceiling 
Limits 


Ceiling 


Previous 


Present 


Differ- 
entials 


1 


12 




2.23 


2.50 


2.77 




2 


11 


.16 


2.08 


2.30 


2.58 


.22 


3 


10 


.16 


1.92 


2.12 


2.36 


.22 


4 


9 


.14 


1.78 


1.95 


2.16 


.20 


5 


8 


.14 


1.64 


1.79 


1.98 


.18 


6 


7 


.12 


1.52 


1.65 


1.81 


.17 


7 


6 


.12 


1.40 


1.51 


1.66 


.15 


8 


5 


.10 


1.30 


1.39 


1.51 


.15 


9 


4 


.10 


1.20 


1.28 


1.39 


.12 


10 


3 


.09 


1.11 


1.18 


1.27 


.12 


11 


2 


.08 


1.03 


1.09 


1.15 


.12 


12 


1 


.08 


.95 


1.00 


1.05 


.10 



Figure 121 ^. Data for Sample Rate Structure. Constant Worth Range. 

Preferred Numbers for Trends and Limits. Lower End 10 Per Cent Money 

Spread (Vl-10 = 1.05). Upper End 25 Per Cent Money Spread 

(\/T?2j= 1.12) 



$ 

2.80 


- 
























2.60 


- 


/ 


/ 


2.40 


: y 


i 


2.20 




/ 


y 


- 


/ 




2.00 


_ 




/ 


^y 




1.80 


- 


X 


y 


^ 




1.60 


- 


^ 


/ 


^ 






- 


^ 


^ 


^ 


1 




^ 


^ 


^ 1 


1.40 




^^ 


^^ 








^ 


^ 1 






^ 


^^ 


1 


1.20 




^^ 




^.^ 


^ 


^ 


^^^^ 






- -^ 




^^.---^ 


\ 


l.UO 


^^-'-^ 


I 




•r^"'^ 1 


1 1 


1 


1 1 


1 ._ ._..! 


I 


t- L 


f 1 


I _ .... 


\ , ... 1 


J — 1 



r^ 00 
o o 

CM OsJ 



00 <Ti o^ f^ '3- 

c\j CM in in r^ i^ 

eg CM CM CM CNJ CM 



rs. 00 
<s\ cr> 

CM CM 



Figure 122fl. Sample Rate Structure. Variable Worth Range. First Three 

Quarters of Grades Arithmetic Increases of One; Last Quarter of Gr.a.des 

Arithmetic Increases of Two. Semilog Acceleration for Trends and Limit 

Lines. Constant 20 Per Cent Money Spread (\/L20 = 1.097). 



BUILDING THE RATE STRUCTURE 



291 







Job Pricing 


in Dollars 




Grade Nos. 


Floor 
Differ- 
entials 










Dif 




Floor 
Limits 


Trend- 
Base 
(Qualified) 


Ceiling 
Limits 


Ceiling 
Differ- 
entials 


Between 
Differ- 


Previous 


Present 




1 


12 




2.28 


2.50 


2.74 






2 


11 


25 


2.03 


2.25 


2.41 


33 


8 


3 


10 


20 


1.83 


2.04 


2.17 


24 


4 


4 


9 


16 


1.67 


1.85 


1.98 


19 


3 


5 


8 


14 


1.53 


1.68 


1.81 


17 


3 


6 


7 


13 


1.40 


1.54 


1.66 


15 


2 


7 


6 


11 


1.29 


1.43 


1.53 


13 


2 


8 


5 


10 


1.19 


1.32 


1.42 


11 


1 


9 


4 


8 


1.11 


1.23 


1.33 


9 


1 


10 


3 


7 


1.04 


1.13 


1.25 


8 


1 


11 


2 


7 


.97 


1.07 


1.17 


8 


1 


12 


1 


6 


.91 


1.00 


1.10 


7 


1 



Figure 122b. Data for Sample Rate Structure. Variable Worth Range. 

First Three Quarters of Grades Arithmetic Increase of One; Last Quarter 

OF Grades Arithmetic Increase of Two. Semilog Acceleration for Trend 

and Limit Lines. Constant 20 Per Cent Money Spread (Vl-20 = 1.097). 

sions appropriate to highly skilled jobs. The three grades omitted 
from the right could each have eight ingrades of more value or an 
increasing number of ingrades where the degree of skill is extreme. 

Figure 121a continues the constant worth range and the variable 
money spread, but applies the preferred numbers formula 



f = \rT as follows: 
C — Ceiling line $1.05 to $2.77 where / = J- 



2.77 



.05 



T — Trend line $ 1 .00 to $2.50 where / 
F — Floor line $ .95 to $2.23 where / 



2.50 
1.00 



^^/ 2.23 
V .95 



1.09 1/3 
1.08 2/3 
1.08 



Lower Ends 
C = \/Ta6t 01 1.10 F 
T 



F = 



Vi.io 



upper Ends 
C = V L25 Tor 1.25 F 

F- ^ 



I 



The fifth and last sample in this study, Figure 122a, may seem 
strange to all who have been used to twenty-one points to the grade 
but it is undeniably a structure with merit. The feature that will 



292 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

need defending is the use of varying worth ranges. The reasons for 
doing this have already been discussed. In this instance we have 
started with fifteen points and added one more to each successive 
grade through the first nine grades, which puts the last of that arith- 
metic series at twenty-three points. We then double the increments 
to make twenty-five, twenty-seven, and twenty-nine point ranges. 
The semilog grid was then used to derive the trend and limit lines. 
The maximum line was shifted to pass the point values at the left 
side of each grade and the minimum line was shifted to the point 
values at the right side of each grade. This technique assures that the 
grade box corners will lie exactly within the limits. It does not alter 
the trend line position and is equivalent to setting up the grade boxes 
on the semilog grid. This structure has a better distribution of lap- 
overs than usual and ample money spread throughout. Its special 
peculiarity is, however, the increasing room for job ratings per grade 
as the grades ascend. Such widening of worth ranges can be very 
helpful in the higher grades, particularly when straight lines are used, 
and we see no reason why a company starting fresh should not adopt 
it if the union can be sold on its practicality. The Metropolitan Life 
Insurance Company recommends a variable worth range to its group 
policy holders.^ They use straight lines and extended corners. 

Problem on Structure Building. Since the job of lowest worth is 
not likely to fall below about 34 per cent of the theoretical total, and 
the highest worth is not likely to go above about 83 per cent, we can 
use these percentages to represent point hmits out of a 100-point 
potential. Now if we set aside nine points for one-point clearances 
between ten grades we will see that 83 — 34 — 9 = 40, which means 
four points per box of constant worth range. As an alternative 
assumption we might arbitrarily start with a worth range of three 
points, use that for the lowest two boxes, take four points for the 
next two boxes, and then make the remaining ones five, six, seven, 
eight, and nine respectively with the effect of variable worth ranges. 
In working these problems we suggest : 

a) Either of these techniques may be adopted. To retain some 
basis for comparison we suggest that all agree on ten labor 
grades and on $.83 to $2.50 per hour for the extreme trend 
line rates. Next the student might choose between: 

b) Limit lines to be a constant ±10 per cent from the trend line 
or Hmit fines to vary ± 6 per cent to ± 15 per cent from the 
trend line. 

^ Policyholders Service Bureau, An Introduction to Job Evaluation, 1947. 



BUILDING THE RATE STRUCTURE 293 

c) Straight lines for trend and limits lines or accelerating lines 
for same. A subchoice would be between preferred numbers 
values and semilog values translated to Cartesian coordinates. 

If classes of graduate students are assigned these problems we suggest 
that each student be required to make two or more solutions each on 
a different set of assumptions. By this means they will see at first 
hand how the various combinations of techniques work out and how 
a change in one or more techniques can correct some undesirable 
condition, such as excessive vertical lapover at either end of the 
structure. 



12 



OPERATING AND ADJUSTING 



An elaborate system of job evaluation which does not reflect 
current and changing conditions is worse than none at all . . . 
the only fair measure of the plan is whether it fits your company 
and can do the job you want done. 

J. A. RUHLMAN 

Out-of-Line Rates. Every industry, if not every plant, has a wage 
rate history which often goes back over many years. Rates with 
background may be looked upon as very real rights. Yet, as George 
W. Taylor has said, "the forces which cause disparities in wage rates 
are usually more potent than those tending to force equality." There 
is no paradox here because disparities too have long histories and 
rightly or wrongly may be clung to as rights. We bring these phe- 
nomena together, as Taylor did, to account for the psychological 
resistance which often arises against job evaluation in general or 
against a particular description of job content. If there are many 
jobs whose loci lie without the limit lines, their descriptions, ratings, 
and perhaps the whole structure should be reviewed as to facts and 
practicality. If there are relatively few overpaid jobs they are usually 
left alone pending upgrading or "separation" of the job holders. 
These would not, however, benefit from a general wage rise if such 
should come to pass. The jobs whose loci are below the lower limit 
line should be revised upward as promptly as practicable. Both the 
ultimate decreases and the immediate increases may be included in 
making a trial payroll as a check on the structure. This trial should 
not run more than 5 per cent away from the existing one. 

Job contents change continuously and until an official system is 
established to take care of changes it is possible that a foreman may 
have made some classification change by virtue of old habits. Per- 
haps some learner rates have been mixed in with regular rates and 
the average rate for a job class has been lowered thereby. If the 
records correspond perfectly with actual facts and there is still exces- 
sive irregularity, the management must decide what is to be changed, 

294 



OPERATING AND ADJUSTING 295 

how, and when. This is a considerable problem for management 
until routines for all possible contingencies are arranged and in 
operation. This period of transition is also trying for the employees 
concerned. Although demotions will usually be barred by the 
agreement, transfers usually are not. Promotion, the best solution 
for overpaid individuals, is not a simple matter. If a sequential 
job can be opened there remains the training, breaking in, etc., 
which costs the employer money and the employee nervous strain 
if not loss in earning. The latter can at least be spared by use of a 
temporary guarantee. If there are many candidates for higher classi- 
fication, some must be left where they have been despite overpay 
until openings occur. Some, of course, will not be promotable in 
any length of time and their unearned differentials should be looked 
upon as the penalty of earlier mismanagement. To isolate the data 
underlying this problem it is helpful to set up an Overpaid-Under- 
paid Record (Figure 123) on which the names of all individuals 
who are receiving rates outside the limits may be listed down the 
center in order of job worths and the dates of their last rate changes 
inserted under the appropriate cents column. Such a record may be 
made monthly until the list shrinks to zero. 

Readjustment of Whole Structure. It may happen, we hope 
rarely, that a whole rate structure will come under criticism. This 
is most hkely to occur toward the end of installation when numerous 
employees discover that their jobs are scheduled for reduction. In 
the case we are about to describe the current holders of such jobs 
were protected by an agreement against any cut themselves; never- 
theless, they took a sudden dislike to the plan. The management 
had not ignored its employees during the development of the plan; 
in fact, it had consistently sought employee opinion and foreman 
concurrence in the job measurement. All seemed well until one of 
the consultant's men made a high-handed comment, so it was 
alleged. Suspicion was aroused and it looked as though the six 
months' work of development might be to no avail. Figure 124a 
shows the existing rates plotted against the new worth evaluations. 
Note that the union had already achieved rather high and uniform 
differentials. This fact alone might have caused some prejudice 
against the proposed rates with differentials to fit seventeen job 
classes as in Figure 124b. The union laid out a new structure with 
a few less classes, which might have been a good compromise, but it 
staked a higher trend line, which management objected to. There 
were several proposals and counter-proposals centering around the 
top rate and the amount of payroll increase involved. Then the 



296 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



OVERPAID AND UNDERPAID RECORD 

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_ 



OPERATING AND ADJUSTING 297 

local union repudiated the job evaluation in entirety and proposed 
a job "classification" of its own (Figure 124c). This was made in 
figures only so that visualization was missed. We believe the union 
never would have made its classification so unreasonable if it had 
seen the proportions graphically. 

When the case was referred to a panel of the National War Labor 
Board it looked hopeless but analysis disclosed that the union had 
adhered to the new job worths more than it itself was aware and 
here the statistics gave insight to the graphs. The portions of the 
graphs which were most unreasonable included but a minority of 
the jobs. When this was realized it was possible to reconstruct the 
rate structure and meet the most essential wishes of both parties. 
The nonconforming jobs were re-sorted, some higher, some lower 
than the union had proposed, and a compromise structure was made 
(Figure 124d). In this structure we changed only 30 out of 173 
jobs from their positions in the union classification, which amounted 
to an addition of $256.80 to the weekly payroll, to be distributed 
among 163 men. Many of these jobs were left as "strays" extending 
beyond the recommended worth limits. These extensions were con- 
trary to good rate structure and were not intended to be left indefi- 
nitely but rather to be readjusted by the evaluation committee or, 
faihng that, by bargaining. We were aware that such forced re- 
evaluation is contrary to the principles of job evaluation but as we 
stated at the end of the chapter on classification, we believe that 
job evaluation is not a science; when the results are protested hon- 
estly by any of the parties concerned it behooves those parties to 
get together, whatever the affront may be to normal rules. In this 
particular case it was rule of reason or obliteration of the whole 
evaluation. In the compromise 82^/^ per cent of the original evalua- 
tions were followed as to sequence and, best of all, the practice of 
systematic evaluation was given another trial. As C. R. Dooley 
has said, "in the last analysis the item of most importance is that 
all parties concerned agree to the grouping." 

Day-to-Day Operation. When a rate structure and all that has 
preceded it is accepted the creative contributions to the program 
will be completed and the responsibility for applying the program 
can be taken over by other functionaries. Anticipating this change 
in requirements, the top steering committee would already have 
prepared one of the analysts, preferably the best one, to assume the 
continuing leadership as chief of the wage and salary administra- 
tion. The steering committee should not, however, be disbanded, 
but retained to answer questions of policy. That it can do by meet- 



298 

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1.15 

1.10 

^1.05 

(X. 

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i 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



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35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 

WORTH IN POINTS 
Figure 124fl. Scatter of Job Loci Before Rate Change 



1.20 




35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 

WORTH IN POINTS 



Figure 124b. Recommendation of Consultant 



OPERATING AND ADJUSTING 



299 




35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 

WORTH IN POINTS 

Figure 124c, Union Attempt at "Classification" 



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WORTH IN POINTS 



80 85 



90 



95 100 



Figure 124£/. Compromise Structure 



300 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

ing semiannually or on call. Most of the problems that remain can 
be solved within the limits of set pohcy and by the head of the 
division. Nevertheless, some companies have further use for com- 
mittees, mainly to handle vexing questions of revision or reclassifica- 
tion. Such a committee may be called the Job Rate Reviewing 
Committee or Reclassification Committee. It may include: the 
plant superintendent, the personnel director, an industrial engineer, 
and perhaps someone from the payroll group. The head of the 
Wage and Salary Administration may be the chairman. If reclassi- 
fication is covered by a union agreement as it often is there would 
be union representation on the committee. In either case they may 
meet regularly or on call. If there is only one such committee and 
its scope of activity is broad it may need to meet once a week, but 
bi-monthly or quarterly is usually sufficient. As promptly as prac- 
ticable it should establish rules of procedure. For instance, to be 
eligible for reclassification the rule may require that the employee 
must be regularly doing at least 75 per cent of his work in the class 
in which he is to be reclassified. Second, if it has been necessary to 
transfer a man temporarily to a lower class job, such a man con- 
tinues to receive his higher rate, but if he is not back on the higher 
class work by the time of the second merit rating period his transfer 
must be considered as a permanent reclassification. This means that 
he must change back at once or take the regular rate for that class. 
To be eligible for a rate increase a recommendation should come 
from the employee's immediate supervisor and should be approved 
by the head of Wage and Salary Administration. A. L. Kress gives 
four tests for approval: 

1. What is the man's job? 

2. Is the recommendation within the approved rate ranges for 
the job? 

3. What does the man's record show? 

4. When was his last increase? 

Forms for Operating. Obviously several forms are needed, one 
of which, the job classification record, has already been described 
(see Chapter 9, Figure 87). All employees holding the same job 
are listed by name and their hourly rates are shown for the current 
period and for the period preceding, as per dates. The allowable 
rate range for the job is in view above the individual rates so that it 
can be seen readily whether or not anyone's rate has gotten out of 
line. The N.M.T.A. calls this checking a "perpetual inventory" of 
manpower and stresses its importance. All accessions, changes in 



I 



OPERATING AND ADJUSTING 



301 



status, dismissals, and the like must be added or subtracted on the 
cards for the jobs involved. Figure 125 provides a routine form for 
notifying all concerned. When a request for increase or transfer 
comes through with recommendation it can be considered in the 
light of all the facts pertaining to the jobs as well as the facts per- 
taining to the individual person. Only in rare instances should these 
be approved if by so doing the individual's rate is to be thrown out 
of the specified range. Promotion, of course, need not violate any 
range since that means a change in job class. 







EMPLOYEE CHANGE NOTICE 












NAMF 




- 


□ RATE CHANGE 


□ QUIT 


□ Discharge 


□ MILITARY □ LAIDOFP 








EFFECTIVE D 


GRADE • 




EXCELLENT . . 


-"'—"" 




REASONS EXPLAIN IN DETAIL 




















PRESENT CLASSIFICAl 












1 i^'tT IN'~RFA'^F 




PATF 










PATF 


FOREMAN OR 
















DISTRIBUTION— White-Payroll. Yello-Personnel. Pink-Dept. Head, Tan-TImekeop.r, Blu.-Un 


- 



Figure 125. Employee Change Notice. 



For large companies where there are large numbers of employees 
per job it is better to leave the employee's names off the job classi- 
fication record (Figure 126), and provide separate cards for the 
job holder's records. In that case there is room for the job ratings 
on the front and for the job description on the back of the card. 
These job cards are indexed by job classes and the employee classi- 
fication records of different color (Figure 127) can be filed back of 
their respective job cards. See also Figure 141. 

Hiring Rates. We have already shown graphically in Chapter 1 1 
(Figures 106 and 107) how minimum rates are established for 
starting learners who know very little about their jobs. The second 
of these arrangements is by far the more satisfactory one because it 
schedules all advances according to predetermined time periods. 
That these "escalator" arrangements may be automatic without fail 



302 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 













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OPERATING AND ADJUSTING 



303 



Name of Emp 


EMPLOYEE CLASSIFICA 

oyee 


TION 


J RECORD 

riork No 




















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RANGE 


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Figure 127. Employee Record of Jobs Held, (A modified N.M.T.A. form.) 



it is desirable to keep a tickler file showing every person who is due 
an advance on the move-up dates. Fully qualified accessions are 
also frequently hired below the minimum rates, but if the time 
needed for breaking in or for trial is very short the company policy 
or the agreement should call for the minimum at time of placement. 
Where skills are considerable it is common practice to hire at the 
rate for one grade below and automatically bring the individual to 
par through one, two, three, or four predetermined time steps. 
These vary as to total time from one to nine months. For probation 
alone, unions usually allow from one to two months, during which 
time the employer can dismiss an unsatisfactory probationer with- 
out being questioned by the union or he may be demoted to a lower- 
class job for which he is adequately qualified. 

Production Rates for Incentive-Paid Jobs. Paying in terms of 
productivity or efficiency presupposes a quantity task and the rule is 
to set the rate per unit of quantity so that there will be an incentive 
of some agreed-upon percentage above the hourly base rate at the 
task efficiency. Since the average efficiency of an all-skilled incen- 
tive-paid group is well established at 114-115 per cent of "high 
task," it may be advantageous to ascertain the proper earning 
for 115 per cent efficiency. But even if that is the starting point 
it is simple to prorate the proper earning for 100 per cent efficiency. 
Obviously the concept of high task itself needs checking by this 
same fact, that is, do your best incentive-paid operatives average 
close to 114-115 per cent? If they do not, the chances are that 
your task is higher, or more likely lower, than the Taylor-Gantt 



304 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



task. If such a group is averaging 120 per cent you should find the 
proportion, 120 : 115 :: 100 : x, in which x — 96. In short, your 
task is 96 per cent of the traditional high task. Similarly if the group 
is averaging 110 per cent, the proportion will be 1 1 : 1 1 5 : : 1 00 : x, 
in which case your task is 104 per cent. If you are intentionally 
using the "low task" and a sharing earning line you can check that 
by prorating the high task, 100 per cent, to low task 60 per cent to 



200 




DAILY PRODUCTION IN PER CENT OF STANDARD OR EFFICIENCY 



Figure 128. Straight Piece Rate 



OPERATING AND ADJUSTING 305 

65 per cent, say 62 V^ per cent, but there is no generally accepted 
average for operatives working under any sharing plan; there are 
too many variables. An additional check lies in the fact that the 
efficiency of a hypothetical operative who keeps up with a mechan- 
ical capacity is 150 per cent of high task. To use this, however, you 
must have some machine that runs evenly all day and which must 
be hand-tended constantly. The nearest approach to this "machine 
perfection" that we ever found was an exceptional female operator 
of a buttonhoHng machine. She held at 145 per cent efficiency 
compared to the machine's potential of 150 per cent but she was a 
veritable adjunct to the machine and such "super- workers" are rare. 

How to Set a Correct Piece or Standard Hour Rate. Our pio- 
neer industrial engineers spread earning curves all over the map but 
the best of them agreed perfectly on one thing. They all found that 
you must pay 120 per cent of the prevaihng hourly rate to hold 
skilled operatives at 100 per cent high task. From this experiential 
point they projected back to the origin to locate the piece rate earn- 
ing line. Thus they found, or would have found if they had used 
graphs, that the correct piece rate line passes through the (83-100) 
point, i.e., the "academic task" for (120-100) piece rate is 83 per 
cent efficiency relative to 100 per cent high task, (a) (Figure 128) . 
We say academic task because there is no task designation with 
piece rate unless you happen to use the bonus type of formula 
for it.^ 

Lacking any task designation we hereby establish one, solely for 
management. That is not all, however, for a union may be smart 
and strong enough to ask for 125 per cent to 135 per cent of prevail- 
ing time payment at high task. Hence we must add another aca- 
demic task and have dual limits. This we derive by taking the 
highest demand of 135 per cent and projecting a piece rate hne from 
point (100-135) to the origin, (b) (Figure 131"). In this case the 
academic limit becomes 74 per cent of 100 per cent high task. 
Certainly all good piece rates should pass between these limits. In 
summary, check your task and put on a graph whatever percentage 
you derive: 96 per cent, 100 per cent, or 104 per cent, etc. Then 
locate points (74-100) and (83-100). If your piece rate lies 
between these it is at least within the outside limits of present-day 
standardized practice. If it falls to the left it has too loose a task 
and will be too steep a pay slope. If it lies to the right it has too 
tight a task and too stingy a slope. Neither of these conditions can 
give mutual satisfaction. We consider this guide one of the most 

^ See the author's Wage Incentive Methods, 1944 or later printings. 



/^^ 



306 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

important aids we can offer toward harmonious relations. It should 

shorten if not obviate many a negotiation. 

Periodic Checks. We disapprove amthing that might be inter- 
preted as a means of limiting earning and we rejoice in the warning 
of Theodore Roosevelt that "nothing is more vicious in a democ- 
racy than to pay equal wages for unequal work," but we think it 
desirable to compile monthly data on aU ''take -home'' for incentive- 
paid employees and for all time-paid employees. This is legally 
necessary \^ here there is overtime and it should be done in all cases. 
Earnings that are above expectations must not be cut back merely 
because they are high, but any erratic figures may have symptomatic 
significance. If they are low there may be obstacles which manage- 
ment should uncover and remove, or perhaps a foreman has failed 
to report an upgrade in classification. If any earnings are surpris- 
ingly high there may have been mistakes in overclassification or 
overrating. 

Tasks tend to loosen because of accumulating improvements in 
method. \\^hen the total of improvement is "substantiaF' the labor 
agreement should and usually does allow a job to be restudied. It is 
much better to investigate and correct the tasks regularly at least 
once a year than to neglect them for a while and then clean house. 
At the same time a truly honest management should watch out for 
employees who have not had their rightful advances: be sure they 
are doing the jobs on \^hich they are classified. Of course the union 
wiU usually take care of this but why wait for a grievance? Simi- 
larly an honest union should not resist restudy of a substantially 
changed job. A good questionnaire for this is shown in Figure 129. 
Both parties should check wage scales periodically and cooperate 
in making adjustments to the current wage levels. In the case of 
minor market changes all that is necessar\- is to alter the rate range 
on the Job Classification Record and put it into apphcation. In the 
case of numerous and considerable market changes a new scatter 
diagram or "correlation chart" may be necessar}- and in the extreme 
case a whole new rate structure is due. Probably that should be 
done biannually or at least every five years (see Figure 130). 

Processing of Rate Changes. In the foregoing paragraphs we 
have explained why it is an essential dut}' of the wage and salar}" 
administration division to check every proposed rate change against 
the job classification and against previous rate changes. In "process- 
ing" this work each employee classification record must be checked 
to ascertain the frequency of changes and to stamp each card as to 
cause of change, such as, merit gain, promotion, etc. Only by com- 



OPERATING AND ADJUSTING 307 

plete recording will the division be able to assure top management 
that policies are being maintained. Routine can be established 
through which changes in jobs will be automatically reported to all 
concerned but in practice no processing is perfect and the follow- 
ing events may be used as occasions for recheck: 

1. When employment requisition comes in. 

2. When employee requests a restudy. 

3. When management requests a restudy. 

4. When employee is reviewed for merit rating. 

5. When staff is caught up with new work. 

Some companies go at this hit or miss, others schedule a certain 
number of jobs per week. There seems to be no universal practice 
but rechecking must be done and the interval should not be many 
months where changes are likely to occur. Not only should jobs be 
checked for change of content, inadequacy of description and rec- 
ords, but also for changes in merit rating of the job holders. In all 
cases have in mind company policy and check to see how faithfully 
that is being followed. 

New^ Jobs. Changes in product, process, equipment, and method 
all create new jobs, some completely new but most of them simplified 
from older jobs. Psychologically the latter are the more difficult 
because they may still be recognizable as partly identical or similar 
to yesterday's jobs, in fact, they may go by titles that have not yet 
been revised. Motion study engineers and rate analysts may have 
new instruction sheets, new element times, new descriptions, and 
new point weightings, but the employees from shop steward to 
operator must also be enlightened. There are few shop questions 
today more difficult than this one concerning when an old job has 
become a different job. The coverage in the agreement relies on 
such words as "substantial change" or "material change" and always 
there is need of a convincing determination. We recall an arbitra- 
tion case where by one issue the union denied a substantial change 
for certain jobs and by a second issue it insisted that all of another 
group of jobs ought to be restudied. Of course those issues were 
affected by a larger strategy but they were made possible by the 
illusive nature of the agreement wording plus the lack of any posi- 
tive criteria on which to determine the right of restudy. Like every- 
body else we see little hope of a criterion other than an agreement 
that the change in job content shall be enough in points to alter the 
classification or in the case of an unevaluated but incentive-paid 
job the new standard time shall be a certain percentage below the 



308 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Rate ZL Desc. ~ 

Factory G U Q C ~ 

NC: Yes D No Q 

'54: Yes Q No ^ 

RESTUDY JOB QUESTIONNAIRE 

Job Title Code No Rate Range 

Paid LG. . . .Point Range : Eval. Points. . . .LG. . . .Point Range 

Date of Investigation Analyst 

Using Departments Over 10 ZL 

Total Number of Employees in Classification 

Persons Contacted 



I. Has there been a material change in the assignments or duties of the 
incumbents: Yes □ No □ 

Duties added or deleted — when? 



II. Does the job description adequately cover the present assignments of 
incumbents: Yes □ No n 

Revised job description attached Q 



Explain : 



III. Miscellaneous comments: (Include position taken by operating management, 
turnover problems, etc.) 



(Use reverse side for additional comments) 



Figure 129. Form for Restudying Job Content. 



OPERATING AND ADJUSTING 



309 



Job Title 

IV. Area Rates 

Lockheed Rates are: Average [J, Above Average □, Below Average □ 

Survey: 

Company or Area Survey Job Title Rate Range * 



* All rates include cost of living 
Comments: 



V. Evaluation- 


-Factory 


Plan 






















Analyst or Job 
















Factor 


Deg. 


Pts. 


Deg. 


Pts. 


Deg. 


Pts. 


Deg. 


Pts. 


Deg. 


Pts. 


Deg. 


Pts. 


Deg. 


Pts. 


Skill 






























Ment. 






























Resp. 






























Ment. Appl. 






























Phy. Appl. 






























Job Cond. 






























Occ. Haz. 






























L.G. & Total 






























Rate Range 

















(Lockheed Aircraft Corporation.) 



310 



JOB EN'ALUATION METHODS 



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1 


1 


1 


1 |l 










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OPERATING AND ADJUSTING 311 

old standard time. The latter is unascertainable without a restudy 
unless all are content with a synthetic task taken from standard 
data. 

When a job is jointly accepted as new it is a simple matter to 
find its proper location among the old jobs. As we have mentioned 
previously, this can be established by repeating the process of in- 
direct evaluation, that is, by measurement against the degree defini- 
tions or by direct evaluation through characteristic comparison. The 
latter technique is used by almost everybody, particularly if the job 
in question can be considered one of any known family of jobs. If 
it is a case of separating an old job into simpler jobs the data of 
job description should be especially helpful because thereby every- 
one will see how the worths can be less in divided parts than in the 
more general mixture. The reverse or combination of simple jobs 
may also happen if a company is reducing its scale of operations. 
With the tempo of tool and method improvement high as it is in 
most American industries it is well to look for substantial changes in 
the content of all jobs eventually. Hence an alert management 
may schedule the review of job descriptions so that all of them will 
be reconsidered in two, three, or at most five years. 

Policy Regarding Classification of Employees. Policies regard- 
ing wage rates, hiring, transfer, promotion, etc., are limited on 
the one side by legislation and on the other by negotiated agree- 
ments. As the agreements vary widely it is hard to say what arrange- 
ments are typical. The example below probably is not typical as 
yet but it comes from a five-year contract which has been heralded 
as "epoch-making".- 

The following excerpts are printed with the permission of the 
General Motors Corporation and by courtesy of the International 
Union, United Automobile, Aircraft, and Agricultural Implement 
Workers of America, CIO. 



Seniority and Adjustments 

(59a) When changes in methods, products, or policies would otherwise 
require the permanent laying off of employes, the seniority of the displaced 
employes shall become plant-wide and they shall be transferred out of the 
group in line with their seniority to work they are capable of doing, as com- 
parable to the work they have been doing as may be available, at the rate for 
the job to which they have been transferred. 

^ Charles E. Wilson, "Progress Sharing Can Mean Industrial Peace," Readers 
Digest, September, 1952. 



312 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

(61o) Each two months the Chairman of the Shop Committee shall be fur- 
nished a list of the names and seniority dates of employes who during the 
preceding period of two months have: (a) Acquired Seniority (b) Lost 
Seniority (c) Been granted leaves of absence for military service (d) Been 
granted other types of leaves of absence of more than sixty (60) days' 
duration. 

(62) When an employe is transferred from one occupational group to 
another for any reason, there shall be no loss of seniority. However, in 
cases of transfers not exceeding sixty (60) days, an employe will retain his 
seniority in the occupational group from which he was transferred and not 
in the new occupational group, unless a longer period is specified for any 
plant or particular occupational group or groups by written local agree- 
ment. 

(63) The transferring of employes is the sole responsibility of Management 
subject to the following: (a) In the advancement of employes to higher paid 
jobs when ability, merit, and capacity are equal, employes with the longest 
seniority will be given preference, (b) It is the policy of Management to 
cooperate in every practical way with employes who desire transfers to new 
positions or vacancies in their department. Accordingly, such employes who 
make application to their foremen or the Personnel Department stating their 
desires, qualifications and experience, will be given preference for openings 
in their department provided they are capable of doing the job. However, 
employes who have made application as provided for above and who are 
capable of doing the job available shall be given preference for the openings 
in their department over new hires. Any secondary job openings resulting 
from filling jobs pursuant to this provision may be filled through promotion; 
or through transfer without regard to seniority standing, or by new hire. 

Any claim of personal prejudice or any claim of discrimination for Union 
activity in connection with transfers may be taken up as a grievance. Such 
claims must be supported by written evidence submitted within 48 hours 
from the time the grievance is filed. 

In plants where departments are too small or in other cases where the 
number of job classifications within a department is insufl[icient to permit the 
practical application of this paragraph, arrangements whereby employes may 
make such application for transfer out of their department may be negoti- 
ated locally, subject to approval by the Corporation and the International 
Union. 

Call-in Pay 

(80) Any employe called to work or permitted to come to work without 
having been properly notified that there will be no work, shall receive a min- 
imum of four hours' pay at the regular hourly rate, except in case of labor 
disputes, or other conditions beyond the control of the local Management. 



Working Hours 

of computing ovei 

^^^, . ^. ^.^.^^^-^ ^. jomputing overtin„ ^.^ ^^j. — - --^ 

working day is eight hours and the regular working week is forty hours 



(For the purposes of computing overtime premium pay) 
(81) For the purposes of computing overtime premium pay, the regular 



OPERATING AND ADJUSTING 313 

(82) Employes will be compensated on the basis of the calendar day (mid- 
night to midnight) on which their shift starts working, for the regular work- 
ing hours of that shift. The employe's working week shall be a calendar 
week beginning on Monday at the regular starting time of the shift to which 
he is assigned. 

(83) Hourly and piece-rate employes will be compensated as follows: 

Straight Time 

(84a) For the first eight hours worked in any continuous twenty-four hour 
period, beginning with the starting time of the employe's shift, (b) For the 
first forty hours worked in the employe's working week, less all time for 
which daily, sixth day, Sunday, or holiday overtime has been earned, (c) 
For time worked during the regular working hours of any shift which starts 
on the day before and continues into a specified holiday, sixth day, or 
Sunday. 

Time and One Half 

(85a) For time worked in excess of eight hours in any continuous twenty- 
four hours, beginning with the starting time of the employe's shift, except if 
such time is worked on a Sunday or holiday when double time will be paid 
as provided below, (b) For time worked in excess of forty hours in the 
employe's working week, less all time for which daily, sixth day, Sunday, or 
holiday overtime has been earned, (c) For time worked on the sixth day of 
the employe's work week, provided, however, that if the employe has lost 
time for personal reasons not to exceed eight hours per day during the first 
five days of the work week, he shall be paid straight time for work on such 
sixth day until such lost time has been made up. In addition to time not 
worked for personal reasons, time not worked during the first five days of 
the work week for the reasons listed below shall be considered as time lost 
for personal reasons in computing sixth day overtime: 1. Leaves of absence, 
formal and informal. 2. Disciplinary layoff. 3. New employes hired. 4. Em- 
ployes with seniority rehired or recalled after a layoff of 30 days or more. 

5. Layoff due to inventory requiring 4 or more days of the work week. 

6. Strikes in same plant covered by this agreement. 

Personal reasons, however, shall not include the following provided the 
employe had been properly excused for such purposes: 7. Induction require- 
ments of the draft boards. 8. Hospitalization. 9. Other medical reasons. 

Double Time 

(86) For time worked during the regular working hours of any shifts that 
start on Sundays, and the following legal hoUdays: New Year's Day, Fourth 
of July, Labor Day, Thanksgiving, Christmas, and either Memorial Day or 
one other such holiday of greater local importance which must be designated 
in advance by mutual agreement locally in writing, and any time worked in 
excess of eight hours on a shift which starts the previous day and runs over 
into such Sunday or holiday. 

(87) Employes working in necessary continuous seven-day operations whose 
occupations involve work on Saturdays and Sundays shall be paid time and 



314 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

one half for work on these days only for time worked in excess of eight 
hours per day or in excess of forty hours in the employe's working week, for 
which overtime has not already been earned, except as otherwise provided 
in paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) below: (a) Such employes shall be paid 
time and one-half for hours worked on the employe's sixth work day in the 
week, provided that if the employe has lost time for personal reasons not to 
exceed eight hours per day in the preceding days in the week, he shall be 
paid straight time on the sixth work day until such lost time has been made 
up. (b) Such employes shall be paid double time for hours worked on the 
7th consecutive day worked in the calendar week under the following con- 
ditions: (1) The 7th consecutive day of work results from the employe 
being required to work on his scheduled off day in that calendar week. (2) If 
the employe has lost time for personal reasons not to exceed 8 hours per 
day during the first six days of the calendar week he shall be paid straight 
time or time and one-half as the case may be on the 7th day until such lost 
time has been made up. (c) Such employes will be paid double time for 
hours worked during the regular working hours of any shifts that start on 
any of the six legal holidays listed in Paragraph 86. In the case of employes 
who work 6 or 7 days during the work week, the first 8 hours worked at 
double time on shifts starting on such holidays shall be counted in computing 
overtime for work in excess of 40 hours in the employe's working week. 

Premium payments shall not be duplicated for the same hours worked 
under any of the terms of this Section. 

Change in Shift Hours 

(88) Any change in the established shift hours or lunch period shall be first 
discussed with the Shop Committee as far in advance as possible of any such 
change. 

(89) A night shift premium of five per cent of night shift earnings, includ- 
ing overtime premium, will be paid to all hourly rated employes working on 
shifts half or more of the working hours of which are scheduled between the 
hours of 6:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m.; except that in the case of three shift 
operations, employes working on third shifts regularly scheduled to start 
between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 4:45 a.m. will receive a night shift 
premium of seven and one-half per cent of night shift earnings, including 
overtime, for all hours worked. Employes working on special shifts not 
covered by the above, wherein half or more of the regular straight time 
working hours are scheduled between the hours of 12 midnight and 8:45 
a.m. shall be paid seven and one-half per cent premium of night shift earn- 
ings, including overtime, for all hours worked. 

For the purpose of calculating shift premium, overtime on a regularly 
scheduled shift shall be considered as part of that shift except as otherwise 
provided in the following paragraph. 

In two shift operations where the second shift is regularly scheduled to 
work more than nine hours, and the shift is regularly scheduled to work 
until or beyond 3:00 a.m., employes working on such shifts shall receive 
seven and one-half per cent premium of night shift earnings, including over- 
time, for all hours worked after 12 midnight. 



OPERATING AND ADJUSTING 315 

Wage Payment Plans 

(90) Wage payment plans are a matter of local negotiation between the 
Plant Managements and the Shop Committees, subject to appeal in accord- 
ance with the Grievance Procedure. 

(91) Any change from an incentive plan to an hourly rate method of pay is 
a matter for local determination and any such changes must be made on a 
sound and equitable basis which does not increase average production costs, 
and which provides for maintaining efficiency of the plant. 

Wages 

(97) The establishment of wage scales for each operation is necessarily a 
matter for local negotiation and agreement between the Plant Managements 
and the Shop Committees, on the basis of the local circumstances affecting 
each operation, giving consideration to the relevant factors of productivity, 
continuity of employment, the general level of wages in the community, and 
the wages paid by competitors. 

(98) Wage rates for women shall be set in accordance with the principle of 
equal pay for comparable quantity and quality of work on comparable oper- 
ations. Any dispute arising as to the question of quality, quantity, or com- 
parability, as herein defined shall be settled within the procedural frame- 
work of the grievance provision in the Agreement. In appUcation of this 
Paragraph the Parties shall be guided by Appendix A. (Wage Rates for 
Female Employes.) 

(99) New employes shall be hired at a rate no lower than ten (10) cents 
below the rate of the job classification and shall receive an automatic in- 
crease of five (5) cents at the expiration of thirty (30) days. Every em- 
ploye who is retained by the Corporation in the job classification shall re- 
ceive an increase to the rate for the job classification within ninety (90) 
days or as soon as he or she can meet the standard requirements for an 
average employe on the job, whichever occurs first, provided however, that 
deviation from the above rule may be made pursuant to negotiation between 
the local Shop Committees and local Managements, for jobs requiring more 
than ninety (90) days to attain average proficiency. The foregoing para- 
graph shall not apply to tool and die rooms or to any job classification pre- 
viously covered by upgrading agreements. 

(100) It is understood that local wage agreements consist of the wage scale 
by job classification as set up by Paragraph 98 and as submitted to the Shop 
Committee in accordance with Paragraph 99 of the June 3, 1941 Agreement, 
and any negotiated local wage agreements or additions thereto. 

(101a) The annual improvement factor provided herein recognizes that a 
continuing improvement in the standard of living of employes depends upon 
technological progress, better tools, methods, processes, and equipment, and 
a cooperative attitude on the part of all parties in such principle that to pro- 
duce more with the same amount of human effort is a sound economic and 
social objective. Accordingly, all employes covered by this agreement shall 
receive an increase of 4 cents per hour, effective May 29, 1950, and an 
additional increase of 4 cents per hour annually on May 29, 1951, May 29, 



316 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

1952, May 29, 1953 (then raised to 5 cents) and May 29, 1954, which will 
be added to the base rate of each wage classification, (b) In addition, the 
cost-of-living allowance formula (which was provided for in the previous 
National Agreement between the parties) will be continued, and such allow- 
ances shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of this Para- 
graph 101. 

It is agreed that only the cost-of-living allowance will be subject to reduc- 
tion so that, if a sufficient decline in the cost of living occurs, employes will 
immediately enjoy a better standard of living. Such an improvement will be 
an addition to the annual improvement factor provided for in 101 (a). 

(c) The improvement factor increases in base rates provided for in Para- 
graph 101 (a) shall be added to the wage rates (minimum, intermediary, 
and maximum) for each day-work classification. The cost-of-living allow- 
ance provided for in Paragraph 101 (b) shall be added to each employe's 
straight time hourly earnings and will be adjusted up or down each three 
months in line with the cost-of-living allowance provided for in Paragraphs 
101 (/) and 101 (g). (d) In the case of employes on an incentive basis of 
pay the increases in base rates provided for in Paragraph 101 (a) shall be 
added to the earned rate of all incentive workers until local Plant Manage- 
ments and the local Unions reach an agreement for factoring this increase 
into the wage structure of incentive classifications. The cost-of-living allow- 
ance provided for in Paragraph 101 (b) shall be added to each employe's 
hourly earned rate and will be adjusted up or down each three months in 
line with the cost-of-living allowance provided for in Paragraph 101 (/) and 
101 (g). (e) The Cost-of -Living Allowance will be determined in accord- 
ance with changes in the "Consumers' Price Index for Moderate Income 
Families in Large Cities" — "All Items," published by the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics, U. S. Department of Labor (1935-1939 = 100) and hereafter 
referred to as the BLS Consumers' Price Index.* (/) The Cost-of -Living 
Allowance as determined in Paragraph 101 (b) beginning with the first pay 
period following June 1, 1950, shall continue in effect until the first pay 
period beginning after September 1, 1950. At that time, and thereafter 
during the period of this Agreement, adjustments shall be made quarterly at 
the following times: 

'•' "Old Series" Consumers' Price Indexes are being compiled for the months 
January-June 1953, at the direction of the President and the Secretary of Labor, to 
facilitate orderly transition to use of the Revised Index in wage escalator clauses 
under collective agreements. The Bureau of Labor Statistics has no authorization 
or appropriation to continue the "Old Series" beyond the June Index (issued at 
the end of July). The Revised Index only will be issued thereafter, on the 1935- 
39 = 100 base as well as on the official 1947-49 = 100 base period. 

For a description of the Revised Index, see "The Consumers' Price Index — A 
Short Description of the Index as Revised, 1953." For discussion of the arithmetic 
problems of transition from the "Old Series" to the Revised for wage contract 
purposes, see "The Revised Consumers' Price Index — A Summary of Changes in 
the Index and Suggestions for Transition from the 'Interim Adjusted' and 'Old 
Series' Indexes to the Revised Index," 



1 



OPERATING AND ADJUSTING 



317 



Effective Date of Adjustment 
First Pay Period Beginning on or after: 
June 1, 1950 and at quarterly intervals 
thereafter to March 1, 1955. 



Based Upon 
BLS Consumers' Price Index as of: 
April 15, 1950 and at quarterly intervals 
thereafter to January 15, 1955. 



In no event will a dechne in the BLS Consumers' Price Index below 164.7 
provide the basis for a reduction in the wage scale by job classification. 
{g) The amount of the Cost-of-Living Allowance which shall be effective 
for any three-month period as provided in Paragraphs 101 {b) and 101 (/) 
shall be in accordance with the following table: 



BLS Consumers' Price Index 



164.6 or less 



'^ost-of -Living Allowance, In Addition 
to Wage Scale by Job Classification 



164.7 
165.9 
167.0 
168.2 
169.3 
170.4 
171.6 
172.7 
173.9 
175.0 
176.1 
177.3 
178.4 
179.6 
180.7 
181.8 
183.0 
184.1 
185.3 
186.4 
187.5 
188.7 



165.8 
166.9 
168.1 
169.2 
170.3 
171.5 
172.6 
173.8 
174.9 
176.0 
177.2 
178.3 
179.5 
180.6 
181.7 
182.9 
184.0 
185.2 
186.3 
187.4 
188.6 
189.7 



1^ per hour 

24 per hour 

3^ per hour 

4^ per hour 

5(^ per hour 

6^ per hour 

7^ per hour 

8(^ per hour 

9^ per hour 

10^ per hour 

11^ per hour 

12^ per hour 

13^ per hour 

14^ per hour 

15^ per hour 

16^ per hour 

17^ per hour 

18^ per hour 

19^ per hour 

20^ per hour 

21^ per hour 

22^ per hour 



and so forth, with 1^ adjustment for each 1.14 point change in the Index. 
h) The amount of any Cost-of-Living Allowance in effect at the time 
shall be included in computing overtime premium, night shift premium, 
vacation payments, holiday payments, and call-in pay. (/) In the event the 
Bureau of Labor Statistics does not issue the Consumers' Price Index on or 
before the beginning of the pay period referred to in Paragraph 101 (/), 
any adjustments required will be made at the beginning of the first pay 
period after receipt of the Index. (/) No adjustments, retroactive or other- 
wise, shall be made due to any revision which may later be made in the 
published figures for the BLS Consumers' Price Index for any base month. 
{k) The parties to this Agreement agree that the continuance of the Cost- 
of-Living Allowance is dependent upon the availability of the official monthly 
BLS Consumers' Price Index in its present form and calculated on the same 
basis as the Index for April, 1950, unless otherwise agreed upon by the 
parties. (/) The Memorandum of Understanding between the parties dated 



318 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

August 24, 1949, shall become Appendix C and will continue in full force 
and effect during the life of the May 29, 1950 Agreement, unless terminated 
earlier in accordance with the provisions of said Memorandum. 

New Jobs 

(102) When new jobs are placed in production and cannot be properly 
placed in existing classifications by mutual agreement, Management will set 
up a new classification and a rate covering the job in question, and will des- 
ignate it as temporary. 102(a) The temporary rate for such job shall be 
consistent with the terms of Paragraph 97 of this Agreement, and a copy of 
the temporary rate and classification name will be furnished to the Shop 
Committee. 102{b) The new classification and rate shall be considered tem- 
porary for a period of 30 calendar days following the date of notification to 
the Shop Committee. During this period (but not thereafter) the Shop 
Committee may request Management to negotiate the rate for the classifica- 
tion. The negotiated rate, if higher than the temporary rate, shall be applied 
retroactively to the date of the establishment of the temporary classification 
and rate except as otherwise mutually agreed. If no request has been made 
by the Union to negotiate the rate within the thirty (30) day period, or if, 
within sixty (60) days from the date of notification to the Shop Committee, 
no grievance is filed concerning the temporary classification and rate as pro- 
vided below, or upon completion of negotiations, as the case may be, the 
temporary classification and rate shall become a part of the local wage 
agreement. 

The following provisions of Paragraphs 102(c) through 102(e) shall 
apply to temporary classifications and rates established on or after the date 
of this Agreement. 

102(c) If the Shop Committee requests Management to negotiate and the 
Shop Committee and Management are unable to agree on a classification 
and rate for the new job, the disputed rate and or classification may be 
treated as a grievance. Such grievance may be filed at the Management- 
Shop Committee Step of the grievance procedure. If the grievance is still 
unresolved after it has been considered at the Third Step, it may be referred 
to the Personnel Staff of the Corporation and the General Motors Depart- 
ment of the International Union, for consideration. If the grievance is not 
resolved at this point, it may, by mutual agreement, be referred to the Impar- 
tial Umpire who shall be empowered to determine the proper classification 
and/or rate for the new job as provided herein. The classification and or 
rate established by the Umpire shall become a part of the local wage agree- 
ment. 

102(d^) The Umpire's authority to estabUsh a classification and or rate shall 
be limited to new jobs in grievance cases submitted to the Umpire as pro- 
vided above and his decision shall be limited to the area of dispute. 
102(c) In determining the proper rate and/or classification for a new job, 
the Umpire shall be guided by the specific criteria stipulated and agreed to 
in writing by the parties hereto, in each individual case. 



i 



OPERATING AND ADJUSTING 319 

If after one year of experience, the provisions of Paragraph 102 through 
Paragraph 102(e) place an undue burden upon the parties or the Umpire, 
either party may, by written notice to the other party, terminate Paragraphs 
102 through 102(e), in which event the provisions of Paragraph 102 
through 102(b) of the former Agreement between the parties dated March 
19, 1946, shall be automatically substituted therefor. 



Grievances. Either a job evaluation program or a wage incentive 
plan can work well in one place and fail in another. Failure may 
be said generally to be due to different conditions, but better fitting 
of plans to conditions will not always guarantee success either. The 
matter of administration alone, personalities if you please, can do 
much to make or break any plan. Even when this is top-notch there 
are bound to be grievances. Various schemes have been devised 
through which employee and management views can be exchanged, 
many of them eminently successful. The one that predominates 
today, at least for a union shop, is the system of committees 
and paired representatives who are regularly authorized to receive 
and judicate grievances. A plant if large is divided into districts by 
agreement between the manager and a union-elected shop com- 
mittee. In the large plants of General Motors Corporation each 
district includes about two hundred and fifty employees per shift. 
One union committeeman represents each of these districts and is 
called the district committeeman. There is also an alternate to act 
in his absence. Some or all of these union officers constitute the 
shop committee, which meets once a week or bi-weekly with the 
plant management. The committeemen are allowed a limited 
amount of time per week to spend on grievance work. 

For details on the committeemen we refer the reader to the 
General Motors-U.A.W. Agreement of May 29, 1950, but from 
the same we print the four steps of the procedure in full, also the 
powers of the umpire. 



Grievance Procedure 

Step One. Presentation of Grievance to Foreman 

(28) Any employe having a grievance, or one designated member of a 
group having a grievance, should first take the grievance up with the fore- 
man who will attempt to adjust it. 

(29) Any employe may request the foreman to call the committeeman for 
that district to handle a specified grievance with the foreman. The foreman 
will send for the committeeman without undue delay and without further 
discussion of the grievance. 



320 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

(30) If the grievance is not adjusted by the foreman, it shall be reduced to 
writing on forms provided by the Corporation, and signed by the employe 
involved and one copy shall be given to the foreman. The committeeman 
may then take the grievance up with higher supervision with or without 
another committeeman, according to the agreed local practice. 

Step Two. Appeal to Shop Committee 

(31) If the case is not adjusted at this step, it may be referred to the Shop 
Committee (or sub-committee where established). 

(32) In plants in which sub-committees are established, cases not adjusted 
by the sub-committee and the representative of Management may be ap- 
pealed to the Shop Committee as a whole to be taken up with the highest 
local Management. 

(33) After a written grievance signed by the employe making the com- 
plaint has been appealed to the Shop Committee by a committeeman, the 
Chairman of the Shop Committee may designate one of its members to 
make a further investigation of the grievance in order to discuss the griev- 
ance properly when it is taken up by the Shop Committee at a meeting with 
the Management. 

(34) A final decision on appealed grievances will be given by a representa- 
tive of the highest local Management within a maximum of fifteen working 
days from the date of first written filing thereof unless a different time limit 
is established by local agreement in writing. Any grievance not appealed 
from a decision at one step of this procedure in the plant to the next step 
within five working days of such decision, shall be considered settled on the 
basis of the last decision and not subject to further appeal. However, in 
plants where there are less than twenty-five hundred employes, the Shop 
Committee may upon notifying the Plant Management in writing, substi- 
tute a ten (10) day period for the fifteen (15) day period and a three (3) 
day period for the five (5) day period. Provided further, however, that 
within the applicable time limits of this Paragraph a grievance may be with- 
drawn by mutual agreement without prejudice to either party. 

(35) Written answers will be given by the Management to all written griev- 
ances presented by the Shop Committee. 

(36) The question of supplying minutes of the Shop Committee meetings 
with the Management to the Shop Committee and the form of such minutes 
is a matter to be negotiated with the Management of each plant by the Com- 
mittee involved. The minutes of regular Shop Committee meetings will be 
furnished to the Chairman of the Shop Committee within five (5) working 
days from the date of the meeting. 

Such minutes should include: (1) Date of meeting. (2) Names of those 
present. (3) Statement of each grievance taken up and discussed, also, in 
summary fashion, of the Union's contention in the event of failure to adjust. 
(4) Management's written answer on each grievance, with reason for same 
if answer is adverse. (5) "Highlights" of the meeting, these including 
specific questions asked by the Committee on policy matters and any answers 
to such questions given by Management. (6) Date of approval, and signa- 
tures as agreed upon locally. 



OPERATING AND ADJUSTING 321 

The above provisions shall not interfere with any mutually satisfactory 
local practice now in effect. 

Step Three. Appeal to Corporation and International Union 

(37) If the grievance is not adjusted at this step and the Shop Committee 
beheves it has grounds for appeal from the Plant Management decision, the 
Chairman of the Shop Committee will give the Plant Management a written 
"Notice of Unadjusted Grievance," on forms supplied by the Corporation, 
and the Chairman or designated member of the Shop Committee will then 
prepare a complete "Statement of Unadjusted Grievance" setting forth all 
facts and circumstances surrounding the grievance, signed by the Chairman 
of the Shop Committee. The Plant Manager or his designated representa- 
tive will also prepare a complete "Statement of Unadjusted Grievance" and 
the Management's reasons in support of the position taken, signed by the 
Plant Manager or his authorized representative. Three copies of the Union's 
statement will be exchanged with the Management for three copies of the 
Management's statement as soon as possible and in any event within five (5) 
working days after the Committee has given the Management the "Notice of 
Unadjusted Grievance," unless this time is extended by mutual agreement in 
writing. Each Shop Committee shall consecutively number each "Statement 
of Unadjusted Grievance" from one upward for identification purposes. 

(38) The Chairman of the Shop Committee shall then forward copies of 
the "Statements of Unadjusted Grievance" to the Regional Director of the 
International Union. The Regional Director will review the case and deter- 
mine if an appeal shall be made. The Regional Director or a specified rep- 
resentative and the Director of the General Motors Department of the Inter- 
national Union or a specified member of his staff will be granted permission 
to visit the plant for the purpose of investigating the specific grievance in- 
volved in "Statements of Unadjusted Grievance," providing such a grievance 
or investigation will aid in : ( 1 ) Arriving at a decision as to whether or not a 
grievance exists; (2) Arriving at a decision as to whether or not such griev- 
ance shall be appealed; (3) The purpose of its proper presentation in the 
event of appeal. 

Such visits will occur only after the following procedure has been com- 
plied with: (a) The names of the individuals who will be permitted to enter 
the plant must be submitted in writing to local Management previous to the 
date such entry is requested. Such names will be submitted to the Corpora- 
tion by the General Motors Department of the International Union, (b) 
The Regional Director shall give notice in writing to Plant Management of 
the request for entry and will identify the representative whom he wishes to 
make the visit and the specific grievance to be investigated. In the case of 
the Director of General Motors Department or a specified member of his 
staff, notice may be given either verbally or in writing, (c) Plant Manage- 
ment will acknowledge receipt of the request and set a time during regular 
working hours which is mutually agreeable for such visit, (d) A member of 
the Shop Committee or a district committeeman may accompany the Union 
representative during such visit should he request their presence. Manage- 



322 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

ment representatives may accompany the Union representatives during such 
visit, (e) Only one such visit on a specified grievance shall be made by the 
Regional Director or his specified representative unless otherwise mutually 
agreed to. (/) Such visits shall be restricted to the time mutually agreed 
upon in Point (c) above and shall be subject to all plant rules and regula- 
tions which apply to employes and all regulations made by the United States 
Army, Navy, and Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

It is mutually agreed that the purpose of this provision is solely to faciU- 
tate the operation of the grievance procedure; and that the Union represen- 
tative shall confine his visit to its stated purpose. If it is necessar>' the 
Union representative may interview the employe or employes signing the 
grievance. 

Any dispute developing out of the application of these provisions may be 
finally determined by the Umpire. 

If the Regional Director shall decide to appeal the case, he shall give 
notice on the form "Notice of Appeal" supplied by the Corporation, sending 
one copy each to the local Plant Management and the Chairman of the Shop 
Committee. Such "Notice of Appeal" will carry the same case number as 
the "Statement of Unadjusted Grievance." Any case not appealed within 
thirty days of the date of the written decision by the local Plant Manage- 
ment to the Shop Committee shall be finally and automatically closed on 
the basis of that decision and shall not be subject to further appeal. No case 
shall be reopened unless the Regional Director shall submit new evidence to 
the Plant Management and it is mutually agreed by them that such case 
should be reopened. The case shall then date from the date it is reopened. 
(39) The case will then be considered by an Appeal Committee consisting 
of four members as follows: For the Union, the Regional Director or one 
specified representative of the Regional Director who is permanently as- 
signed to handle all cases arising under this Agreement, in all plants in his 
region, and the Chairman or another designated member of the Shop Com- 
mittee of the plant involved; and two representatives of local or Divisional 
Management, one of whom has not previously rendered a decision in the 
case. No person shall act as a representative of a Regional Director in meet- 
ings of the Appeal Committee unless his name has been given to the Corpo- 
ration in writing by the International Union. A representative of the Inter- 
national Office of the Union and/or a representative of the Personnel Staff 
of the Corporation may also attend such meetings at any time. Upon the 
written request of the Chairman of the Shop Committee and the Regional 
Director, or his specified representative, to the Plant Management, twenty- 
four (24) hours in advance of the meeting, a member of the Shop Commit- 
tee (or the district committeeman, in lieu of such Shop Committeeman, who 
has previously handled such case) will be permitted to participate in the 
appeal meeting on such case. Whenever the Union requests the presence of 
a third representative at the appeal hearing. Management may also select a 
third representative who has previously handled the case, to participate in 
the appeal meeting on such case. 



OPERATING AND ADJUSTING 323 

(40) Attendance of committeemen at the meetings of the Appeal Commit- 
tee shall be considered as absence from the Plant under Paragraph 19 of the 
Agreement. Such committeemen shall not be paid for time spent in such 
meetings of the Appeal Committee. 

(41) Meetings of the Appeal Committee shall be held not more frequently 
than once each two weeks for each bargaining unit, unless mutually agreed 
otherwise. In event no meetings of the Appeal Committee have been held 
for more than two weeks, meetings will be arranged within seven days after 
"Notice of Appeal" has been received. 

(42) If an adjustment of the case is not reached at this meeting, the Man- 
agement will furnish a copy of its decision in writing, and a copy of a 
summary of the minutes of the meeting, to the Chairman of the Shop Com- 
mittee and the Regional Director within five working days after the meeting, 
unless this period is extended by mutual agreement in writing. 

Step Four. Appeal to Impartial Umpire 

(43) In the event of failure to adjust the case at this point, it may be ap- 
pealed to the Impartial Umpire, providing it is the type of case on which 
the Umpire is authorized to rule. Notice of appeal of such cases to the 
Umpire by the Union shall be given by the Regional Director to the Plant 
Management of the plant in which the case arose, with copies to the Per- 
sonnel Staff of the Corporation in Detroit and to the International Union 
Office at Detroit; in cases appealed to the Umpire by the Corporation, 
notice of such appeal will be given by the Corporation to the International 
Union Office in Detroit. Cases not appealed to the Umpire within twenty- 
one days from the date of a final decision given after review in an Appeal 
Committee meeting shall be considered settled on the basis of the decisions 
so given; provided, however, that within the twenty-one (21) day time 
limit of this paragraph a case may be withdrawn by mutual agreement with- 
out prejudice to either party. After a case has been appealed to the Umpire 
by either the Union or the Corporation, the briefs of both parties shall be 
filed with the Umpire within twenty-one days from the date of receipt of 
"Notice of Appeal." 

(43a) After a case has been appealed to the Umpire but prior to the 
Umpire's hearing of the case, the Director of the General Motors Depart- 
ment of the International Union or a specified member of his staff will be 
granted permission to visit the plant for the purpose of investigating the 
specific grievance in accordance with all of the provisions of Paragraph 38 
regarding plant visits. 

(44) The impartial Umpire shall have only the functions set forth herein 
and shall serve for one year from date of appointment provided he continues 
to be acceptable to both parties. The fees and expenses of the Umpire will 
be paid one-half by the Corporation and one-half by the Union and all other 
expenses shall be borne by the party incurring them. The office of the 
Umpire shall be located in Detroit. 

(45) All cases shall be presented to the Umpire in the form of a written 
brief prepared by each party, setting forth the facts and its position and the 



324 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

arguments in support thereof. The Umpire may make such investigation as 
he may deem proper and may at his option hold a pubUc hearing and exam- 
ine the witnesses of each party and each party shall have the right to cross- 
examine all such witnesses and to make a record of all such proceedings. 

Powers of the Umpire 

(46) It shall be the function of the Umpire, after due investigation and 
within thirty days after submission of the case to him, to make a decision in 
all claims of discrimination for Union activity or membership and in all 
cases of alleged violation of the terms of the following sections of this 
Agreement, and written local or national supplementary agreements on these 
same subjects: Recognition; Representation; Grievance Procedure; Seniority; 
Disciplinary Layoffs and Discharges; Call-in Pay; Working Hours; Leaves of 
Absence; Union Bulletin Boards; Strikes, Stoppages, and Lock-outs; Wages. 
except paragraph (97); General Provisions; Skilled Trades; Vacation Pay 
Allowances; Holiday Pay; Paragraph (79) relative to procedures on Produc- 
tion Standards; Paragraphs (95) and (96) relative to employment of laid 
off General Motors employes; and of any alleged violations of written local 
or national wage agreements. The Umpire shall have no power to add to or 
subtract from or modify any of the terms of this Agreement or any agree- 
ments made supplementary hereto; nor to establish or change any wage 
except as provided by Paragraphs 102 (c), 102 (d), and 102 (e) herein; nor 
to rule on any dispute arising under Paragraph (78) regarding Production 
Standards. The Umpire shall have no power to rule on any issue or dispute 
arising under the Pension Plan and Insurance Program Section or the 
Waiver Section. Any case appealed to the Umpire on which he has no power 
to rule shall be referred back to the parties without decision. 

(47) The Corporation delegates to the Umpire full discretion in cases of 
discipline for violation of shop rules, or discipline for violation of the Strikes, 
Stoppages, and Lock-outs Section of the Agreement. 

(48) No claims, including claims for back wages, by an employe covered 
by this Agreement, or by the Union, against the Corporation shall be valid 
for a period prior to the date the grievance was first filed in writing, unless 
the circumstances of the case made it impossible for the employe, or for the 
Union as the case may be, to know that he, or the Union, had grounds for 
such a claim prior to that date, in which case the claim shall be limited 
retroactively to a period of thirty days prior to the date the claim was first 
filed in writing. 

(49) In claims arising out of the failure of the Corporation to give the em- 
ploye work to which he was entitled, the Corporation, before his next senior- 
ity layoff and within six months from the answer given by Management at 
the Third Step, shall give him extra work for a number of hours equal to 
the number of hours that he had lost prior to the written filing of his claim, 
and this work shall be paid for at the hourly rate he would have received 
-had he worked, or if paid for at a less rate, the Corporation will make up the 
difference in cash. By extra work is meant work to which no other employe 
is entitled. Failing to give the employe work within six months, the Cor- 
poration will pay the back wages. 



i 



OPERATING AND ADJUSTING 325 

(50) All claims for back wages shall be limited to the amount of wages the 
employe would otherwise have earned from his employment with the Cor- 
poration during the periods as above defined, less the following: 1. Any 
Unemployment Compensation which the employe is not obligated to repay 
or which he is obligated to repay but has not repaid nor authorized tha 
Corporation to repay on his behalf. 2. Compensation for personal services 
other than the amount of compensation he was receiving from any other 
employment which he had at the time he last worked for the Corporation 
and which he would have continued to receive had he continued to work 
for the Corporation during the period covered by the claim. 

(51) No decision of the Umpire or of the Management in one case shall 
create a basis for a retroactive adjustment in any other case prior to the 
date of written filing of each such specific claim. 

(52) After a case on which the Umpire is empowered to rule hereunder has 
been referred to him, it may not be withdrawn by either party except by 
mutual consent. Grievances filed prior to the date of notification of ratifica- 
tion of this Agreement by the Union may be appealed to the Umpire under 
the provisions of the Agreement dated May 29, 1948, and its supplements. 

(53) There shall be no appeal from the Umpire's decision, which will be 
final and binding on the Union and its members, the employe or employes 
involved, and the Corporation. The Union will discourage any attempt of its 
members, and will not encourage or cooperate with any of its members, in 
any appeal to any of its members, in any appeal to any Court or Labor 
Board from a decision of the Umpire. 

(54) Any grievances which the Corporation may have against the Union 
in any plant shall be presented by the Plant Management involved to the 
Shop Committee of that plant. In the event that the matter is not satisfac- 
torily adjusted within two weeks after such presentation, it may be appealed 
to the third step of the Grievance Procedure upon written notice to the local 
Union and the Regional Director of the Union. Thereafter the matter will 
be considered at the third step of the Procedure as provided in Paragraph 
(39). If the matter is not satisfactorily settled at this meeting or within 
five days thereafter by agreement, the case may be appealed to the Umpire by 
the Corporation upon written notice to the International Union at Detroit 
and to the Umpire. 

(55) Any issue involving the interpretation and/or the application of any 
term of this Agreement may be initiated by either party directly with the 
other party. Upon failure of the parties to agree with respect to the correct 
interpretation or application of the Agreement to the issue, it may then be 
appealed directly to the Umpire as provided in Paragraph (43). 



General Motors and U. A. W. have been fortunate in the selec- 
tion of Dr. H. A. Millis and Dr. George W. Taylor as the first two 
umpires. Mr. H. W. Anderson,^ who also has had much to do with 
the work, has this to say about it in general: 

^ A.M.A. Personnel Series, No. 52, 



326 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

1. It is important that local management place the responsibiht}' 
for handling grievances upon a member of the staff who has 
the proper qualifications for the job and the necessary under- 
standing. 

2. There must be proper cooperation on the part of both the union 
and the management if grievances are to be settled. 

3. It is much easier to settle grievances at their source than it is to 
settle them after they advance through the grievance procedure. 

4. Grievances have a tendency to gather extraneous matter as they 
roll up through the procedure, and for this reason it is im- 
portant to reduce them to writing if a settlement cannot be 
reached at the initial stage. 

5. It is more constructive to settle a grievance on the basis of equity 
than it is to say "no" on the basis of a technicaUty or because 
of a rigid interpretation of a paragraph in an agreement when 
no policy question is involved. By this I do not mean appease- 
ment. 

6. There is no panacea for grievances. It requires hard work, pa- 
tience, fair deahng, an understanding of human nature, and 
assumption of responsibility on both sides if better labor rela- 
tions are to result. 

7. While it is the responsibility of the management to settle legiti- 
mate grievances, no settlement that impairs the efficiency or 
discipline of the working force should be made. 

Grievance procedures in nonunion shops have been outlined by 
the National Industrial Conference Board in its Management Rec- 
ord, Vol. XI, No. 8 and Studies in Personnel Policy, No. 109. 



13 



MERIT RATING 



Job Evaluation and merit rating, combined with some system of 
paying extra wages for extra work, seem to offer an opportunity 
to settle wage disputes on the basis of fact. 

— J. E. Walters 

Job Rating Plus Man Rating. You could have reliable job eval- 
uation without merit rating and without extrafinancial incentives 
but it would be like having a meal without drink and without des- 
sert. The diners might not do their whole duty on the spinach. It 
is true that merit rating has but recently come to industry, mostly 
since World War I, and is not yet accepted by all unions, nor by all 
managements. Some have made half-hearted attempts at it only to 
give it up. A survey made by L. G. Spicer ^ several years ago, cover- 
ing 176 companies, showed that 100 had no such system, 15 
applied it only to hourly workers, 17 applied it only to salaried 
workers, and 32 applied it to both. Twelve submitted incomplete 
replies. 

Like other activities of the personnel function, formal merit 
rating could not come until staffs were provided to round out the 
work of line supervision. It has been generally recognized for a long 
time that many hourly paid employees have been losing their hope 
of promotion and that what rate increases may be expected are 
often badly handled. So in recognizing the disease it may not be 
long before many will accept the cure. On the other hand tendencies 
of unions to prefer rigid seniority, and across the board increases 
in base rates, are causing employers to postpone new ventures in 
this direction. Furthermore, on Oct. 11, 1948, the Supreme Court 
upheld a decision of the U. S. Circuit Court in Cincinnati to the 
effect that an employer must bargain with its unions before giving 
merit raises to individual workers. 

When given a fair chance, merit rating has been beneficial to 
all types of employees and, aside from promotion, it is the only 

1 Personnel, XXVII, No. 6. 

327 



328 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

systematic means of providing extra financial incentive for time- 
paid employees. Since it is man rating, it puts individual or man 
differentials on the same systematic basis that job rating provides 
for base rates. It is unlike job evaluation in that it must be personal, 
but it is like job evaluation in that it can be impartial and according 
to predetermined procedures. Merit rating is also unlike job evalua- 
tion in that the latter precedes hiring while the former follows hiring. 

Definition and Nature. Merit rating is a systematic, periodic, 
and, so far as may be humanly possible, an impartial rating of an 
employee's excellence in matters pertaining to his present job and to 
his potentialities for a better job. Naturally this must be judged, for 
any one individual, relative to the excellence of other individuals. 
Like job evaluation this can be done directly or indirectly. The 
direct approach through ranking is more used than in job evaluation 
because the indirect approach, that is, appraising against predeter- 
mined and detached criteria, is unsatisfactory for some of the most 
important qualities. Hence we cannot claim that man rating is ever 
as objective as job rating. In fact, it is conceded that embarrassing 
situations may occasionaly arise.- Nevertheless, fair-minded raters, 
when trained, can attain a high degree of impartiahty, and fair- 
minded employees can take their ratings without irritation. That 
achievement does not, however, just happen. What we have previ- 
ously said about the need for confidence in connection with evalua- 
tion goes double for merit rating. Furthermore, tact and kindly con- 
sideration must be added. Destructive criticism is taboo. Obvi- 
ously, there is great opportunity here for management to make or 
mar personnel relations. So far as it can establish facts as the basis 
for decisions and adhere to them with unquestionable fairness it 
can do much to promote justice and consequent harmony. All 
employees have some good qualities, make some praiseworthy 
achievements, and naturally are gratified when these things are 
recognized. It is along this latter fine that merit rating must put 
the emphasis. If it succeeds in that it can also point out the soft 
spots and solicit self-discipline toward the mutually desired develop- 
ment. Not only in-grade advances but up-grade promotions can be 
made contingent on the findings of merit rating. This helps a policy 
of "hiring from within." 

Claims for Merit Rating. There have been many other claims 
for merit rating. Certainly the uncultivated variety of employee 

^ W. R. Mahler, Twenty Years of Merit Rating (New York: The Psychological 
Corporation, 1947). Roland Benjamin, Jr., "A Survey of 130 Merit Rating Plans." 
Personnel, XXIX, No. 3, and L. F. Van Houten, "Merit Rating Case Histories," 
Personnel Adm. Service, The Dartnell Corporation, 1952. 



MERIT RATING 329 

rating, which always goes on until replaced by a cultivated variety, 
leaves ample room for improvements. Taking a hopeful but con- 
servative attitude on this, we prefer to quote the claims of Jesse T. 
Hopkins of Edgar T. Ward's Sons Company and Affiliated Com- 
panies.^ In his candid article Mr. Hopkins says, "Altogether too 
many people have thought that merit rating was actually a measur- 
ing tool, when it is only an orderly method of recording the opinions 
of one or more members of the supervisory staff of those who work 
under them." He follows this and other cautions with what we 
think is a pretty fair merit rating of merit rating: 

1. Merit rating establishes a method by which the supervisor can 
talk with his men. From such interviews comes a much better 
understanding of many things on the part of both. We would 
say further that it can recognize and reward the employee's 
contribution to the organization as a whole, an appreciation 
which job evaluation alone can not provide. 

2. It provides an excellent means of taking the sting out of necessary 
criticism. The tactful supervisor will point out the good quali- 
ties as well as the bad. It is a chance to appeal to the best in 
the man. 

3. It stimulates men to self-analysis and puts them on the road 
to self -improvement and development. 

4. It is a process which assists management to discover men of 
special talent or with capacities for greater responsibilities. 

5. A merit rating form can almost serve as a pattern to the em- 
ployee for standards of job performance and relations to others. 

6. Merit rating is an excellent recruiting device in that the desirable 
worker is attracted to the company where he knows he will 
not be sidetracked, where his good work will not go unnoticed, 
and where he will work under intelligent and understanding 
supervision. 

7. In general, merit rating can become a very effective means of 
individual employee analysis which stimulates and develops 
not only the employee rated but the supervisor who does the 
rating. 

8. Then, too, it has a public-relations value. Confidence is inspired 
among customers and the public in general when it is known 
that company interest in its employees is expressed by carefully 
developed methods such as merit rating. 

Background of Merit Rating. Someone has said that double 
merit rating occurs every time one person contacts another person, 

^ Some Fallacies and Virtues of Merit Rating, A.M. A. Production Series No. 124. 



330 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Certainly there has always been something of the sort between par- 
ents and children, teachers and pupils, salesmen and customers, etc. 
The formal kind of merit rating seems to have stemmed from the 
school; it was applied to U. S. teachers themselves in 1915. In 1916 
the Bureau of Salesmanship Research was organized at Carnegie 
Institute of Technology, partly to improve the rating of salesmen, 
and it adopted a rating scale in 1917. In the meantime the U. S. 
Army had developed the Scott man-to-man comparison scale for 
rating the graduates of officer training courses and promptly ex- 
tended it as a means of selecting suitable candidates for the training 
courses. It further extended its merit rating to all commissioned 
officers in 1919. In all applications the rater would select records of 
five men, each to represent one degree of a quality, another set of 
five men for the next quality, etc. These representatives were used 
as a "Man-to-Man Scale." ^ In 1919-20, forty-five companies and 
associates started man rating experiments in industry. This led to 
rating men on one quality at a time. Many techniques and methods 
followed: 

a) Carlson's recognition that the qualities, work, attitude, and 
knowledge each gave a regular distribution curve for any 
normal group of individuals. 

b ) The National Metal Trades Association ^ added degrees with 
definitions to regularize the rating of two qualities. 

c) Wonderlic substituted illustrations of behavior for the too gen- 
eral qualities. 

d) The Farm Credit Administration used ten degrees across one 
sheet. 

e) Stevens and Wonderlic used a separate sheet for each of ten 
qualities, on which a group of men are ranked. 

/) Scott applied graph scales during World War I. 

g) Lawshe, Kephart, McCormick, and others adapted an old 
experimentation technique to merit rating — the "Paired-Com- 
parison Method." 

h) The Acme Steel Company devised their "Chart" system in 
which each supervisor's ratings are leveled to 70 per cent on 
each quaUty, thereby correcting the personal error. 

^ The Personnel System of the U. S. Army, Vol. II. 

^ Other groups which have assisted much in this development are: The Ameri- 
can Management Association. The National Electric Manufacturers Association, 
The National Industrial Conference Board, and the Metropolitan Life Insurance 
Company. See A.M. A. Rating Employee and Supervisory Performance, A Manual 
of Merit Rating Techniques. 



MERIT RATING 331 

/) Richardson, Sisson, and others developed the "Forced- 
Choice" method for the armed services. 

/) Flanagan developed the "Critical-Incidents" technique for 
the Air Force. - 

Practical Considerations. Omitted by Mr. Hopkins, but doubt- 
less taken for granted by him, is the need for putting all individual 
differentials on a reliable basis. We have already discussed the 
problem of eliminating out-of-line base rates and we have explained 
that much of the misalignment is due to mistaken individual differ- 
entials. Actually some of these accumulations are justified by real 
man-worth variations so that after base rates are put in order there 
remains the problem of ascertaining which and how much extra 
rating should be recognized as bona fide. Practical questions arise 
such as: How much more or less is one man worth than another 
doing the same job? Which men have promotional potentialities? 
Is the man who asks for an increase most worthy of it or is another 
who has not said a word more worthy? A well-thought-out policy, 
plus reliable information as a basis for decision, is needed here as 
much as it is in the matter of base rates. It may be impossible to 
rectify all the previous mistakes but it is possible to get ready for 
better answers in the future. Questions regarding probationers, 
learnees, layoffs, and discharges can all be answered more justly if 
merit rating data are perpetually gathered and recorded on all the 
man-record cards. Dealings between union representatives and 
management are freer from argument and ill feeling if all merit 
facts are available and unassailable. True, there is the clash be- 
tween merit and length of service which must be settled by bargain- 
ing. Fortunately many union leaders are respectful toward a merit 
record, in which case they will write the seniority clause somewhat 
as follows: 

In all cases of increase or decrease in the working force of the company, 
or in the promotion or demotion or transfer within the working force, the 
following factors shall be considered: (1) seniority or length of continuous 
service; (2) knowledge, training, ability, skill, and efficiency; (3) physical 
fitness; (4) family status, number of dependents, etc.; (5) place of residence. 
When the last four factors are relatively equal, then factor (1), seniority, 
shall govern. 

We urge unions to follow this policy in the interest of justice and 
efficiency for all concerned. 

Methods Less Regular Than in Job Evaluation. We see no 

basis of classification for merit rating methods which will provide 



332 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



clean-cut separation. Some plans make use of more than one prin- 
ciple, as we will show presently. Nearly all the plans end with some 
kind of score, usually in points. Hence it is hardly feasible to set up 
classes on points or no points, straight points or weighted points, 
etc., as we did for job evaluation. Yet there are plans that could be 
so classified. For instance, Cheney Brothers' original plan had five 
quahties. Service, Attendance, Quality, Production, and Citizen- 
ship, with an additional one, Versatility, which was not appUed to 
everybody. Twenty points were allotted to each of the five, straight. 
The Kollmorgan Optical Company plan has six quahties and these 
are weighted in points (see Figure 131). 



Cheney Plan 

Service (cumulative) 20 pts. 

Attendance 20 " 

Production 20 " 

(This factor is allowed 

to go 5 pts. above par) 

Quality 20 " 

Citizenship 20 " 

100 pts. 





Kollmorgan Plan 


10 pts 


. Service (cumulative) 


8 " 


Attendance 


20 " 


Quantity 


24 " 


Quality 


24 " 


Adaptability and Skill 


14 " 


Conduct (Cooperation) 



100 pts. 



Figure 131, 



Comparison of Points Rating in Two Companies Using Merit 
Rating Plans 



These two plans may be used also to illustrate another variation 
in application. The Cheney plan applied whatever percentage of 
the potential total an employee might get in rating above 50 per 
cent to the money range between the minimum rate and the maxi- 
mum. The Kollmorgan plan requires a 65 per cent man rating to 
quahfy for the prevailing rate, that is, the trend Hne, leaving only 35 
per cent further rating for the upper portion of the money range. 
Such differences would necessitate somewhat different attitudes on 
the part of the raters. 

The most satisfactory solution to classification we can contrive is 
to carry over the two techniques from job evaluation (see Chapter 
3) in order to distinguish them from "methods" and for the latter 
set up three headings: Grouping,^ Numerical Gradations, and Check 
Lists of Specific Questions and Record of Occurrences. These seem 
to be different enough in principle to make method cleavages, but 
when we come to subdivide them similarities begin to show. For 

® Ultimate grouping can be made from any set of scores. As a classification we 
mean the more immediate purpose of gathering into grades or groups. 



MERIT RATING 333 

instance, the Probst Service Rating plan distributes individuals into 
eleven groups which are lettered — E, E, — D, D, — C, C, + C, B, 
+ B, A, + A. The basis of grouping is a set of about 100 descrip- 
tive items — character traits, habits, work qualities, and personality. 
The evaluating is done by a "scoring device," etc.'^ In applying the 
methods and techniques to create a tailor-made plan the tendency 
toward similarities is pronounced, and seems to be characteristic of 
merit rating. Furthermore where degrees are predetermined (see 
Technique B below) their application may be made by direct com- 
parison (see Technique A). Even so we think our attempt at classi- 
fication does clarify some differences in principle, thereby isolating 
elements which can be studied and put together more understand- 
ingly. 

CLASSIFICATION OF TECHNIQUES AND METHODS 

Techniques: 

A. Direct Comparison of QuaUties — "Paired Comparison." 

B. Indirect Comparison of Qualities, i.e., against predetermined 

degree definitions. 

Methods: 

1. Grouping, All on Selected Qualities. 

a) "Man to Man" Examples, with Technique B. 

b) Ranking for Each Quality, with Technique A. 

c) Grading by Letters or by Numbers with Technique A or B. 

d) Grading by Weights, may be db, with Technique A. 

(A code may be used to withhold weights from the 
raters.) 

2. Numerical Gradations or Steps, All on Selected Qualities 
(visible or by stencil). 

a) Arbitrary Scales, with Technique B. 

b) One to Ten or Percentage Scales, with Technique B. 

c) Graphic Scales, with Technique B. 

3. Check List of Specific Descriptions or Questions (visible or by 
code). 

a) Check Closest Description, with Technique B (also A). 

b) Yes or No Answers to Questions, with Technique A. 

c) Comments as Answers to Questions, with Technique A. 

d) Most Descriptive Statements (Forced Choice), with Tech- 
nique A. 

4. Record of Occurrences. 

a) Critical Incidents, with Technique A. 

''J. B. Probst, Measuring and Rating Employee Value (New York: The Ronald 
Press Co., 1947). 



334 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

One or More Samples from Each Method 

Class 1. Grouping, All on Selected Qualities. 
1. (a) "Man-to-Man" Examples for the Degrees, with Tech- 
nique B : 



Leadership. 

Initiative, force, self-reliance, decisiveness, tact, 
ability to inspire men and to command their 
obedience, loyalty, and cooperation. 



Degrees 



Points 



Highest 


15 


High 


12 


Middle 


9 


Low 


6 


Lowest 


3 



Potential maximum for all qualities 100, minimum 20. 



There were five quahties: Physical Qualities (3-15), Intelhgence 
(3-15), Leadership (3-15), Personal Qualities (3-15). and Gen- 
eral Value to the Service (8-40) . A rater chose from his acquaint- 
ances a man to typify each degree of each quality. He then com- 
pared the man to be rated with the five men per quality and in each 
case designated the closest similarity, thereby determining the point 
value of the rates. These values were totaled for all the qualities 
and the ratees grouped. Despite the lack of uniformity of these 
human scales, the average groups ran closely to 60 points and the 
distribution of the groups gave usually a normal curve. The method 
was copied in civilian activities and is still used by a few manu- 
facturing companies, but has been discarded by most of them and 
by the Army itself as being too cumbersome. 

1. (b) Ranking for Each Quality, with Technique A (roughly 
graphic as per class 2c) : 

First Example: 



Ability 

Consider his success in doing __^ 

things in new and better ways 

and in adapting improved Routine Fairly 

methods to his own work. worker progressive 



Resourceful Highly 

constructive 



This plan, used by The Kimberly-Clark Corporation for execu- 
tives-supervisors, has seven "abilities" listed down the left of the 
blank and horizontal scales in which the degrees are defined as 
illustrated. 



MERIT RATING 



335 



Second Example: 



Initiative 



Names of Persons 



Wastes time 
walking about, 
talking to everyone 



He needs 
prodding 
occasionally 



Works 
steadily 



Habitually 

drives 

himself 



This plan, used by The Atlantic Refining Company for office 
employees, has ten "traits" and a separate sheet is used for each 
trait; the degree headings given above are for the trait initiative. 

1. (c) Grading by Letters or by Numbers, with Technique A: 



Character of Service 


Excellent 


Good 


Fair 


Poor 


Quantity of Work 











This plan, anonymous, uses six characteristics listed down the left 
with four degrees across the horizontal as indicated. The rater 
simply checks under the appropriate degree but there are no defini- 
tions either of the characteristics or the degrees. Similar forms use 
A, B, C, D in place of the Excellent, Good, Fair, and Poor. The 
Curtiss-Wright Corporation, Buffalo, used six factors and four de- 
grees, all of which were defined. In addition it divided each factor 
degree into five A, B, C, D, E subdegrees which were not defined. 
Revere Copper and Brass, Inc., does much the same but in place of 
the A, B, C's it uses numbers, 1 to 15, 1 to 20, and 1 to 30, running 
from lowest to highest subdegree. 

1. (d) Grading by Weights, May Be Plus or Minus, with Tech- 
nique A (a code may be used to withhold weights from the raters) : 

First Example: 



Qualities Dates 










Rater 










* 5. Dependability: 

Does he follow instructions? 

Will he do what you expect him to do and 

do it conscientiously and thoroughly? 











Averages of 
Periodic 
Ratings 



Degree: 
* 5 Key: 
Weight: 



(Outstanding) 
10 



(Above Average) 
9 



(Average) 



(Below Average) 
7 



(Weak) 
6 



336 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



This plan, anonymous, uses ten qualities which are roughly de- 
fined. There are five degrees which are weighted on a separate key 
table, from which the appropriate weight is transferred to the cur- 
rent date column opposite the quality being rated. An additional 
set of columns is provided for averaging the values for the four 
ratings. The degrees are not defined. 

Second Example: 



Qualities 



Quality 
of Work 



Accuracy 

of 
Production 



Care of 
Working 

Space 



Handling 

of 
Material 



Unsatisfactory 
(negative) 



many 
errors 

— 4 



slovenly 

— 2 



rough 

-2 



careless 



— 2 



careless 
— 1 



careless 



— 1 



Aver- 
age 



aver- 
age 



aver- 
age 

3 



aver- 
age 

3 



Satisfactory 
(positive)' 



careful 



+2 



keeps 
clean 

+ 1 



careful 



+ 1 



most 
accurate 

+4 



very 
clean 

+2 



very 
careful 



Totals 



Detail 


For 

Whole 











This plan, of the Spark Plug Division, General Motors Corpora- 
tion, uses six major qualities, subdivided into three or four minor 
qualities (except attendance). Whatever the grading may be, it is 
added algebraically to the average weight and entered in the next- 
to-last column. The values for all the minor qualities are totaled 
and this total is entered in the last column. For accuracy of produc- 
tion it might be 6 — 4 or 6 — 2 or 6 + 2 or 6 + 4. The maximum 
potentials vary from 2 to 10 and all together give a maximum po- 
tential of 100. At first glance this plan seems commendable but 
elaborateness of weighting cannot alone bring fair results. It seems 
to us wiser to define the qualities in terms of concrete examples 
rather than in terms of subdivisions. The latter merely multiply the 
considerations and make the 1 5 to 20 weightings per major quality 
a matter of arbitrary guessing, for those who predetermine the 
weights. It may be easier for those who select the appropriate 
values. Foremen do not take naturally to academic grading. They 
have to be trained in grading. Doubtless the company using this 
form does have some more explicit descriptions of the qualities, 
perhaps of the degrees, but if so they ought to be on or attached to 



MERIT RATING 



337 



the forms. As it is there is bound to be great variance in the grad- 
ing done by different foremen and also in that done by the same 
foreman at different times. 

Grouping Supported by Theory. The distribution either of 
things or of persons on any measurable quality will in general take 
the shape of a bell curve. About 50 per cent of the individuals so 
measured will constitute the so-called average group with approxi- 
mately 25 per cent above the actual average and approximately 25 
per cent below. The theory back of grouping is, therefore, sound. 




59 
^nd below 



60-69 



70-79 
POINT GROUPS 



80-89 



90-100 



Figure 132. Normal Distribution Band. 



Briefly, it starts on the hypothesis that if a random sample of 
workers is normal the parent distribution curve is also normal 
(Figure 132) or, conversely, if the sample is skewed the whole will 
also be skewed in the same way (Figure 133). Next it assumes 
that if the quahties are properly chosen they will occur normally, 
that is, if the frequence of occurrence and the degree of intensity 
are plotted, a normal distribution curve will result,"^ but there are 
usually irregularities caused by such influences as selection for the 
job, leadership, custom, and last but not least the way the statistical 
group is put together. Effects of these forces should not be credited 
to, nor charged against, the individual being rated. In short, the 
method has possibilities if it is used correctly. The National Metal 

^ "A Case History in Merit Rating," by R. S. Driver, A.M. A. Personnel, XVI, 
No. 4; also Personnel Series No. 93. 



338 



59 
or below 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 
40 




60-69 



80-89 



70-79 
POINT GROUPS 
Figure 133. Skewed Distribution Band. 



90-100 



Trades Association derives five groupings from merit rating as 
shown in Figure 134. 



Group 


Point Range 


"Normal" Distribution 


Money Range 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 


91-100 

81 and under 91 
71 " " 81 
61 " " 71 
60 or below 


3-5% of personnel 

8-12% " 
65-70% " 
10-15% " 

3- 5% " 


Max. 

.75% 
.50% 
.25% 
Min. 



Figure 134. Group Method Used by the National Metal Trades Assocl\tion. 

Class 2. Numerical Gradations or Steps, All on Se- 
lected Qualities. 

2. (a) Arbitrary Scales, with Technique B: 



Factors 


R-1 R-2 


R-3 R-4 


R-5 R-6 


R-7 R-8 


4. Job 


n n 


D D 


D D 


n D 


Knowledge 










This factor 


Is he an expert 


Is he well in- 


Does he know 


Is his knowl- 


appraises 


on his job? 


formed on his 


his job fairly 


edge of his job 


how well the 


Does he make 


job and related 


well? Does he 


limited? Does 


employee 


the most of his 


work, rarely 


regularly re- 


he show little 


knows his 


knowledge and 


needing assist- 


quire super- 


desire or abihty 


job. 


experience? Is 


ance and in- 


vision and in- 


to improve him- 




he a self starter? 


struction but 
asking for them 
when it will 
save time? 


struction? 


self? 



MERIT RATING 



339 



This plan used by the National Metal Trades Association has six 
"factors" and carries excellent instructions, stresses impartiality, 
and the consideration of "instances that are typical of his work and 
way of acting." The left square is used when the degree specifica- 
tion is a perfect fit and the right square is used "if he does not quite 
measure up to the specification but is definitely better than the speci- 
fication for the next lower degree." Scoring is sometimes made by 
a stencil as per key of weights. Also the ratings may be punched 
and the cards sorted mechanically. Acceptable low score is 60 
per cent. 



Factor 


Ri 


R2 


R3 


R. 


R5 


Re 


R7 


Rs 


Knowledge 


20 


18 


16 


14 


12 


10 


8 


6 



The maximum potential for all six factors is 100. 

2. (b) One to Ten Scales, with Technique B: 
First Example: 



Factors 


Rater 


Reviewer 


1. Quality of Performance: 

(a) Thoroughness: adequacy of results 

(b) General dependability: accuracy of 

results 

(c) Technical skill with which the im- 

portant procedures or instruments 
are employed in performing his 
duties 

(d) Original contributions to method or 

knowledge 

(e) Effectiveness in getting good work 

done by his unit 























In boxes mark: 
1 or 2 if excellent 
3 or 4 if very good 
5 or 6 if good 
7 or 8 if fair 
9 or 10 if unsatisfactory 



Interpretation of sum: 
3-7 Excellent 
8-13 Very Good 

14-19 Good 

20-24 Fair 

25-30 Unsatisfactory 



This "Service Rating" plan, anonymous, but obviously modified 
from The U. S. Civil Service Commission, uses only three major 
factors but the subdivisions come to twenty. The scoring is unique 
in that it is in reverse order to usual practice, that is, the lower the 
score the better the rating. 



340 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Second Example: 

The "Acme Chart Plan" has been in use by the Acme Steel Com- 
pany since 1937. Thus it is not new and it would not be novel 
except for one feature. There are ten qualities: (1) accuracy, (2) 
quantity, (3) use of time, (4) ability to work with others, (5) 
ability to learn, (6) safety, (7) initiative and acceptance of respon- 
sibilities, (8) conduct on the job, (9) care of equipment, tools, 
materials, supplies, and power, (10) punctuality and attendance. 
On each of these each employee is rated independently in percent- 
age by two or more raters. The feature that makes this noteworthy 
is the assembling of all ratings made by each rater on each given 
quality and then doctoring them to give an average of 70 per cent. 
This wipes out any exaggerated ratings but keeps the series in pro- 
portion. The average corrected rating for each employee can then 
be made, which will be free from subjective errors, either high or 
low. These corrected ratings are used to supplement seniority when 
promotion is being considered. Minor variations are further dis- 
regarded by treating all employees, in approximately the highest 
10 per cent rating, as equal in rated merit. This keeps the verdicts 
within the statistically determined reliability of the rating. Then 
the one of that group who has the longest seniority is given the 
promotion. By this means only the ratings of employees in a given 
unit are compared, which obviates the situation of having every 
employee on one job rated higher or lower than any employee on 
some other job, which sometimes occurs. 

2. (c) Graphic Scales, with Technique B: 
This type of plan was used by 87 per cent of the seventy-five 
companies surveyed in 1952. 

First Example: 



Traits 



I ' 1 ■ I ' i ' 1 ' 1 ' I ■ I ■ [ ■ 1 ■ 1 
Initiative 10 9 8 7 6 5 

Requires Needs little Needs undue 

only general supervision supervision 

instructions 



This plan, anonymous, has four major traits as follows: (1) 
value of assigned work, (2) capacity for future growth, (3) apti- 
tude and leadership, (4) personality traits. The last one is sub- 
divided into five minor traits from which we have taken the first. 
This plan shows the scoring numerically and graphically. 



MERIT RATING 



341 



Second Example: 



Qualities 

1 1 , 1 . ( . . 1 . . 1 


Personality 1 


1 


1 


1 1 


Consider the effect of Creates 


Unfavor- 


Nothing 


Favorable Excep- 


his personality upon dissatis- 


able im- 


outstand- 


impres- tionally 


people. Be careful not faction 


pression 


ing 


sion pleasing. 


to overemphasize first 






Decided 


impressions 






asset 



This "review of service" plan, used by The Armstrong Cork 
Company, has twelve quahties and they are not subdivided. No 
scoring is given but there is space for explanation and three col- 
umns, not shown here, to be checked annually under the headings: 
Has improved. Little or no change. Has gone back. Note that the 
scales for some of these examples run in opposite directions. 

Third Example: 



Trait 










Dependability 


in fol- 








lowing instructions 

1 


1 


1 


1 1 


Requires 


Sometimes 


Wastes time 


Seldom 


Always 


supervision to 


needs to be 


occasionally 


takes time 


stays 


be kept at 


reminded to 




out without 


right 


work 


continue his 




a good 


on the 




work 




reason 


job 



Eighteen of these "Test Research Rating Scales" were developed 
by E. K. Taylor and G. E. Manson while on the staff of the Civilian 
Personnel Research Subsection of the Adjutant General's Office.^ 
Only four or five scales most suitable to a given set of job situations 
are used, plus one more for over-all effectiveness. The jobholder's 
names are all hsted on each separate trait form. Stress is placed on 
the degree definitions, which are more extensive than here shown, 
rather than on a trait name. 

Evaluation is made in the presence of, and under the close super- 
vision of, a quahfied personnel technician and every precaution is 
taken to avoid disturbance. The two persons to get extreme ratings 
are identified first, then the persons next to them; the process is re- 

^ Personnel, XXVII, No. 6. 



342 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



peated for all the scales in use. Of course the raters are given ex- 
planations and training before the actual rating begins. Reliabihty 
tests show that the "pile-up" of cases at the upper ranges is con- 
spicuously absent from the distributions but the means still come 
somewhat above the exact center. This deviation from symmetry 
is, however, much less than in usual practice. Naturally, this sort 
of practice is more costly, both in form construction and in admin- 
istration, than the ordinary practices but the authors beheve "that 
employee evaluations (whether undertaken as a means of establish- 
ing a criterion for the validation of personnel techniques and pro- 
cedures or for providing data on the basis of which administrative 
decisions are to be made) serve an important function. If such 
evaluations are to be made, the time and effort required to develop 
a system, such as has been described, may more than pay for itself 
in the greater value of the data that result." 

Class 3. Check List of Specific Descriptions or Ques- 
tions (visible or by code). This type of plan was used by 9 per 
cent of the seventy-five companies surveyed in 1952. 

3. (a) Check Closest Description, with Technique B: 



Quality 


Suited to lob 


Unsuited to lob 


8. Adjustment 


n Satisfactory; worth consider- 


n Could do higher type of work 


to job 


ing for advancement. 


of another variety, but not 




n Efficient; satisfied; has 


satisfactory on present job. 




reached Hmit of develop- 


n Capable; but interests not 




ment. 


satisfied. 




n Capable; interested; but 


n Underqualified; shows little 




needs more training. 


promise of development. 



This "Progress Report," anonymous, has the advantage of bring- 
ing out information other than the degree of a qualification, that is, 
it can serve as an all-round follow-up. It does not, however, lend 
itself to scoring. Hence it is usually applied only to the less measur- 
able qualities; the measurable qualities may be given numerical or 
graphical scales on the same sheet. There are nine qualities, six 
of which have 3- or 4-degree graphic scales. ^^ 

3. (b) Yes or No Answers to Questions, with Technique A (A 
yes may carry a weighting, a no may mean zero value). 

^° For a seven-quality twelve-degree plan see H. A. Stackman, "A Case Report 
from Scovill," Personnel, XXIII, No. 6, pp. 410-24. 



MERIT RATING 343 



Quality 










1 


High Increasing Steady 


Low, 


1 
Shrinking 


1. Does executive guard against waste of supplies? 


Yes- 


-. No — . 


2. Does executive think of new and more efficient 






operations? 


Yes- 


-. No — . 


3. Does executive handle lunch hours efficiently? 


Yes- 


-. No — . 


4. Does executive tolerate laxness on part of employees? 


Yes- 


-. No — . 


5. Does executive try to improve himself while on the 






job? 


Yes- 


-. No — . 


6. Does executive consistently get results? 


Yes- 


-. No — . 



This plan, anonymous, combines a graphic scale with the specific 
questions. Answers to the latter are not weighted; they serve merely 
as information and guidance to checking the scale. This plan has 
five major qualifications: Appearance, Attendance, Attitude, Effi- 
ciency, and Promotional Quality. Attitude is subdivided into: Co- 
operation, Manner, and Industry. Efficiency is subdivided into: 
Knowledge of Job, Leadership, and Production. Note that Ques- 
tion 4 is in reverse so that the no answer is the favorable one and 
that Question 6 covers the net result of all the others. Sometimes 
neither yes nor no is the correct answer! 

Figure 135 provides an excellent example of combining Method 
3Z? with Method 2a. Notice that the yes answers are allowed the 
minimum count of one each and that the measurable qualities will 
always predominate in any score. 

3. (c) Comments as Answers to Questions, with Technique A: 



Quality 


On this quality give factual information 
about the person's 


Description of Selling 
Technique 


Knowledge of merchandise. 

Interest in the customer's needs. 

Ability to present the merchandise attractively. 

Ability to increase the average salescheck. 

Ability to sell to all kinds of customers. 

Ability to close a sale. 



This "Salesclerk's Review Ratings," anonymous, has five qualities 
besides the one above: Speed, Appearance, Attitude, Accuracy, and 
Social Factors or Nonselling Responsibilities Inffuencing the Job. 
For these five, not given here, there are no set comments but each 
carries a sentence suggesting the kind of comments wanted. An- 
swers of yes or no are precluded. Obviously any scoring on this 



344 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



I CUMULATIVE SERVICE 



1 yr.. 

2 yrs. 

3 " . 
5 " . 



10 
12 
14 
16 
18 
20 



22 yrs 11 



24 
26 
28 
30 
32 
34 
36 
38 
40 
42 



.12 
.14 
.16 
.18 
.20 
.22 
.24 
.26 
.28 
.30 



II DEPENDENTS 

4 persons 4 

3 " 3 

2 " 2 

1 " 1 



III MARITAL STATUS 

Married Man 1 

Single Woman 2 



IV CITIZENSHIP 

Citizen 5 

Alien (service 25 yrs. or more) 
with or without 1st papers.. 4 

First Papers 3 

Alien (service 20-25 yrs.) 2 

Alien (service 15-20 yrs.) 1 



V ATTENDANCE 

Perfect 4 

1-2 absences 3 

3-4 " 2 

5-6 " 1 

Over 6 " 



VI QUANTITY 

Day Workers 

Above average 6 

Average 4 

Below average 2 

Unsatisfactory 

Bedaux Workers 

80 pts. per hr & over 6 

70-79 pts. per hr 4 

60-69 pts. per hr 2 

Below 60-pt. hr 



VII QUALITY 

A. To what degree is the product up 

to the dept's standard of qual- 
ity? 

1. Above standard requirements? Yes..l 

2. Meets standard requirements? Yes . . 1 

3. Occasionally below? Yes..l 

4. Is job of high quality req.? Yes . . 1 

B. Workmanship 

1. Is this person orderly in his 

work? 

2. Does he handle materials eco- 

nomically? 

C. Degree to which supervision is 

necessary to maintain quality. 

1 . Needs little or no checking Yes . . 1 

2. No more than average checking Yes . . 1 



Yes . . 1 



Yes. .1 



VIII VERSATILITY, 
SKILL 



ADAPTABILITY. 



1. Has this person learned new 

work within expected time? 

2. Can he fill 2 major jobs? 

3. Can he fill 3 major jobs? 

4. Can he adjust to radical change 

in his present job? 

5. Can he learn different work? 

6. Would he adjust readily to 

transfer to another major 
job? 

7. Can he actually fill his job with 

better than ordinary skill? 

8. Can he perform a highly 

skilled job with apparent ease 
and dexterity? 

IX CONDUCT, COOPERATION 

1. Is this person one who does 

not play pranks which might 
endanger other workmen? 

2. Does he refrain from objec- 

tionable language and 
actions? 

3. Is he always willing to carry 

out instructions on the job? 

4. Is he wilhng to try new meth- 

ods? 

5. Is he helpful to supervisor? 

6. Does this person call to the 

attention of the supervisor 
defective work received? 

7. Is this person one who does 

not offer excuses or alibis to 
avoid accepting his proper 
responsibilities? 

TOTAL RATING 



Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 


.1 
.1 
.1 


Yes. 
Yes. 


.1 
.1 


Yes. 


.1 


Yes. 


.1 


Yes. 


.1 


Yes. 


.1 


Yes. 


.1 


Yes. 


.1 


Yes. 
Yes. 


.1 
.1 


Yes. 


.1 


Yes. 


.1 



Figure 135. Complete Example of Plan Combining 3Zj with 2a. (Bausch & 

Lomb Company.) 



MERIT RATING 345 

kind of information would be very rough indeed but the picture 
shown may be just as accurate, perhaps more significant, as an aid 
to employee improvement.^^ 

3. (d) Most Descriptive Statements (Forced Choice), with 
Technique A: 

The "Forced Choice" method came from researches conducted 
by the armed forces during World War II. It was aimed to eliminate 
favoritism that crowded ratings toward the good end of the scale. ^^ 
The basic method provides blocks of descriptive statements, two 
equally favorable and two equally unfavorable per block. The 
rater checks two of each four statements — the one most descriptive 
and the one least descriptive of the individual being rated. Indices 
of the favorability and unfavorability are established from inde- 
pendent pooled judgment. The subtlety of the plan lies in the fact 
that only one of the favorable and one of the unfavorable state- 
ments differentiate between good and poor ratees and only those 
two statements are considered in the scoring. The whole form con- 
tains thirty to fifty blocks and is scored by counting these discrimi- 
nating statements as checked. Favorable checks are plus and un- 
favorable ones are minus. The raters do not see the scoring key so 
that they are unaware of which statement in each pair counts. 
Under test the method has been found not to give a much higher 
rating when the raters try to show favoritism! It is thought to be 
particularly effective in identifying men who are giving the best 
performances; it is not so suitable if the ratings must be defended 
in bargaining or in arbitration. 

Class 4. Record of Occurrences. 

4. (a) Critical Incidents, with Technique A: 

The "Critical-Incidents" method ^^ came from researches con- 
ducted by the Air Force during World War II and several industries 
have since adapted it to their needs. It presumes that employees 
do or do not do certain things on the job that make the difference 
between success, mediocrity, or failure. Therefore supervisors are 
coached to record certain kinds of occurrences, namely, critical in- 

^^ H. S. Belinky, "Developing Effective Service Ratings," Personnel Administra- 
tion, November, 1940. 

^^ M. W. Richardson, "Forced-Choice Performance Reports," Personnel, XXVI, 
pp. 205-12, and E. D. Sisson, "Forced Choice," Personnel Psychology, I, pp. 
365-81. 

^^ J. C. Flanagan, and R. B. Miller, Handbook for the Performance Record for 
Production Employees (Chicago: Science Research Associates, 1951). 



346 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

cidents connected with the work of each ratee. A Manual guides 
the supervisor in this observing and recording. He does not make 
any attempt to evaluate the items. The Manual identifies thirty-five 
types of incidents classified into five areas: (1) physical qualifica- 
tion, (2) mental qualifications, (3) work habits and attitudes, (4) 
temperament, and (5) personal characteristics. Four breakdowns 
are laid out for each area as illustrated ^* in Figure 136. The rec- 
ord is accumulated over several weeks or months and separated on 
forms to show the favorable and unfavorable incidents. This 
method should be acceptable to unions because it provides tangible 
evidence without any tricks. It is also suggested as being illuminat- 
ing in the matter of where training would lead to improvement of 
performance. 

Conclusion of One Experienced in Merit Rating. 

Regardless of all the techniques designed to guide and control the rating 
process, evaluations of employees in the final analysis are only opinions, and 
their value will depend largely upon the capacity of the persons doing the 
rating. Hence ... we have favored keeping it (the plan) as simple as 
possible. We believe the main emphasis for improvement should be directed 
toward a better training of supervisors and foremen who are the raters in 
most instances. 15 

Many Qualities Have Been Used. J. B. Probst ^^ has used as 
many as seventy-five actions or behavior characteristics for man 
rating. The instructions, cautions, etc., given by Mr. Probst are 
excellent and have been influential but we believe a smaller number 
of qualities can suffice. 

The survey Figure 137 made by L. G. Spicer in 1949, when 
compared with a similar one made in 1940, indicates for hourly 
paid workers less stress on initiative and adaptability, more on job 
knowledge. Of these, Numbers 1, 2, 8, and 9 are measurable, 
whereas the others lack tangibility and must be graded. Of the 
qualities for salaried workers, Numbers 3, 4, and 14 are measur- 
able. In either case the qualities can be broadly classified as: (A) 
pertaining directly to the job, and (B) pertaining to general worth. 
Note that the measurable qualities belong to class (A). 

^^ J. C. Flanagan, "Principles and Procedures in Evaluating Performance." 
Personnel, XXVIII, No. 5. 

^^ National Industrial Conference Board, Studies in Personnel Policy, No. 8, 
from which the "anonymous" examples have also been selected. 

^^ Chicago Bureau of Public Personnel Administration, etc., Technical Bulletin, 
No. 4. 



MERIT RATING 



347 



PERFORMANCE RECORD 
WORK HABITS AND ATTITUDES 

13. Response to Departmental Needs 


4 


3 




1 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


5 


6 


6 


a. Tried to get others to slow down, refuse 
tasks; b. Criticized equipment, facilities, 
methods unnecessarily; c. Was unwilling to 
perform work beyond his assignment or re- 
sponsibility; d. Refused to pass along his idea 
for an improvement. 

14. Getting Along with Others 


A. Tried to get co-workers to accept new 
rate, job, etc.; B. Increased his efficiency 
despite co-workers' resentment; C. Accepted 
extra work in spite of inconvenience; D. Ac- 
cepted more difficult jobs; E. Suggested im- 
proved production procedures. 


4 


3 


2 


1 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


5 


6 


6 


a. Became upset or angry over work; b. 
Quarreled with fellow employees; c. Criticized, 
annoyed co-workers; d. Bossed co-worker; 
e. Interfered with equipment of another; f. 
Refused help, to co-worker. 

15. Initiative 


A. Remained calm under stress; B. Kept 
temper under provocation; C. Helped co- 
worker at inconvenience to self; D. Avoided 
friction by tact, consideration; E. Assisted 
feUow employee needing help. 


4 


3 


2 


1 


1 2 


3 


4 


5 






5 


6 


6 


a. Failed to plan work when necessary; b. 
Failed to obtain tools until need arose; c. 
Failed to point out defective parts or opera- 
tion; d. Failed to take action in an emergency. 

16. Responsibility 


A. Planned efficient ways of doing work; B. 
Stocked materials and tools ahead of time; 

C. Prepared work area, machine in advance; 

D. Volunteered for more responsible tasks; 

E. Voluntarily did work in addition to that 
expected; F. Pointed out defects on the line. 


4 


3 




1 


1 




3 


4 


5 


5 


6 


6 


a. Passed up chance for more training; b. 
Passed up chance to learn more about the 
job; c. Gave misleading, incorrect instruc- 
tions; d. Poorly directed work in foreman's 
absence. 


A. Got additional information on his job, de- 
partment; B. Took additional outside train- 
ing; C. Got information on improving work; 
D. Planned a schedule for others; E. Trained, 
instructed other employees; F. Got coopera- 
tion between employees. 



Figure 136. Example of Critical Incidents. (American Management Associa- 
tion.) 



148 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



X umber of Traits Used on Rating Scales 

Most frequent number of traits used 
Second most frequent number used 



Hourly 
Employees 

6 

5 



Salaried 
Employees 

10 
6 



Names of Traits Most Frequently Used 







Number 






Number 


Number 


Hourly Employees 


of 
Cos. 


Number 


Salaried Employees 


of 
Cos. 


1 


Quality of Work 


40 


1 


Job Knowledge 


26 


2 


Quantity of Work 


38 


9 


Initiative 


26 


3 


Dependability 


24 


3 


Quantity of \^'ork 


23 


4 


Job Knowledge 


21 


4 


Quality of Work 


22 


5 


Cooperation 


21 


5 


Dependability 


19 


6 


Initiative 


19 


6 


Judgment 


18 


7 


Attitude 


17 


7 


Cooperation 


18 


8 


Safety Habits 


16 i 


8 


Attitude 


14 


9 


Attendance 


14 


9 


Leadership 


13 


10 


Working Conditions 


12 


10 


Working Relations 


12 


11 


Learning Ability 


12 


11 


Learning Ability 


12 


12 


Adaptability 


10 


12 


Appearance 


11 


13 


Physical Condition 


10 


13 


Personalit>' 


10 


14 


Personal Habits 


9 


14 


Attendance 


9 



Figure 137. Sur\ey of Qualities in Use. (From a survey made by Life Omce 
Management Association, it appears that the five traits most used by life insurance 
companies for rating their clerical workers are: (1) accuracy. (2) dependability, 
(3) knowledge of work. (4) ability to work with others, and (5) efficiency.) 

Again they may be more specifically classified as: 

a) Present performance. 

b) Supervision needed — responsibility. 

c) Potential performance — promotability. 

d) General behavior. 

e) Personality assets. 

Here classes {a) and {b) are the most definitely measurable. We 
draw this dividing fine sharply because many managements include 
personality, cooperativeness, attitude, or other qualities belonging 
to classes (c), {d), and (e) which are scarcely measurable at all. 
Of course they have important bearings on the worth of the em- 
ployee and perhaps they ought to be kept in for rating; if you weight 
them at all, however, you should weight them down, or train the 
raters to keep them down so they cannot predominate in the score 
or verdict. The aim is to base the scoring on incontestable facts as 
far as practicable. The intangible qualities, which can only be 
graded, can be helpfully kept in sight without trouble so long as 



MERIT RATING 349 

they are minimized or excluded from the score. It is possible that 
information for guidance may prove more valuable than a scoring 
that cannot be taken at face value. The design of the plan would be 
influenced by this choice of emphasis. 

Choice of Qualities. Obviously the limits to choice lie between 
what information is needed and what can be reliably obtained. 
Coupled with this is the question of whether over-all rating will be 
satisfactory or whether some analysis will be worth while. Over-all 
rating by means of ranking allows comparison of individuals who 
are not on the same job but it does not give all the specific informa- 
tion needed by the personnel department. To gain both objectives 
it is necessary to confine the rating to a few qualities that are impor- 
tant to most of the jobs and ignore other qualities. Another con- 
sideration is that the qualities should sample widely divergent 
aspects of each man's performance and at the same time be com- 
mon enough in occurrence to be based on observable facts, not 
guesses. If seven to ten such qualities can be recognized, and 
described with definiteness, you have found the basis for a custom- 
made plan. By all means compare the choices made by other com- 
panies but follow principles in making your own choice and try to 
make simple but clean-cut definitions for both qualities and the 
degrees on which they are to be measured or graded. For the sake 
of simplicity we would confine the choice to (a), (b), and (c) 
using the most tangible on-the-job representations of these and 
without further subdivision. 

If the objective in merit rating is special, such as establishing a 
guide to hiring, variation must be made for each distinct type of 
occupation, such as engineering, research, etc. If the objective is 
solely character appraisal, acquired traits can be ignored and such 
traits as initiative, responsibility, and leadership concentrated upon. 

Complete Example. To represent the many different sorts of 
scales we have been showing fragments. We will now show one 
complete example, one portion for hourly jobs, Figure 139, and 
another for salaried, professional, or administrative positions. Fig- 
ure 138. They constitute the plan of the Essex Rubber Company 
and are taken from Merit Rating, Selected Case Histories, a study 
prepared recently by L. F. Houten for the Dartnell Corporation of 
Chicago. In this report Mr. O. L. Evans, Essex's Director of Indus- 
trial Relations, explains that the ratings are made at four-month 
intervals by department heads who are trained to rate by means of 
group meetings. By way of appraisal he says, "the use of these 
forms definitely aids supervisors in improving the caliber of their 



350 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



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MERIT RATING 



351 



Deterio- 
rate 




Deterio- 
rate 




Deterio- 
rate 




Remain 
the same 




n 

Remain 
the same 




1 

Remain 
the same 




Improve 




n 

Improve 




u 

Improve 




Work always on 

schedule, even 

under most difficult 

circumstances. 
Rises to emergencies 

and assumes 

leadership without 

being requested 

to do so. 


D 

Possesses unusual 
comprehension and 
analytical ability. 
Complete reliance 
may be placed on 
all judgments irre- 
spective of degree 

of complexity. 
Decisions and Judg- 
ments are com- 
pletely free of 
personal bias or 
prejudice. 


Limited. Requires 
frequent reinstruc- 
tion. Has failed to 
demonstrate initia- 
tive or imagination 
in solving work 
problems. 






D 








Consistently reli- 
able under normal 
conditions. Dues 
special as well as 
regular assignments 
promptly. Little 
or no supervision 
required. 




1 

Decisions can be 

accepted without 

question except 

when problems of 

extreme complexity 

are involved. Little 

or no personal bias 

enters into 

judgment. 




Follows closely 
previously learned 
methods, and pro- 
cedures. Slow to 
adapt to changes. 
Tends to become 
confused in new 
situations. 




D 




D 








r 

Performs work with 
reasonable prompt- 
ness under normal 
supervision. 




Capable of care- 
fully analyzing 
day-to-day prob- 
lems involving some 

complexity and 
rendering sound de- 
cisions. Decisions 
rarely influenced by 
prejudice or per- 
sonal bias. 




Meets new situa- 
tions in satisfac- 
tory manner. Occa- 
sionally develops 
original ideas, 
methods, and 
techniques. 




Work occasionally 
lags. Requires 

more than normal 
supervision. 


i 


Judgments usually 

sound on routine, 

simple matters but 

cannot be relied 

upon when any 

degree of complexity 

is involved. 




Frequently develops 

new id«23 and 
methods of merit. 
Handling of emer- 
gencies is generally 
characterized by 
sound decisive 
action. 




n 

Requires close 
supervision. Often 
behind schedule. 


j 


u 

Analyses and con- 
clusions subject to 
frequent error and 
are often based on 

bias. Decisions 
require careful re- 
view by supervisor. 




1 

Work is consistently 
characterized by 

marked originality, 
alertness, initia- 
tive and imagina- 
tion. Can be relied 
on to develop new 

ideas and techniques 
in solving the most 
diRtcult problems. 

Comments: 




1 

MS 


JUDGMENT AND COMMON 
SENSE: 

Ability to weigh all phases of a 
proijiem and arrive at a correct 
decision; unbiased, logical, clear 

ttiiRking. 


RESOURCEFULNESS: 

Initiative, vision, originality. 
Ability to seek and find new ideas 
and new ways to do a job. 


1 csi 1 e^ 1 



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352 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



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MERIT RATING 



353 



n 

Deterio- 
rate 


Deterio- 
rate 


Deterio- 
rate 


1 

Remain 
the same 


n 

Remain 
the same 


Remain 
the same 


Improve 


u 

Improve 


Improve 


Deficient. 


n 

Is an outstanding 
example of leader- 
ship. Always hat 
the enthusiastic 
support and co- 
operation of his sub- 
ordinates even under 
difficult 
circumstances. 


Overburdens him- 
self with unneces- 
sary detail which 
prevents giving 
time and attention 
to supervision and 
direction Conflicts 

frequently arise 
between subordinates 
as to responsibility. 


Does not fulfill all 
requirements of sat- 
isfactory perform- 
ance. Either falls 
to recognize need 
or not inclined to 
undertake construc- 
tive positive effort. 


Is a strong leader 
who has the will- 
ing support and 
cooperation of his 
subordinates. Rarely 
experiences even 
minor difficulties. 


n 

Does not delegate 
wisely. Subordinates 

have too much or 
too little authority. 
Subordinates some- 
times lack a clear 
understanding of 
what is expected 
of them. 


Does a satisfactory 

Job. particularly If 

needs and methods 

are outlined. 


u 

Obtains good sup- 
port and coopera- 
tion. May en- 
counter occasional 
difficulties in rela- 
tionships with sub- 
ordinates, but none 
of a serious nature. 


Satisfactory. Gen- 
erally exercises 
sood judgment. 
May occasionally 
experience a lack of 
understanding on 
the part of 
subordinates. 


u 




u 


n 

Recognizes need 
and value of a 
development pro- 
gram. Trains and 
develops subordinates 

in an effective, 
competent manner. 


Enjoys only passive 
support and coopera- 
tion of subordinates. 
Not sufficiently 
objective or Im- 
pcr»>nal in rela- 
tionships. 


n 

Subordinntes have 
better than average 

understanding of 
their functions and 
relationships. De- 
votes adequate time 
to planning and 
direction. 


u 




n 


n 

An excellent 
instructor wliosc 
organization is 
always well In- 
formed. Is recog- 
nized as outstand- 
ing in his ability 

to train and 
develop personnel. 

Comments:. . . 


Lacks full support 

and cooperation of 

associates. Easily 

prejudiced for or 

against. Maintains 

weak or poor 

discipline. 

Comments: 


Exercises excellent 
judgment in dele- 
gation of responsi- 
bility and authority. 
Subordinates know 
exactly what is ex- 
pected under all 
circumstances. 

Comments: 


■Sg 


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1 


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in: 


1 

If 


CUD u 

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MERIT RATING 



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356 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

employees. Supervisors in turn are partly rated (indirectly) through 
the composite scores of their departmental employees." In practice 
Figure 141 has an additional front page listing: employee's name, 
job title, division, department — section, and rating period. 

Training Raters Important. As R. S. Driver says, "be prepared 
to devote considerable energy to merit rating maintenance as 
well as to its installation." The important factor in this maintenance 
is training. Every care must be taken to see that all raters under- 
stand the meanings of the qualities, precautions to keep in mind, etc. 
This is best accomplished through meetings called and conducted 
by the merit rating staff of the Personnel Department. Best prac- 
tice devotes forty hours to this training but it must be repeated. 

Ingrades for Man-Differentials. When the contest over automatic 
time progressions vs. management-determined progressions was 
raging before the National War Labor Board, 1943-45, the unions 
were vehement in claiming that "the merit increase system resulted 
in favoritism, delay, and inefficiency; that retention by management 
of complete discretion in making promotions in effect removed rates 
of a large portion of workers from the sphere of collective bargain- 
ing." The second Maxson decision gave the union the right to 
negotiate concerning the standards which were to govern the grant- 
ing of merit increases but the parties failed to agree on the "objective 
standards," so that the Board had to reconsider its own decision. 
In 1945 the Washington Board therefore reverted to the first Max- 
son formula as written by Regional Board No. 2. We have already 
explained in Chapter 11 how this gave the union the victory on 
progressions below the mid-hne. Increases above the mid-line were 
thereafter to be determined by the employer on the basis of merit 
with the employee right of appeal. Thus the Board finally recog- 
nized "the propriety of management making the initial determina- 
tion as to granting or withholding merit increases and . . . the 
propriety of the union filing and prosecuting grievances as to 
whether these determinations are in accordance with the agreed 
standards through the grievance procedure of the contract, including 
arbitration if necessary." For Supreme Court decision see p. 327. 

Figure 140 repeats the sample rate structure used in Chapter 11 
to illustrate the use of ingrades below the mid-line and here illus- 
trates the use of ingrades above the mid-line. We have arbitrarily 
made four such ingrades for all job classes. This fits the use of 60 
per cent for qualifying only, plus 10 per cent steps to the 100 per 
cent limit. When merit rating scores are so tied to ingrades there 
can be a semi-automatic progression for man-differentials. 



MERIT RATING 



357 



NAME & CLOCK NO. 



OCCUPATION. 



DEPARTMENT 



. CLASS . 



._ GROUP. 



DATE 



WHAT HAS HE DONE? 



QUALITY OF WORK— THIS FACTOR APPRAISES THE EMPLOYEE'S PERFORMANCE IN MEETING ESTAB- 
LISHED QUALITY STANDARDS. 



D 



D 



Does he contitfently do an 
excellent job? Are rejects 
and errors very rare? 



D D 

Does he usually do a good 
job? Does he seldont make 
errors? 



D D 

Is his work usually passable? 
Must you sometimes tell 
him to do a better job? 



n n 

Is he careless? Does his 
work only get by? Does he 
often make mistakes? 



QUANTITY OF WORK— THIS FACTOR APPRAISES THE EMPLOYEE'S OUTPUT OF SATISFACTORY WORK. 



Is his output unusually high? 
Is he exceptionally fast? 



D D 

Does he usually do more 
than is expected? Is he fast? 



g n 

Does he turn ouH the re- 
quired amount of work, but 
seldom more? 



n 

is he slow? Is his output fre- 
quently below the required 
amount? 



D 

) slow? 



WHAT CAN HE DO? 



ADAPTABILITY— THIS FACTOR APPRAISES THE EMPLOYEE'S ABILITY TO MEET CHANGED CONDITIONS 
AND THE EASE WITH WHICH HE LEARNS NEW DUTIES. 



n n 

Does he learn new duties 
and meet changed condi- 
tions very quickly 
easily? 



)nd 



D D 

Can he turn from one type 
of work to another or grasp 
new ideas if given a little 
time and instruction? Does 
he adjust himself to new 
work with little difficulty? 



D D 

Is he a routine worker? Does 
he require detailed instruc- 
tion on new duties and 
methods? 



D D 

Is he slow to learn, requiring 
repeated instructions? Does 
he have great difficulty in 
adjusting himself to new 

work? 



JOB KNOWLEDGE- THIS FACTOR APPRAISES HOW WELL THE EMPLOYEE KNOWS HIS JOB. 



D D 

Is he an expert on his job? 
Does he make the most of 
his knowledge and experi- 
ence? Is he a self-starter? 



D D 

Is he well-informed on his 
job and related work, rarely 
needing assistance and in- 
struction, but asking when 
necessary? 



D D 

Does he know his job fairly 
well? Does he regularly re- 
quire supervision and in- 
structions? 



a D 

Is his knowledge of his job 
limited? Does he snow little 
desire or ability to improve 
himself? 



CAN YOU RELY ON HIM? 



DEPENDABILITY— THIS FACTOR APPRAISES YOUR CONFIDENCE IN THE EMPLOYEE TO CARRY OUT ALL 
INSTRUCTIONS CONSCIENTIOUSLY. 



D D 

When you give him a job 
to do, have you the utmost 
confidence that you will get 
what you want when you 
want it? 



n 



n 



Does he follow instructions 
and do what you expect 
him to do with little follow- 
up'? 



a D 

Does he generally follow in- 
structions but occasionally 
need following up? 



D D 

Does he require frequent 
follow-up even on routine 
duties? 



AHITUDE- THIS FACTOR APPRAISES THE EMPLOYEE'S OPEN-MINDEDNESS. AND HIS WILLINGNESS TO 
COOPERATE IN CARRYING OUT SAFETY AND OTHER COMPANY POLICIES. 



D D 

Is he an exceptionally good 
team worker? Does ha in- 
variably go out of hit way 
to cooperate? Is he always 
ready to try out new ideas? 



D D 

Does he meet others halt 
way and go out of his way 
to cooperate? Is he usually 
ready to try out new ideas? 



D D 

Does he usually cooperate, 
but with tome reluctance to 
accept suggestions and try 
out new ideas? 



Does he cooperate only 
when he has to? Is he unwill- 
ing to try out new ideas? 
Does he have little interest 
in his job? 



RATED BY 



APPROVED BY 



TOTAL 
POINTS 



Figure 139. Complete Example of Merit Rating for Hourly Paid Em- 
ployees. (Dartnell Personnel Administration Service.) 



358 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



GENERAL COMMENTS 
I. ALL IN ALL. ARE YOU SATISFIED WITH THIS EMPLOYEE AND HIS PROGRESS? EXPLAIN. 



2. IN YOUR OPINION. IS THIS EMPLOYEE PERFORMING THE TASK BEST SUITED TO HIS ABILITY? DO YOU 
RECOMMEND PROMOTION, TRANSFER. DEMOTION OR DISCHARGE? 



3. WHAT ESPECIALLY DESIRABLE GOOD TRAITS DOES HE HAVE? 



4. ALONG WHAT LINES DO YOU FEEL THAT HE NEEDS TO IMPROVE HIMSELF? 



5. IS HE DOING ANYTHING TO IMPROVE HIMSELF? 



6. WHAT IS HIS RECORD AND AHITUDE AS TO SAFETY? 



7. WRITE HERE ANY ADDITIONAL COMMENTS. GOOD OR BAD. WHICH YOU FEEL 
HAVE NOT BEEN COVERED. 



REASON FOR RE-RATING PRIOR TO REGULAR PERIODIC RATING: 



DATE OF RE-RATING. 



RE-RATED BY. 



Figure 139. {Concluded.) 



MERIT RATING 



359 




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JOB WORTH IN POINTS 



Figure 140. Sample Rate Structure. Constant Worth Range of Twenty- 
One Points. Semilog Acceleration for Trend and Limits. Lower End 10 
Per Cent Money Spread. Upper End 25 Per Cent Money Spread. Upper 
Halves Divided Into Four Ingrades for Semiautomatic Merit Progressions. 



360 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 











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MERIT RATING 



361 



Forms for Operation. Only two forms are necessary besides the 
original data sheets for rating. They are: (1) an employee rating 
record (Figure 141) which can be made a complete follow-up or 
progress record and (2) an employee rating summary (Figure 
142). The former is kept for each employee separately and the 
latter brings together a group of employees such as a department; if 
the department is large, it can be broken down by functional or 
location centers. Besides employee names and jobs, both have such 
headings as classification, group identification, total rating, detailed 



OCC. NO. iVIlN RATF MAX, RATF 


Clock 
No. 


Name 


Quality 


Quantity 


Adapt- 
ability 


Job 
Know- 
ledge 


Depend- 
ability 


Attitude 


Total 
Points 


Pres. 
Rate 


Rev. 
Rate 







































































































































Figure 142. Merit Rating Comparison Summary. (Farrel-Birmingham Com- 
pany.) 

rating by qualities, names of raters, dates, etc. The employee card 
should also show the money rate range. The employee card used 
by the National Metal Trades Association provides, on the back, 
columns for adaptabihty — Good At, Fair At, Some Knowledge, 
Remarks, etc., as a guide to transfer or promotion. Some use a 
summary sheet to check the ratings for consistency and incidentally 
as an aid to training the raters. Average ratings for departments 
are also used as checks. 

Use of Employee Ratings. Full benefit of a merit rating plan 
cannot be attained if it is carried on unbeknown to the employees. 
Each employee should be given an appointment with his adviser in 
the Personnel Department every six months or more frequently if 
desired, and the whole thing should be gone over, tactfully, of 
course. Conversely, the employees should not be allowed to see or 
hear about one another's ratings. If this is done wisely it can have 
a tremendous effect for the better. This means that each employee 
must know the criteria on which he is rated as well as the ratings. 

Eli Lilly and Company of Indianapolis has even made a lay- 
out which anticipates the several possible outcomes of a corrective 



362 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

interview (see Figure 143). Below the graphic layout are explana- 
tions for the numbered steps. In their own words, 

These phrases are suggested as being helpful when beginning to use this 
pattern. They are not insisted upon, and once the pattern is mastered, you 
will probably find better phrases for carrying you over the critical points 
in the pattern, where if you know what to say, you are prepared to carry 
through your corrective interview smoothly. 

Period Between Ratings. Rerating is usually done every six 
months, although some companies do it only on the anniversary of 
an employee's entrance. The Lincoln Electric Company rates every 
six weeks. A committee studies the employees who have the highest 
ratings and uses transfer as a preparation for promotion. New em- 
ployees should be rated at least every three months if not every 
month for a while for the sake of guidance, even though there is 
little chance of their achieving a higher differential at once. If an 
employee's rating indicates that his individual differential should 
be reduced, he can be shown the facts by way of warning and then 
be allowed another three or four months before the scheduled re- 
duction must go into effect. Under these circumstances he will 
usually achieve a subsequent and satisfactory rating that will make 
the change unnecessary. Thus it is possible to stimulate all toward 
self-discipline, which is the surest path to upgrading. Every rate, 
base plus individual differential, will be acquired according to 
policy, deliberately set in advance, or mutually bargained. 

Limited Merit Rating for Incentive Workers. The BHley Elec- 
tric Company has an eleven-characteristic, weighted point plan of 
job evaluation from which it fixes "pay brackets" for all jobs. The 
line of bottom bracket rates is gauged for qualified workers and the 
ranges from that to the line of top bracket rates are used for recog- 
nition of merit, that is, as an employee achieves merit points above 
60, he moves up in rate until his maximum limit is attained on 100 
points. New employees who are not already qualified are guar- 
anteed subbracket rates which advance automatically on a time 
schedule from the date of hiring but may be enhanced by merit 
ratings. 

After the twelve-week training period each employee gets the 
bottom rate of his bracket plus any increments earned through 
merit rating, which is redetermined at regular four-week intervals 
for incentive workers, trainees, and new transfers, but only at twelve- 
week intervals for qualified hourly workers. No merit rating is made 
until two weeks have elapsed after hiring. The novel feature of this 



I 



MERIT RATING 



363 



BEFORE 


DURING 


AFTER 


Consider 


I. State 
Problem 


II. Get 

Employee's 
Reaction 


III. Consider Appropriate 
Action with 
Employee 


IV. State 

Plan of 
Action 




Facts 
Probable 


(1) Purpose 

(2) Good Points 

(3) Weak Points 


Agree 




(8) N.G. (9) Sup's 


[ (10) Corrective 


Initiate 
Action 

Observe 


Causes 
Possible 


(4) (Stop) 


nt 


None Sug. 
(7) Emp's O.K. 


Results 
Follow- 


Actions 




< 

(6) No 
Disagree 


Poi 

(f 


Sug 


Requires Study 


Action 
(11) Rain Check 


up 


Approach 


) Point 








Self 











Statement (1) is: ". . . I'd like to talk to you about your job to see if we can help you improve . . ." 
This statement would fit in very well at the beginning of the interview. It would explain the pur- 
pose of the discussion. 

Number (2) is: ". . . There are some things you're doing very well . . ." 

This could be used to begin telhng the employee about his outstanding points in brief and specific 
terms. 

Number (3) is: ", . . But I'm concerned about these facts . . ." 

This could be used to tell the employee about his weaknesses. These weak points are merely men- 
tioned as facts on the same footing as any other points brought out in this first step. The supervisor is 
careful not to raise any question of motives. So far as he is concerned, all motives are good motives. 
The employee wants to do the right thing if he can find out what it is and if it is within his ability. 
Therefore, in this step, the supervisor essentially compares things which the employee does well with 
things in which he needs to improve. 

Number (4) is: ". . . Do you think I've interpreted the situation properly? 

By using this question, the supervisor can commence getting the employee's reaction to the weak- 
nesses that have just been stated. 

Number (5) is: ". . . I'm glad you told me those things; they may change the picture somewhat . . ." 
This phrase might be used if the supervisor had received some material facts from the employee. 

Number (6) is: ". . . Yes. but there are still these facts which need attention . . ."' 

The supervisor would use this phrase if the employee has replied with facts which were immaterial. 

Number (7) is: ". . . Do you have any suggestions as to what we can do?" 

This question would be used to obtain the employee's suggestion for the plan of action. 

Number (8) is: ". . . I'm sorry, but because of . . . , I don't think that would work." 
This phrase would be used by the supervisor in case the employee came up with a suggestion that 
would not be satisfactory. 

Number (9) is: ". . . Suppose we try . . ." 

If the supervisor has to make a suggestion, this phase might be used. 

Number (10) is: ". . . I'm sure you'll work this out." 

The supervisor might use this phrase in closing the interview. 



Number (11) is: ". . . I'll check on this and discuss it with you further. 
In giving the employee a rain check, this phrase might be used. 



Figure 143. A Layout and Suggested Leads for the Corrective Interview. 
(Eli Lilly & Company, Indianapolis.) 



364 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

























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366 



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368 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

plan is the differentiation in merit qualities and weights to supple- 
ment the two kinds of payment, by the hour or "nonproduction" 
(Figure 144a), and by efficiency-bonus or "production" (Figure 
144b). Furthermore, each incentive job has its specific merit rating 
sheet in order to use different weightings as may be suggested by 
job evaluation. This allows adjustment between quality and quan- 
tity, etc. These harmonious but varied arrangements may be com- 
pared as follows: 

Example of Average Rating 
Time Paid "Nonproduction" Incentive-Paid "Production" 

Work 15] fEfficiency in per 

Skill 27 }> 57 60 <| cent of standard 

Initiative 15J [ production 

Responsibility 
T. -u-iv ic 1-^(8 for Material 

Respons.bihty 15 1 2 1 ^ for Equipment 

Seniority 8 8 Seniority 

80 80 



Note that in the nonproduction arrangement the first four parts are 
combinations of characteristics used in job evaluation. These are in 
a brace. The merit rating qualities are supposed to be "tied in" 
with the others. This idea comes from the depression fad called 
"Measured Day Rate," which we have never accepted as sound 
practice, but the separate arrangement for production payment 
looks very good. The merit part is kept to minority influence and 
avoids the double credit which comes for production when a single 
arrangement is used alike for incentive and hourly paid work. Even 
here there is a compromise. Four weeks is overlong for calculating 
production efficiency and overshort for calculating other merits 
(Figure 144c). 

Case of Full Cooperation. A case of union-management coop- 
eration in both job evaluation and merit rating which has brought 
distinct improvement in all respects is that of the Air Associates, 
Inc., and the I. U. U., A. A. and A. I. W. of A., CIO. The rating is 
done quarterly by the foreman and the shop steward concerned, 
with assistance of personnel staff. ^^ 

Merit Rating for Higher Job Holders. For holders of higher 
jobs rating once a year may be sufficient. Scales for rating may be 
similar to those used for holders of hourly paid jobs but should be 
readapted to bring out in part additional or different attributes. 

^"^ See also N. L. A. Martucci, 'A Joint Management-Labor Merit Rating Pro- 
gram," Personnel, XXIV, No. 1. 



MERIT RATING 
MERIT RATING REPORT FOR EXEMPT EMPLOYEES 



369 



DATE. 



NAME OF EMPLOYEE 
CLASSIFICATION 



SCORE 
RATED BY 



OIV. OR OEPT. HEAD 
QUALITY OF WORK - ABILITY TO MEET QUALITY STANDARDS IN DUTIES NOT DELEGATED TO SUBORDIKATES. 



[ ]20 [ ]l8 I [ ]l6 [ ]|4 [ ]I2 I [ ]|0 

Exceptionally accurate - Meets normal standards 

practically no mistakes. Ivery few errors. jwork needs checking. I slipshod work. 

QUANTITY OF WORK - SPFFD AND EFFICIENCY IN PERFORMING DUTIES NOT DELEGATED TO SUBORDINATES 



[ ]8 [ ]6 
Often below standard 
[work needs checking. 



[U [ ]2 

Frequent errors - 



[ ]20 



18 



Unusually high - more than 
required. 



JOB KNOWLEDGE - EXTENT OF 



[]l6 []U 



] ]I2 



Speed and efficiency sat- 
isfy normal job require- 
ments. 



[ ]lO I J8 L J6 

Needs prodding - does not 
always do his best. 



[ ]^ 



[ ]2 



Efficiency poor - turns 
out less than he should. 



INFORMATION AND UNDERSTANDING POSSESSED BY EMPLOYE E 



[ ]20 



[ ] 



Thorough grasp of job and 
more besides. 



[]|6 []I4 []l2 

Good working knowledge of 



[]l0 [ ]8 [ ]6 

Knowledge limited - needs 
to be shown. 



[ ]4 []2 

Lacks sufficient know- 
ledge of job. 



ADAPTABILITY - CAN HE MEET. CHANGED CONDITIONS? HOW FAST DOES HE LEARN NEW DUTIES? 



[ ]lO 



[]9 



Highly flexible - does 
well on several types of 
work. 



[ ]8 [ ]7 [ ]6 
Makes satisfactory adjust- 
ments on new or different 
work. 



[ ]5 



[ ]^ 



[ ]3 



Has some difficulty on nev^ Can do only his own job. 
or different work. 



INITIATIVE - EXTENT TO WHICH EMPLOYEE IS A "SELF-STARTER" IN ATTAINING OBJECTIVES OF JOB. 



[ ]I0 



[ ]9 



Unusual i n i t i at i ve - 
beyond that which present 
job can ful ly util i ze. 



[ ]7 



[ ]6 



Usually goes ahead on own 
initiative - satisfies 
job requirements. 



[ ]5 [ ]^ [ ]3 
His appi ication of initia- 
tive is spotty. 



[ ]2 
Lacks sufficient initia- 
tive to attain requi red 
job obj ect i ves. 



DEPENDABILITY - EMPLOYEE'S RELIABILITY IN DOING AN ASSIGNED JOB 



[ ]lO 



[ ]9 



Always reliable on import- 
ant and complex matters. 
Justifies utmost confi- 
dence. 

TEAMWORK - EXTENT TO WHICH 



[ ]8 
)pl 



[ ]7 [ ]6 



[ ]5 [ ]^ 



[ ]3 



h imsel f wel I - 
occasional supervision. 



Not always rel i abl e - 
needs considerable super- 



[ ]2 Ml 

Cannot be relied on - 
needs constant supervision, 



[ ]5 



[ ]^.5 



Obtains highest respect 
and cooperation from 
others. 



EMPLOYEE COOPERATES WITH AND EFFECTIVELY INFLUENCES PEOPLE HE CONTACTS 



[ u 



[ ]3.5 [ 13 



Maintains effective work- 
ing relations with others- 
General ly cooperative. 



[]2.5 [ ]2 



Shows reluctance to coop- 
erate - does not always 



get along well with otheri improvement. 



[]l [].5 

Relations too ineffective 

to retain in job without 



ATTENDANCE - REGULARITY WITH WHICH EMPLOYEE REPORTS TO WORK 



[ ]5 [ ]4.5 [ ]4 [ ]3.5 [ ]3 
Rarely absent. Occasional excused absence] Frequently absent 

out good reason. 

NET SCORE (FOR NON-SUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES, THIS IS THE TOTAL ENTERED AT TOP OF PAGE.) 



[]2.5 [ ]2 []l.5 
ith- 



[]l [].5 
Habitually absert. 



ITEMS BELOW THESE LIMES ARE MARKED ONLY IN RATING SUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES. 



PERFORMANCE OF GROUP SUPERVISED - AMOUNT AND FFFFCTIV 



JHESS QF ACCOMPL I ?HM E HT? QF THE mW ^ 



[]20 []|8 

Unusual amount of effect- 
ive accomplishments. 



[]16 [] 



[ ]I2 



Group effort meets and may 
at times exceed normal 
requ i rements. 



ABILITY TO ORGANIZE - CAPACITY FOR PLAIW.iNG WORK WELL 



[]|0 [ ]8 [ ]6 

Efficiency below require- 
ments. 



AND GETTING SUBORDINATES 



Performance completely 
inadequate. 



Q EXECUTE PLAN. 



[]I5 



[]l3.5 



[]9 



Exceptional abil ity to 
plan and make plan work. 



L JI2 [ ]l0.5 
Activities well planned 
and carried out. 



[ ]7,5 [ ]6 



[ ]^,5 



[ ]3 



[ ]l,5 



Planning and/or executi 
of plan inadequate in 
some respects. 



Planning too poor to re- 
tain in job wi thout 
improvement. 



ABILITY TO D EVELOP SURORDIHATES - EXTENT TO WHICH SUPERVISOR UTILIZES ABILITIES OF SUBORDINATES 



[ ]l5 [ ]I3.5 I [ ]I2 [ JIO.5 [ ]9 
Unusual ability to utilize Effective in utilizing 
subordinates. | subordinates. 



[ ]7.5 [ ]6 [ U.S 
Deficient in util ization 
of subordinates. 



[ ]3 



TT 



Not enough abi 1 i ty to 
satisfy job requirements. 



NET SCORE FOR SUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES, (ENTER AT TOP OF PAGE) 



Figure 145, Merit Rating Report for Exempt Employees. (W. L. Maxson 

Corporation.) 



The W. L. Maxson Corporation merely adds three attributes for 
apphcation to supervisors. One of these is measurable, namely, 
Performance of Group Supervised — Amount and Effectiveness of 
Accomplishments of the Group. The other two attributes must be 



370 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

graded by the department head or whoever is immediately over the 
supervisor. See Figures 145, 146, and 147. 

As indicated previously any merit rating should be designed to 
bring out information regarding the promotability of each employee 
and used as an aid to development for holding higher jobs. This 
has been increasingly recognized and is now assisting in making 
correct replacements promptly. A further use for merit rating 
occurs where annual bonuses are to be paid in proportion to em- 
ployee contibution, as at the Lincoln Electric Company. Mr. 
Joseph H. Ball in a recent report ^^ on labor-management relations 
of that company says: 

. . . the importance of the merit rating with respect to the employee's 
annual income, and his relative standing in his department based upon the 
merit rating, have developed a competitive spirit among the employees which 
reacts as a further incentive to effective job performance. The merit rating 
has had the effect of raising the level of performance of entire departments. 



APPRAISAL MEETING AGENDA 

I. Statement of purpose 

A. Committee to appraise individual's present worth. 

B. Committee to appraise individual's future worth to company. 

II. Appraisal — Factors considered by the Appraisal Committee, with specific in- 
cidents in mind wherever possible, are as follows: 

A. Performance 

1. Measurable results accomplished: 

a) Quality of work done. 

b) Quality, cost, and time element of work done. 

c) Customer relations. 

d) Employee relations. 

e) Extension beyond assignment. 
/) Problem solving ability. 

2. Methods: 

a) How he goes about getting job done. 

b) How he works with and through other persons. 

c) Kind of records he keeps. 

d) Follow-through on activities. 

e) Ability to delegate responsibility. 
/) Ability to organize work. 

g) Ability to develop his subordinates. 

h) Work attributes, such as job knowledge or personality factors 
which are especially helpful. 

Figure 146. Management Inventory and Development, Appraisal Meeting 
Agenda. (W. L. Maxson Corporation.) 

^^ Report of the Joint Committee on Labor-Management Relations, Congress 
of the U. S. 



I 



MERIT RATING 371 



B. Personal Qualifications 

1. What do you think of first when you think of this individual? Use 
only factors particularly noticeable. 

2, After general discussion, determine: 

a) Strongest single qualification, 

b) Most noticeable weakness. 

C. Potential 

1. Consider what is the next step ahead for the person being appraised; 
whether he has a potential beyond the next step. This must be specific, 
in terms of positions now in existence. 

2. Consider all the jobs in the company for which the individual might be 
qualified. 

3. Decide whether further development or experience is needed before his 
potential can be realized. 

D. Action 

1. Decide whether this person will be left on his present job or what other 
action needs to be taken. 

2. State the development steps to be recommended or taken to help the 
individual improve. 

E. Current Status should be stated in one of the following degrees of status, 
paying close attention to the definition here presented: 

1. IMMEDIATELY PROMOTABLE. Individual can fill immediately a specific 
job at a higher management level without need for any further training. 

2. PROMOTABLE. Individual can fill a specific job at a higher management 
level with further training. Such training may be accomplished within 
a stated time interval, such as six months or two years. 

3. SATISFACTORY PLUS. Individual is supplying what can reasonably be 
expected on his present job and could accept additional responsibilities 
and authorities within his present management level. 

4. SATISFACTORY. Individual is supplying what can reasonably be ex- 
pected on his present job, but we do not see him going beyond his 
present management level in the immediately foreseeable future. 

5. QUESTIONABLE. Individual's performance on his present assignment is 
not completely satisfactory. 

6. UNSATISFACTORY. Individual's performance is not acceptable on his 
present job. He may be able to improve his performance with further 
help and encouragement. In other words, we are not giving up on him. 

7. UNSATISFACTORY — ACTION DATE SET. Individual's performance is not 
acceptable and his personal quahfications are such that he will not be 
able to improve his performance. The date is set when we expect to 
have made the necessary changes. 

III. The SUMMARY APPRAISAL and the APPRAISAL REPORT 

A. After the Summary Appraisal has been written and unanimously agreed 
on, each Committee member should sign the blue sheet. 

B. The chairman of the Committee, soon after the Appraisal meeting, fills out 
the Appraisal Report, which is intended to be given to the appraisee after 
the Review. 

C. Both papers are given to the Section Supervisor for keeping until the 
Review. 



Figure 146. (Concluded.) 



372 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



NAME 



SUMMARY APPRAISAL 

MANAGEMENT INVENTORY AND DEVELOPMENT 

POSITION DATE 



DEPARTMENT 

AGE COMPANY SERVICE 



SECTION 



YEARS ON PRESENT JOB 



rHIS SUMMARY APPRAISAL ISANARRATIVE DESCRIPTION DEVELOPED FROM A DETAILED ANALYSIS OF THE EMPLOYEE'S WORK. 



PERFORMANCE 

RESULTS (What has this individual accomplished in measurable results since his last appraisal? Consider 
quantity, quality, cost, and time element of work. Be specific. Give facts and figures wherever 
possible.) 



METHOD (How does this person go about getting his job done? How does he work with and through people? 
Be specific.) 



i 



THE W. L. MAXSON CORPORATION 



Figure 147. Summary Appraisal 



MERIT RATING 



373 



PERSONAL QUALIFICATIONS 



STRONGEST SINGLE QUALIFICATION 



MOST NOTICEABLE WEAKNESS 



POTENTIAL 

What is the next step ahead for this individual and does he have further potential beyond next step, if so, outline. 



[ ] LEAVE OH PRESENT JOB 

(Recommend action for improvement, such 
as Training, Change of Attitude, Change 
in Pay, Encouragement, etc. 



[ ] Put on Probation 

[ ] REPLACE 

[ ] Promote 

[ J Demote to 



From 



ACTIOI 



[ J Termir 



Date recommended action to be taken 

CHECH THE CURRENT STATUS ON THIS INDIVIDUAL 



IMMEDIATELY 
[ ] Promotable 

[ ] Promotable 



SATISFACTORY 
[ ] Plus 

[ ] Satisfactory 



DECISION DEFERRED 
[ ] Because Hew 

[ ] Questionable 



[ J Unsatisfactory 



APPRAISAL MADE BY 



MAME .. 
NAME .. 
NAME .. 
NAME . 



TITLE 
TITLE 
TITLE 
TITLE 



THE PERFORMANCE AND PERSONAL QUALIFICATION SECTIONS OF THIS REPORT HAVE BEEN DISCUSSED 
VIITH THE EMPLOYEE BY 



NAME DATE 



Figure 147. (Concluded.) 



14 



APPLYING EVALUATION TO OFFICE 
AND SUPERVISORY POSITIONS 



There is no difference between office and plant with respect to 
the principles involved in labor relations and no difference be- 
tween salaries and wages as compensation to individuals em- 
ployed. 

J. O. HOPWOOD 

Background of Position Classification. As we mentioned once 
before the Civil Service Acts undoubtedly brought the first sugges- 
tions of work classification. The early acts were somewhat negative 
in nature, prompted by revolts against the spoils system, or by scan- 
dalous abuses of government employment, but in time they became 
constructive.^ Government offices, not always looked upon as 
models, did benefit and provided examples of orderliness. In the 
meantime the proportion of people working in all offices, to the 
whole population, gained increasingly. For instance the number of 
employees engaged in clerical tasks in the United States, per million 
of population, has been increasing per decade from a minimum of 
2.9 per cent to a maximum of 5.0 per cent. According to the census 
of 1950 there were about sixteen million white-collar workers of 
whom two million belonged to unions. 

During each of the World Wars there were upheavals in office 
personnel and in their rates of pay despite all attempts at control. 
The greater dependence on women, for one thing, led to duplication 
of duties and to double ranges of salary for similar work. Titles lost 
their original significance. Worst of all, there was a lot of favorit- 
ism and "gross inequality." Turning to the positive forces we find 
large offices becoming mechanized so that they could and did begin 
to copy the management techniques already maturing in the shops. 
Consultants in office management sprang into being. A new profes- 
sion and position, that of office manager, arrived. Groups of punch 

' See Classification Act of 1923. 

374 



OFFICE AND SUPERVISORY POSITIONS 375 

key operators were segregated, that is, functions became centralized. 
Group tasks were set for incentive payment. Employment tech- 
niques were apphed. Out of these negative and positive influences 
came job analysis-description-specification and classification for 
office work. It even had a name all of its own, "salary standardiza- 
tion." The latter was more empiric than present-day evaluation 
and was often predetermined without direct consideration of the 
particular requirements, but it brought order to the lower levels 
of clerical work and has continued to evolve.- E. N. Hay made the 
first application of "Factor Comparison" to salaried jobs in 1938. 
Since then office analysts have generally followed the patterns of 
job evaluation so that much of what we have already described can 
be applied to the office. In 1945 a survey of 252 companies indi- 
cated that 90 had job evaluation for office jobs as follows: 70 per 
cent of the plans were the ranking-grading or "classification" type, 
24 per cent were weighted point plans, and 6 per cent were char- 
acteristic comparison. 

Policy. We have discussed this at length in Chapter 3 and think 
it sufficient to give a single example of salary policies. For this we 
select the eight simple statements made by Edward N. Hay of The 
Pennsylvania Company.^ 

The following rules are among policies governing salary adjust- 
ment that have proved practical at The Pennsylvania Company: 

1. Do not make salary increases beyond the maximum salary 
established for a given position. 

2. Normally, award only one "step" increase at a time. 

3. As a rule, increases should be awarded only once a year. In 
boom times it should be possible to give the more valuable em- 
ployees more than one increase in a year in order to discourage 
turnover. 

4. Award salary increases only where they are deserved. 

5. Give preference, if any choice is possible or necessary, to those 
whose work is of the highest quality, as compared with those 
who are receiving salaries in the upper half of the range. 

6. Give preference to those persons whose present salary is in the 
lower half of the salary range as compared with those who 
are receiving salaries in the upper half of the range. 

7. Special treatment is ordinarily given to new employees. A 
liberal policy is to consider them for increases, if work is 

^ For Dr. Marion BilFs Classification Plan see L.O.M.A., Clerical Salary Study 
Committee Report 2. pp. 69-107. 

^ A.M.A. Financial Management Series, No. 79. For a fuller guide see H. A. 
Hopf, Executive Compensation and Accomplishment, ibid., No. 78. 



376 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

satisfactory, after three months, six months, and twelve months 
of employment. If it is necessary to reduce the total amount 
awarded annually in increases, these periods can be lengthened 
so that increases do not come so frequently in the first year. 

8. Often it is desirable to make exceptions in favor of employees 
whose work is unusually good or who are exceptionally pro- 
motable. These exceptions may include increases more fre- 
quent than once a year or larger amounts than the standard 
"step" increases. When it is necessary to restrict the amount 
of money given in salary increases, these special exceptions 
should be kept at a minimum. 

Organization. We think it is not inconsistent to assert on the 
one hand that the rating of nonmanual jobs and the rating of manual 
jobs is a single problem and on the other hand that each of these 
should be applied by different committees, perhaps by different ana- 
lysts. We have only to remember that all this work is primarily 
organizational, the operational part being definitely secondary. 
Hence when it is carried to the top it must be steered from the very 
top. The Westinghouse Electric Company started with a Salary 
Administration Committee consisting of the president, the comp- 
troller, the director of budgets, and the assistant to the vice-presi- 
dent in charge of industrial relations. The last-named acted as 
chairman and executive oflficer. Any committee of lower standing 
could not have done an all-inclusive job. Incidentally, the grouping 
that this committee achieved is looked upon as the functional organ- 
ization of the company. Possibly a smaller committee might be 
adequate for the subsequent operation but it would be questionable 
to lower it in level. As an operating or classifying committee it is 
responsible for all relations between the company and its salaried 
employees although some of this load may be delegated to the per- 
sonnel department.^ This committee should meet regularly to co- 
ordinate departmental proposals and to take final action on all rate 
questions. Here also are formulated the recommendations for 
change in policy regarding rates. In short, it should be the inter- 
mediary between the general management and the departmental 
management on all salary matters. At The Atlantic Refining Com- 
pany a Wage Control Committee acts as a mediating and arbitrating 
body. The same committee attends to all administrative work in 

^ There is sometimes a job classification manager in the industrial relations de- 
partment. See A. L. Kress. Job Evaluation Problems, A. MA. Office Management 
Series No. 102. 



OFFICE AND SUPERVISORY POSITIONS 377 

connection with the salary plan. Alexander Smith and Sons has 
used a company-union committee to evaluate office jobs. 

Direct Classification. Methods and techniques used for non- 
manual jobs are today Httle different from those already described 
except that direct classification of whole jobs is still used in the office. 
It probably is also used in some shops but it is so unsuited to most 
shop jobs that we have ignored it in Chapter 3. As used by the 
Federal Civil Service,^ the classification is shaped according to five 
basic groups as follows : 

P. — The Professional and Scientific Service. 

S.P. — The Subprofessional Service. 

C.A.F. — The Clerical, Administrative, and Fiscal Service. 

Cu — The Custodian Service. 

CM. — The Clerical Mechanical Service. 

These major groups are subdivided into grades of difficulty and 
responsibility, starting with the easiest and most routine positions 
and ending with the most exacting and difficult positions. Thus the 
chemist's positions would be graded as P2 Assistant Chemist, P3 
Associate Chemist, and P4 Head Chemist. As a guide to the 
grading there are five "allocation factors": 

a) Subject matter. 

b) Difficulty and complexity of duties. 

c) Nonsupervisory responsibilities. 

d) Supervisory and administrative responsibilities. 

e) Qualifications required for the position. 

Each of these factors is described as to meaning and ways of 
determining its application to any particular situation. Certainly 
this framework is broad enough to allow wide variations in skill or 
in responsibility, but as Riegel points out,^' it is difficult to recog- 
nize the varied and complex allocation characteristics of higher 
postions, say those priced above $4,000. Below that level the deci- 
sions are mostly of routine nature and their characteristics can be 
more definitely recognized. Hence he thinks this basis is suitable 
at and below the $4,000 level but less and less suitable as the levels 
ascend beyond. Wilmerding ' suggests an inversion of the classifica- 

^ A. W. Proctor, Principles of Public Personnel Administration, and Ismar 
Baruch, Position Classification Analysis. 

®J. W. Riegel, Salary Determination (Ann Arbor: Bureau of Industrial Rela- 
tions, University of Michigan, 1940). 

■^ L. Wilmerding, Jr., Government by Merit (New York: McGraw-Hill Book 
Co., Inc., 1935). 



378 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

tion method, that is, instead of building a series of graded positions 
from job descriptions, he would start by considering the problem 
as a total, such as a series of positions from top to bottom and then 
proceed by division and subdivision until a workable set of levels 
is depicted. This is about what was done by the original office con- 
sultants and managers who set up "predetermined" levels or classes. 
For instance, the late Dr. W. V. Bingham classified typists, stenog- 
raphers, and secretaries as follows: 

51 Typists doing simple typing or copy work on machine where 
outside training is necessary in the operation of the machine. 

52 Typists doing especially difficult typing such as setting up 
schedules and tables, or operating comptometers, or doing a 
minor portion of stenographic or Ediphone work. 

53 Ediphone operators or stenographers receiving dictation or 
departmental correspondence. 

53 a Bookkeeping machine operators. 
S3b Elliott-Fisher operators. 

S3c Comptometer operators. 

54 Secretaries to officers or stenographers taking and transcribing 
technical dictation. 

55 Secretaries for senior officers with extraordinary duties, par- 
ticularly those of a highly confidential nature.^ 

Broad Classification Made by Ranking. One of the few un- 
limited applications was that of the Westinghouse Electric Com- 
pany, which was completed in ten months. Reporting the whole 
case E. B. Roberts comments: ^ 

To be genuinely effective and to engender universal confidence that each 
receives his just due, a salaried position analysis must embrace all positions 
from the highest to the lowest, and every worker must come within the 
scope of its provision, the work of each being the subject of the same 
analysis and classification that is applied to every other. 

As the first step the employees wrote on a standard form their 
own job descriptions under four headings: duties, supervision of 
others, contacts, and equipment used. These were corrected by 
the department heads, passed through two levels of supervision. 
and were scrutinized jointly by the departmental manager and the 
industrial relations representative. When all descriptions had been 
compared, edited, etc., the employee names were removed and each 

^ See also L. C. Lovejoy, Salary Standardization at the Fisk Rubber Corporation. 
A.M. A. Office Management Series No. 88. 

'■^ "Position Analysis and Classification," Management Revien', XXIV, No. 7. 



OFFICE AND SUPERVISORY POSITIONS 379 

functional series of jobs was ranked as to relative worths. This was 
done on the concept of total worths, but those doing the ranking 
did try to consider the main variables such as: difficulty of work, 
volume of work, responsibility, supervision required, supervision of 
others, experience, knowledge, and training. It was done jointly by 
the industrial relations supervisor, a representative of the functional 
division concerned, a major staff executive, or a divisional con- 
sultant. The latter was brought in for "his sense of the significance 
of the industrial relations problem and its objectives." The several 
lists of positions were then grouped and a definition was prepared 
outlining the significance of each group. The same fundamental 
groups were recognized throughout the functional divisions such 
as sales, engineering, works, accounting, etc., and used as the 
basis of estabhshing class levels regardless of functional division. 
In other words a parallelism of importance was discernible even 
where the actual duties were considerably different. At this 
point all titles were revised and made consistent. Definitions for the 
groups within the "Works" division or manufacturing are as follows: 



Works Positions 

Names, Groups, and Group Descriptions 

Group VI — Administrative 

Administer the broad manufacturing responsibility, universally, func- 
tionally, or within a prescribed division of the manufacturing organization. 
By negotiation and arbitration bring into harmonious arrangement individual 
and divergent interests. Promulgate general rules and procedures for the 
manufacturing organization as a whole, or within the limits of jurisdiction. 
Shape broad plans and apply them. The position involves executive responsi- 
bility of the first order for large or small groups of subordinates depending 
upon the sphere of activity. 

Positions in Group VI: 
General Works Manager 
Director, General Works Staff 
Works Manager 
Assistant Works Manager 

Group V — Executive 

The function is that of the executive who translates plan into action, by 
the control of the direction in which those of the lower groups will apply 
their efforts, and the interpretation to them of the meaning or intent of the 
policy or procedure. They advise with superiors on policy and procedure 



380 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

reflecting to them broad knowledge of and experience with operating 
conditions. 

Positions in Group V: 
Superintendent 
Captain of Police 
Assistant Superintendent 
General Foreman 

Group IV — Creative 

The function is that of the creation of material values. The positions 
call for familiarity with techniques and a breadth of conception of their 
application and withal the ability to discriminate and choose or reject. They 
observe phenomena by study of a manifold of situations, and collect data for 
the construction of patterns for use in formulating general procedures, 
thereby establishing standards of practice. Their influence extends down- 
ward in the organization, carrying with it the tone of superiors, and upward 
to those superiors influencing the tone and character of the executive instruc- 
tions that are promulgated in those higher groups to set policy in action. 

Under their technical leadership, the operation of the creation of things 
is carried out by the hourly paid workers, the integrated result of which effort 
is to be recognized on this level. However, the individual hourly paid jobs 
are of the skilled and unskilled groups. The function of the staff supervisors 
and engineers of this group is the accomplishment of that integration. 

Positions in Group IV: 

Supervisor, General Works Staff 
Supervisor, Works Manager's Staff" 
Division Staff Supervisor 
Assistant Division Staff Supervisor 
Manufacturing Engineer 
Maintenance Engineer 
Tool (Design) Engineer 
Plant Layout Engineer 
Test Engineer 

Group III — Interpretive 

These are jobs of interpretation. The function is to meet, classify, and 
cope with situations clearly recognized as within the scope of the established 
system. These things are done by applying the standards created in the 
higher groups. Those who function in this group must clearly see the situa- 
tion in hand, and fit it into the estabUshed pattern. The work may involve 
secondary executive responsibility for the control of the efforts of large or 
small groups of workers. 

Positions in Group III: 
Foreman 
Assistant Foreman 



OFFICE AND SUPERVISORY POSITIONS 381 

Shipper 

Police Sergeant 

Buyer 

Office Manager 

Secretary 

Time Motion Analyst 

Chief Clerk (Chief of Clerical Section) 

Layout Draftsman 

Inspection 

Group II — Skilled 

These are the jobs of skilled workers. The tasks require discrimination 
and choice, technique of hand or brain, and often artistry. 

Positions in Group II: 
Production Clerk 
Detail Draftsman 
Assistant Buyer 
First (Power Plant) Engineer 
Process Demonstrator 
Statistician 

Second (Power Plant) Engineer 
Secretary-Stenographer 
Interviewer 
Ledgerman 
Stenographer 
Typist 

Group I — Unskilled 

The job is the accomplishment of assigned tasks in an established, routine 
fashion. To function in these jobs accuracy and dependablity are necessary, 
but neither experience nor training is required. 

Positions in Group I: 
Storekeeper 
Shipping Clerk 
Schedule Clerk 
Order Stock Checker 
Record Clerk 
Transcribing Clerk 
Switchboard Tender 
Store Room Attendant 
File Clerk 

Duplicating Machine Operator 
Office Boy (Girl) 



382 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Choice of Methods. The considerations for choice of a method 
are Httle different from what we have described in Chapter 3, except 
that the jobholders are better able to make their own job descrip- 
tions and the descriptions are likely to be more on duties or respon- 
sibilities than on effort or working conditions. The skills are de- 
cidedly different. We will refer to these differences again presently. 



SKlu 




RESPONS 



Figure 148. Major and Minor Characteristics, Lockheed Plan for Super- 
visory Positions. (Lockheed Aircraft Corporation.) 



Choice of Characteristics. In this matter there is considerable 
difference. Skill and responsibility usually need different subdivi- 
sions if not greater proportions of worth. At Lockheed's skill that 
had only two subdivisions for hourly paid jobs (see Figure 16a) is 
given six subdivisions, for supervisors, Figure 148. Only one of the 



OFFICE AND SUPERVISORY POSITIONS 



383 



latter subdivisions retains the same name, "mentality." The per- 
centage for the major characteristic, skill, is not greatly changed — 
56.08 per cent in the office against 59V^ per cent in the shop. Job 
conditions and efforts, sometimes called "deterrent," are dropped 
entirely and responsibility is expanded to 35.15 per cent from 12 
per cent in the shop. The rest, 8.77 per cent, is given to "scope of 




RESPO^ 



Figure 149. Major and Minor Characteristics, NEMA Plan, for Account- 
ing, Clerical, Supervisory, and Technical Positions 



supervision." The NEMA plan. Figure 149, intended for broader 
application than to supervisory jobs alone, expands the major char- 
acteristic of skill to 61.35 per cent from 50 per cent in the shop (see 
Figure 14) while responsibility contracts to 17.50 per cent from 
20 per cent in the shop. "Working conditions" is retained for 3Vi 
per cent and the remaining 17.50 per cent is given to supervision. 



384 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

which is divided equally for "type and extent." In comparing those 
two plans one would have expected the percentages given super- 
vision to be the other way around. The Lockheed plan for super- 
visors reduces experience and education to include more specific 
components. Otherwise the differences from the NEMA plan are 
somewhat a matter of names: costs for monetary, dealing with 
others for contacts, and in part judgment for complexity of duties. 

When designing a plan we strongly recommend that the com- 
mittee begin with the major characteristics for the sake of broad 
comparisons, but such comparison is not absolute because such 
characteristics as "contacts" and "type of supervision" combine 
certain kinds of skill with responsibility. At the same time "com- 
plexity" may put some responsibility within the skill group. The 
definitions of these characteristics usually make it clear as to what 
is being measured, but it seems highly desirable to choose names 
for characteristics that would preclude any possible mixing of re- 
sponsibility with any of the "skills." This is not easy to do because 
in life they are often blended. For evaluation purposes they must 
be treated separately. 

As an example of readaptation from shop to ofliice with minimum 
change we submit the characteristics and point allotments for the 
revised Western Electric plans. 



Points for Hourly Jobs Characteristics Points for Salaried Jobs 

f60 Mental Development 60] 

39.0% ^25 Job Knowledge 30K5.1% 

[75 Analysis & Judgment lOOj 

„ ^^ 130 Mental & Visual Demands 50| .-q- 

19.5% ^3Q Physical Demands 25| ^^'^^^ 



f40 Loss Responsibility 45] 

23.2% J 30 Work Responsibility 25 [ 

]25 Responsibility for Safety of Others — f 

[ — Business Relations 60j 

40 Working Conditions 25 

35 Job Hazards 



31.0% 



410 420 

Below we tabulate point allotments to the major characteristics 
for six representative point plans to show the present wide variance 
which should probably be lessened as the experimental period runs 
out. 



OFFICE AND SUPERVISORY POSITIONS 



385 



Characteristics 


Plan Names 




Walters 


Western 
Electric 


Weed 


Lockheed 


NEMA 


LOMA 


Skill 

Effort 


44.6 
6.6 

15.3 
3.3 

*30'.0 


45.1 

17.9 

31.0 

6.0 


54.0 
4.0 

26.0 


16.0 


56.08 


35.15 


8.77 


61.35 


17.50 

3.65 
17.50 


63.0 
6.8 


Responsibility 

Job Conditions 

Supervision 

Nonvariables if used . . 


22.0 

8.2 

Separate 



Too Many Characteristics. As in plans for hourly paid jobs 
there is considerable waste of effort because of the inclusion of 
characteristics that in reality measure the same things. In 1951 the 
eighteen-characteristic plan of the Aluminum Company of Canada 
was tested to see if a smaller number of characteristics would not 
give much the same results. ^^ The Wherry -Doolittle multiple cor- 
relation technique was used and it was found that six characteristics 
would evaluate all jobs within one labor grade of that derived by 
using the full set of eighteen characteristics. The six characteristics 
accounted for 98 per cent of the variance in total points while the 
remaining twelve characteristics accounted for less than 2 per cent 
of the variance. The original set of characteristics follows with the 
selected ones in italics. 



Skill 


10. Methods 


1. Scholastic Training 


11. Records 


2. Previous Experience 

3. Learning Period 


12. Money 

13. Plant Service 


4. Technical or Mechanical 


14. Company Policy 


Knowledge 

5. Dexterity 

6. Complexity 

Responsibility 


Effort 

15. Mental 

16. Physical 


7. Employees 


Working Conditions 


8. Materials 

9. Equipment 


17. Surroundings 

18. Hazards to Self 



A similar but more extensive study ^^ came up with four very 
different "primary factors," namely: (1) work experience; (2) 

^° J. A. Oliver and A. Winn, 'An Abbreviated Job Evaluation Plan for Salaried 
Personnel." Personnel, XXVIII, No. 3. 

^^^ D. J. Chesler, 'Abbreviated Job Evaluation Scales Developed on the Basis 
of 'Internal' and 'External' Criteria." Journal of Applied Psychology, XXXIII, 

No. 2. 



386 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

character of supervision received; (3) character of supervision 
given; (4) responsibihty for confidential matters. The author con- 
cedes that "in all three companies some jobs were displaced by two 
or three labor grades." 

The Pilot Study. If there is anything untried about a proposed 
plan, such as the efficacy of a small number of characteristics, it is 
worth while to make a pilot study before closing the plan for in- 
stallation. A pilot study means trying out the tentative plan in one 
small division or, better yet, on key jobs throughout all divisions. 
By keeping the number of jobs small and then selecting them for 
representative variations it is easy to test the suitability of the char- 
acteristics, degree definitions, and point allotments. The jobs can 
be ranked successively on each characteristic and checked as to 
distribution and the like. Some of the assumptions will work out 
to the satisfaction of all concerned while others may not. This 
shows up the errors in design so that they can be corrected with a 
minimum of disturbance. Such a tryout should be continued, per- 
haps adding more jobs, until general agreement and confidence 
are attained. In the meantime the committee, staff, and even depart- 
ment heads will have acquired considerable practice and education 
as to how to procede when the plan is closed and applied officially. 
Here and here only is it legitimate to let past practice in job pricing 
be an influence, but only so far as the past pricing has been mutually 
acceptable. 

Job Evaluation Still Experimental in This Field. The plans 
included in this chapter and the next are not all comparable because 
there are several concepts as to what the scope should be. Alex- 
ander Smith and Sons ^^ has a plan for union members only, exclud- 
ing supervisory personnel. Lockheed Aircraft Corporation has one 
plan for nonrepresented salaried positions, including both super- 
visory and nonsupervisory positions,^^ and a distinct plan for tech- 
nical and office hourly paid jobs. Lockheed also has another plan 
for engineering jobs. The S. C. Johnson Company of Racine. Wis- 
consin, has four plans besides its "Factory plan": office plan, special- 
ized and technical plan, supervisory plan, and executive plan.^"^ 
Most companies use a single plan for all salaried jobs but add one 
or more measures for supervisory jobs. 

^^ F. Westbrook, Jr., "Company-Union Committee Works Out Job Evaluation 
Program," Mill and Factory, March, 1947. 

^•'^ O. R. Winjum, "How to Evaluate Supervisory Jobs," American Machinist, 
August 26, 1948. 

^* H. S. Briggs, "Executive Position Evaluation," NICB Management Record, 
XII, No. 7. 



OFFICE AND SUPERVISORY POSITIONS 387 

The Procter & Gamble Company plan for clerical jobs is rather 
different from its plan for factory jobs. Eight characteristics are 
weighted percentagewise as follows: complexity 16, experience and 
training 16, contacts with others 10, dexterity 5, concentration 16, 
accuracy 16, working conditions 5, and responsibility 16. Each of 
these is scored from one to ten. These scores are then multiplied 
by the fixed weightings to derive a total job rating, which can be 
anywhere between 100 and 1,000. The characteristics are doubt- 
less defined but the 1 to 10 scoring seems to be a matter of ranking 
without the aid of predetermined degree definitions. Thus some 
plans for the office have been set up independently without any 
intention of keeping unit worth identical with that of the shop. If 
the first purpose in any job evaluation is to achieve correct relative 
worth, why should a management build up two structures, each 
internally related but externally unrelated? We advocate one com- 
plete classification relationship, no matter how different the minor 
characteristics and their measuring scales may need to be. Faihng 
to achieve equivalent unit worth between the shop and office evalua- 
tions, it is still possible to find job class equivalency by applying the 
comparison technique to certain comparable jobs and then ranking 
the rest accordingly. In fact, the jobs of similar classification should 
contribute much toward keeping the classes consistent throughout 
the higher levels where there is no shop-office equivalency. 

The Weed plan for salary evaluation was set up separately from, 
but not inconsistently with, the plan for hourly jobs. It uses the 
same universal credit of 400 points and the whole layout is har- 
monious with that for hourly paid jobs. We think the 31 grades are 
excessive but perhaps unavoidable for such an extensive case.^^ A 
point range of approximately 5 per cent per grade is used, which 
means that the worth ranges increase in number of points from 
460-485 for Grade 1 to 2,315-2,430 for Grade 30. Small or even 
medium-sized companies can conveniently group their salaried jobs 
into 10, 12, or 15 classes. We strongly advise the use of job descrip- 
tions and objective evaluations as the best means of classification. 
Select one or more key jobs to typify each class and build the classes 
around them. If the company is too large for any one committee 
to be familiar with all classes of work, the relationships can be built 
up by separate committees and harmonized in conferences between 
their representatives. A good organization chart may be of con- 
siderable help in classifying supervisory positions. 

^^ E. N. Hay found 15 grades sufficient for all salaried jobs lying between $50 
a month and $400 a month. See A.M.A. Personnel Series, XXII, No. 11; XXIII, 
No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; XXIV, No. 1; XXVI, No. 4. 



388 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Locality Surveys. If there are any differences in the matter of sur- 
veys, they are in respect to the confidential nature of higher salaries 
and to their greater variation, although much of the variation 
in rate is likely to be due to the difficulty of finding identical jobs. 
Certainly the number of individuals receiving each rate should be 
retained together with explanations as to job variation, and also as 
to certain man variations such as experience or length of service. 
We particularly recommend A. L. Kress' graphic analysis, ^*^ Chap- 
ter 10, Figure 93, together with the National Electrical Manufac- 
turers Association summary, Chapter 10, Figure 92. 

Measuring Scales. The scales are similar to those for hourly jobs 
except that the number of degrees are sometimes extended beyond 
five. We give a single example from the McKinsey plan. 

I. Characteristic: Skill — 600 points (within a total of 1000 points.) 
The characteristic Skill, considered in its broad sense, has as its com- 
ponents Complexity, Training, Routines, Judgment, Education, and 
Relationships required by proper job performance. 
1. Component: Complexity — 100 points 

This component considers the extent and amount of details 

present in the job represented by the factors Procedures and 

Equipment. 

1) Factor: Procedures — 75 points 

This factor is broken down into five elements descriptive of 
the extent of difficulty encountered. 

Points 

1) A simple procedure, that is, an operation with 
only a few details 5 

2) A combination of several simple procedures in 
which the details are readily understood 15 

3) A wide variety of simple procedures in which 
some of the details are slightly involved 30 

4) A complicated procedure, that is, one in which 
the steps are relatively few, but each requiring 
exactness 50 

5) An involved procedure, that is, one in which 
there are many steps, each of which requires 
exactness 75 

^^ Mr. Kress' whole paper entitled "Making a Salary Survey." published in the 
A.M. A. Office Management Series No. 84. should be read. In the case he cites, 
descriptions of 70 clerical positions, from office boy to draftsman-designer, were 
used and comparisons were made jointly by a representative of the inquiring com- 
pany and a representative of the answering company at the plant of the latter. 



OFFICE AND SUPERVISORY POSITIONS 



389 



Sales Div 

Store 

Location 



JOB ANALYSIS 



QUESTIONNAIRE 



AKRON PLANTS 



Division... 
Br. Plant.. 
Dept. No.. 



1. Job Title 

2. Immediate Superior: Name Title. 

3. Describe the need or purpose for which this job is performed. 



4. Describe the duties of this job in detail and sequence of importance. At the left, give your best estimate of the 
percentage of the working time consumed by each duty described. 



Pet. of 

total 

working 



A. Daily duties (those performed every day or nearly every day): 



B. Periodic duties (those performed weekly or monthly): 



C. Occasional Duties (those performed less frequently than monthly): 



(If more space is needed, attach separate sheet) 



Figure 150. Example of Form for Gathering Job Data. (B F. Goodrich 

Company.) 



390 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



COMPLEXITY 

5. Describe the phases of this job that require the exercise of independent judgment, initiative and ingenuity. 



SUPERVISION GIVEN 

6. (a) What jobs, if any, come under the direct supervision of this job? 

Job Title No. of Employees 



(b) Approximately what percentage of time is devoted to direct supervision. „...? 



(c) Indicate by checking below, the nature and extent of this supervision. 

□ Assign work □ Recommend hire. □ Grievances 



r~| Check work. 

Specify others:.. 



□ Recommend dismissal. □ Discipline 



SUPERVISION RECEIVED 

7. (a) What is the nature of the instructions, written or verbal, relative to the methods by which this job 
is performed? 



(b) Describe the type (physical check by superior or mechanical controls) and frequency of supervision 
under which this work is performed. 



(c) What normally would happen if an error were made on this job? 



(d) When would such an error be detected? 



Figure 150. {Continued.) 



OFFICE AND SUPERVISORY POSITIONS 



391 



COMPANY ASSETS 

8. What trust is imposed for the safeguarding of confidential information, money, materials, equipment, 
employee goodwill, customer goodwill, and/or other company assets? 



EDUCATION 

9. (a) Indicate below the mm/mum of formal education or mental equivalent required to perform this job. 
(Note: Do not enter the present incumbent's education unless it coincides with your opinion of the 
minimum requirement.) 

□ Grammar School 

□ Partial High School (2 yrs.) 
n High School 

□ Business School (up to 1 year) 

(b) What course of study should this training include? 



□ Business School (1 to 2 years) 

n Partial College (2 yrs.) 

n Complete College 

n College Post Graduate 



EXPERIENCE 

10. Assuming the requisite educational qualifications specified in Question 9, indicate what additional 
experience is required to perform this job and check below the minimum time required to obtain said 
experience. 

Experience required: 





Months 


Years | 


From 


N 
O 
N 
E 


1 


6 


1 


2 


4 


6 


10 


To 


6 


12 


2 


4 


6 


10 


15 


Check Here 



















JOB TRAINING PERIOD 

11. Assuming the requisite education and experience specified in Questions 9 and 10, indicate the minimum 
length of time required to learn this job. 



From to . 



MACHINES AND EQUIPMENT 

12. Indicate below what machines or equipment are operated or require an operating knowledge to satis- 
factorily perform this job. 

Machines or Equipment Experience Required 

Operated Operating Knowledge 



Figure 150. {Continued.) 



392 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



INTERNAL CONTACTS 

13. What personal or telephone contacts are required within the organization in the performance of this 
job and for what purpose must they be made? 

Persons Contacted Purpose of Contact 



EXTERNAL CONTACTS 

14. What personal contacts are required outside the organization in the performance of this job and for 
what purpose must they be made? 

Persons Contacted Purpose of Contact 



WRIHEN EXPRESSION 

15. What types of written reports, statistics, letters, etc. are prepared on this job and to whom are they 
directed? 



PHYSICAL WORKING CONDITIONS AND ENVIRONMENT 

16. (a) What phases, if any, of this job require an abnormal degree of physical effort or strain? 



(b) What features of the place at which this job is performed are below normal when compared with 
normal office conditions? 



(c) What body or health hazards are involved in the performance of this job? 

17. List the names of the employees in this department who perform the work described herein. 

1. .-.._ 4 , 

2. ._.- 5 

3. .._- 6 



i8 Signatures: 



Store Supervisor 
C. & O. Manager 
Dept. Manager.^ Date- 



District Manager 

Division Head Date 

rORM NO. 04066 PRINTED IN U. S. A. 



Figure 150. (Concluded.) 



OFFICE AND SUPERVISORY POSITIONS 393 



I 



Job Description-Specification. S. L. H. Burk, in a short but 
masterly paper entitled "Bases for Sound Salary Determination," ^^ 
lists five principles and four rules for collecting job data as follows : 

Principles: 

1. Follow organization lines in starting the work. 

2. Go to the best possible sources of information, that is, the 
employee and the immediate supervisor, interviewing the em- 
ployee on the job at his workplace, 

3. Questionnaires ^^ may be used if desired, but not as substitutes 
for the workplace interview (see Figure 150). 

4. In addition to securing facts in connection with duties, respon- 
sponsibilities, working hours, working conditions, etc., the inter- 
viewer should seek to draw out employees' and supervisors' 
opinions as to minimum qualifications for the job. 

5. It must be made perfectly clear at all times that the analyst is 
interested only in the job and not the quahfications or effective- 
ness of the man on the job. 

Rules: 

1 . That some record must be made of the basis on which the grade 
or rate has been determined, and that this record should be 
in such form as to facilitate the grading process. 

2. The jobs should be described as they are now actually being 
performed, not on the basis of what should be done, what used 
to be done, or what is expected to be done. 

3. QuaHfied and understanding agreement about all the items en- 
tered on the job description or specification should be secured 
from the supervisors and department heads involved. 

4. The employee should at least have the opportunity to agree or 
disagree with the description of job content and duties. 

As might be expected, Httle attempt is made to get job data as 
exactly as for hourly paid jobs. Instead the proportionate time is 
stressed, i.e., are the duties continuous or intermittent? Are they 
frequent and routine or occasional? What percentage of time does 
each take, etc.? For a thorough and intelligently made example we 
turn again to the McKinsey case (Figure 151). 

^"^ A.M.A. Office Management Series No. 92. 

^^ C. H. Lawshe's Form A, "lob Description Check-List of Office Operations," 
contains 139 items on 8 large pages. 



394 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



JOB SPECIFICATION SHEET 

Description 

Daily Operations 

1. Receive copy of invoice from Accounts Payable or Cost Department; 
check invoice against Purchase Order previously received and arrange for any 
necessary corrections. 

2. Prepare certificate of payment and pass on, with supporting papers, to 
Department Secretary for distribution. 

3. Watch discount on all D. P. C. invoices. 

4. Prepare separate certificate on invoices where a partial payment has 
been made. 

5. Itemize, by accounts charge, the total amount of each certificate and 
make entry at the bottom of each certificate prepared. 

6. When invoices and certificates have been prepared in the field for 
D, P. C. jobs, check for accuracy and file; on all others prepare complete in- 
voice from data received from Field office. 

7. Receive, from Field offices, payrolls and summary sheet showing ex- 
pense of labor and accounts chargeable; check for accuracy, arrange for any 
adjustments and also for any required journal entry. 

8. Pass payroll records on to clerks for checking extensions and posting 
earnings. 

9. When invoice or payroll certificates are complete, post according to job, 
by construction projects and accounts; at end of month check totals with those 
of the Bookkeeper of General Accounts. 

10. Receive voucher checks with invoices covering job purchases. 

11. Enter in disbursement register, according to account distribution for 
cash, inventory, and operating. 

12. Record amount of cash deposits made by bookkeeper for each job. and 
balance register at close of each monthly period with the Bookkeeping De- 
partment. 

Weekly Operations 

1. Payroll expense is entered, weekly, on a Payroll Summary Sheet, showing 
taxable and nontaxable items, number of employees in each group, amount of 
Social Security or State taxes paid, the States designated where employees are 
located, and the earnings paid by such divisions; at close of each accounting 
period sheets are totaled and summary of account distribution made on the 
reverse side and then passed on to Assistant Treasurer's Executive Assistant. 

Miscellaneous Operations 

1. Watch freight charges on all invoices to make sure charges have been 
handled and invoiced accordingly. 

2. Handle charge-back entries received from the Field offices, to make sure 
the necessary invoices and/or credits are issued to adjust. 

3. All voucher and payroll expense must be watched for items not properly 
reimbursable; these items are furnished the Construction Department. 

4. Carry on all necessary correspondence between Field men, client or 
vendor representatives, and interdepartment employees, in an effort to coordi- 
nate and keep all work in agreement as to records and amounts. 



Figure 151. Job Specification Sheet. 



OFFICE AND SUPERVISORY POSITIONS 



395 



Monthly Operations 

A. Bank Reconciliations 

1. Receive monthly statement and canceled checks from banks handling job 
expense and payroll accounts. 

2. Pass checks on to be checked against bank tapes and arranged 
numerically. 

3. Check off checks against payrolls and voucher listings; list those out- 
standing to prove balance shown by bank. 

4. Give list of unpaid checks, and bank statements to General Accounts 
Bookkeeper for use in combined reconciliation. 

Specific 

Direction and Instruction Standard routine, verbal on some and general 

sometimes 
Procedures Calculate, post, and invoice 

Diversity Considerable Time Spec. Promptness essential 

Limits Work must be accurate Precision Import. Little-moderate on 

some 
Used About 1 hr. day 
Frequently 



Equip. Used Adding machine Time 

Relationships Interdepartmental, gov. Freq. 

auditors, vendors, and 

representatives 
Supervision Given 1 clerk — general 
Physical Effort Mostly desk work, some walking 

and standing 
Area Covered Various floors Mental Effort 

Working Conditions Too warm most of the time 



No. People 1 
Sustained % 90—10 

Constant concentration 



Equiv. Education 
Prev. Experience 
Supervision Req. 



Employee 



High School 
1-2 years 
Daily 



General 

Special Accounting and business procedure 
Training Period 3 months-6 months 



Comment 



John S. Mason (Interviewed) 

Edward Bowman, Henry Haverty, James P. Durkin 
Interviewer Laurie F. Dobb Approved Joseph P. Green 

Job Title Job Unit Cost No. Employees 4 Date Mar. 11, 1943 

Accountant 
Department Accounting Section Construction Cost Unit Job Grade VIII 



Figure 151. (Concluded.) 



396 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



A Simple Plan for Clerical Positions. The Revere Copper & 
Brass Company uses the weighted-in-points method, with separate 
treatment of universal requirements but with a smaller scale of 
weights (Figure 152). 



Characteristics 



Points 



Skills: 

Educational requirements 

Practical experience required 

Analytical requirement and complexity of work 

Accuracy 

Memory 

Manual dexterity 

Responsibility: 

Supervisional requirements 

Relations or contacts 

Effort: 

Continuity of work 

Physical strain on senses 

Working conditions: 

Conditions of work 

Elemental credit (for all jobs) 

Potential maximum 



0tol6 
Otol5 
Otol5 
1 to 8 
Oto 8 
Oto 5 

Oto 15 
Oto 8 

Oto 5 
Oto 5 

Oto 5 

- 45 



150 



Figure 152. Adaptation of Minor Characteristics. (Revere Copper & Brass 

Company.) 

Weighted-in-Points Plan for Clerical Jobs. The Consolidated 
Water Power & Paper Company of Wisconsin Rapids installed a 
plan in 1952 that allows comparisons with nonclerical jobs. Twelve 
characteristics are used, five degrees each. The theoretical maxi- 
mum number of points is 1500. Weighting in percentages was made 
on the first degree, and three times those weights were multiplied by 
the degree numbers to derive the points for all other degrees. We 
question the need or desirability of using threefold values or even 
twofold values, since the original weightings would total 500 in the 
fifth degree. The 1500 points are distributed as follows: Skill 972 
points, 66 per cent; Responsibility 255 points, 17 per cent; Effort 
150 points, 10 per cent; and Working Conditions 105 points, 7 per 
cent. The clerical employees to whom the plan applies are members 
of the Office Employees International Union, AF of L. The defini- 
tions are given in full (see Figure 153). 

Weighted-in-Points Plan for Technical and Office Hourly Jobs. 

The Lockheed Aircraft Corporation uses a single plan for both 
office and technical hourly jobs. In fact the ten characteristics are 



OFFICE AND SUPERVISORY POSITIONS 397 



SKILL 

EDUCATION 

The attribute which measures the mental development or technical knowledge 
required by the job. 

First degree (42 points) 

The ability to do the following: Clerical duties of a minor nature, simple arith- 
metic, simple postings of weights, counts, etc., to forms, and understand simple 
instructions. 

Second degree (84 points) 

The ability to do the following: Clerical duties of a detailed nature, ordinary 
arithmetic, simple inventories, typing, filling out simple report forms, and basic 
bookkeeping. 

Third degree (126 points) 

The ability to do the following: Clerical duties of an extraordinary nature, 
advanced arithmetic, fill out difficult report forms, difficult inventories, lay out 
simple report forms, transcribing and typing, and write simple letters. 

Fourth degree (168 points) 

The ability to do the following: Clerical duties of a complex nature, elementary 
mathematics, lay out difficult report forms, compile, analyze, and prepare statis- 
tical data in the form of schedules, reports, graphs, or charts, write detailed pro- 
cedures, elementary accounting, and write good business letters. 

Fifth degree (210 points) 

The ability to understand and perform work of a technical nature requiring a 
comprehensive knowledge of the applicable technical theory. 

EXPERIENCE 

The measure of time on related work plus job training usually required by an 
individual to learn to perform satisfactorily the particular work being evaluated. 
The measure of time should include only the time on related work and the actual 
job training required on the work to be performed. Satisfactory performance in- 
volves the doing of work of satisfactory quality in a quantity sufficient to justify 
continued employment on the job. 

First degree (54 points) 

Up to one year of experience gained through job training or on related work in 
addition to job training. 

Second degree (108 points) 

Between one and two years of experience gained through job training or on 
related work in addition to job training. 

Third degree (162 points) 

Between two and three years of experience gained through job training or on 
related work in addition to job training. 

Figure 153. Example of Degree Definitions. (Consolidated Water Power & 

Paper Company.) 



398 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Fourth degree {216 points) 

Broad, practical knowledge obtained from previous experience and association 
with related work, in addition to job training, of between three and four years. 

Fifth degree {270 points) 

Expert knowledge in a skilled occupation obtained from practical experience 
gained over a period of four years or more. 

JUDGMENT 

Judgment refers to the weighing of existing facts and conditions and then decid- 
ing upon the correct course of action. Consideration must be given to the variety 
of decisions and especially to the availability of existing rules, policies, and 
precedent that are available for guidance. 

First degree {33 points) 

Limited number of decisions, involving only a few courses of action, must be 
made within the immediate limits of a specific procedure or rule. 

Second degree {66 points) 

Decisions must be made where there are many problems but only a limited 
number of courses of action covered by a specific policy or rule. There may also 
be decisions covered only by general policies but the decisions are repetitive in 
character or there is ample precedent to follow. 

Third degree {99 points) 

Decisions must be made where the facts and circumstances are such as to make 
it necessary for the employee to choose between several alternatives. The problems 
fall within the limits of existing general policies but unforeseen circumstances not 
taken into consideration when developing policy make the use of discretion neces- 
sary. The employee interprets policy under such conditions but often secures the 
approval of a superior. 

Fourth degree {132 points) 

Numerous decisions involved where the choices of action are wide and where 
there are no applicable rules or policies but where there is some precedent. 

Fifth degree {165 points) 

Continuous decisions where there is little or no precedent and where the infor- 
mation available is of an extremely complex nature. 

INITIATIVE AND INGENUITY 

Relates to the job requirements for original conception, planning, and inven- 
tiveness. When evaluating this attribute, consideration should be given to the 
following factors: 

1. Originality in the form of devising or developing methods of procedure. 

2. Resourcefulness in the form of capacity for analyzing work and adapting 
methods, equipment, etc. 

3. Initiative in the form of ability to see the need for and to take independent 
action. 

First degree {33 points) 

Requires the ability to understand and follow simple instructions such as are 
involved in simple clerical work where the employee is told exactly what to do. 

Figure 153. {Continued.) 



OFFICE AND SUPERVISORY POSITIONS 399 

Second degree {66 points) 

Requires the ability to perform standardized or routine operations from detailed 
instructions, using some judgment concerning the quality of work. 

Third degree (99 points) 

Requires the ability to understand, plan, and perform a sequence of diversified 
operations where standard or recognized methods are available, working from 
general instructions and layouts including some decisiveness as to quality, opera- 
tion, and procedure. 

Fourth degree (132 points) 

Requires the ability to understand, plan course of action, perform unusual and 
difficult work where only general methods are available, and considerable orig- 
inality and resourcefulness. 

Fifth degree (165 points) 

Requires outstanding ability to think clearly, accurately, and independently on 
involved and complex work requiring the devising of original methods or pro- 
cedures, and an extremely high degree of originality and resourcefulness. 

MACHINE OPERATIONAL SKILL 

The measurement of the degree of skill required to operate various office ma- 
chines and equipment in a manner to meet the accepted standard. 

First degree (18 points) 

Unskilled operators of any or all types of office equipment and machines. 

Second degree (36 points) 
Skilled operators of: 
L Adding machines. 

A. All makes and models, electric or manual. 

2. Typewriting machines (copy work only). 

A. All makes and models, electric or manual, which print upper case char- 
acters (capital letters) only, including machines equipped with a numeric- 
symbolic keyboard used only for addition and subtraction. 

B. Teletypewriter machines (for transmitting and receiving messages). 

3. Duplicating and printing machines (non-ink type). 

A. Standard duplicator. 

B. Ditto duplicator. 

C. Copyist. 

D. Bruning machine (white printing and developing). 

E. Dupligraph. 

Third degree (54 points) 
Skilled operators of: 

1. Typewriting machines (copy work only). 

A. All makes and models, electric or manual, which print both upper case 
characters (capital letters) and lower case characters (small letters), 
including machines equipped with a numeric-symbolic keyboard used 
only for addition and subtraction. 

2. Calculating machines. 

A. All makes and models, rotary or key-driven, electric or manual. 

Figure 153. (Continued.) 



400 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



3. Accounting machines (numeric). 

A. All makes and models, electric or manual, equipped only with a numeric- 
symbolic keyboard. 

4. Addressing machines. 
A. Addressograph. 

5. Telephone switchboard. 
A. Any make or model. 

6. Duplicating and printing machines (ink type). 

A. Multilith. 

B. Multigraph. 

Fourth degree {72 points) 
Skilled operators of: 

1. Typewriting machines (stenographic). 

A. All makes and models, electric or manual, which print both upper case 
characters (capital letters) and lower case characters (small letters) 
used in transcribing letters, memoranda, etc., from machines, shorthand 
notes, and rough drafts. 

2. Transcribing machines (stenographic). 

A. All makes and models used in connection with #1 above. 

3. Accounting machines (numeric-alphabetic). 

A. All makes and models, electric or manual, equipped with both numeric 
and alphabetic keyboards and which are used: to post books of accounts; 
to prepare checks, vouchers, and other accounting media; to prepare and 
record other accounting data and statistical reports. 

CONTACTS 

This attribute is the degree of personality, manners, and tact required in face to 
face business dealings. 

First degree (18 points) 

Contacts only with company employees in the same office. 

Second degree (36 points) 

Contacts with: company employees of other offices in other divisions; mill em- 
ployees; mill departmental supervisors. 

Third degree (54 points) 

Contacts with: mill managers, mill superintendents; occasional contacts with 
outsiders. 

Fourth degree (72 points) 

Contacts with: company management personnel (not officers); frequent contacts 
with outsiders. 

Fifth degree (90 points) 

Contact with: company officers; consistent contacts with outsiders. (Applies to 
few.) 

RESPONSIBILITY 

ACCURACY 

Pertains to the degree of accuracy required to avoid monetary loss or embarrass- 
ment. Errors may cause: 

Figure 153. (Continued.) 



OFFICE AND SUPERVISORY POSITIONS 401 

1. Waste of product. 

2. Waste of material. 

3. Loss of time by employees locating or correcting errors. 

4. Loss due to misinformation through erroneous reports. 

5. Any other losses. 

First degree {33 points) 

Minor errors. No monetary loss involved. Work is rechecked or balanced to 
predetermined totals. 

Second degree (66 points) 

Errors of more serious nature. Could cause extended checking to locate. Pos- 
sible monetary loss or embarrassment. 

Third degree (99 points) 

Errors in work of unchecked nature. May result in a more serious monetary 
loss or embarrassment. 

Fourth degree (132 points) 

Errors of a more serious nature resulting in very costly monetary loss or un- 
usual embarrassment. 

Fifth degree (165 points) 

Errors of an extremely serious nature resulting in a major monetary loss or 
extraordinary embarrassment. 

LEADERSHIP 

This attribute relates to the nonsupervisory responsibility for instructing other 
employees, assigning work to them, coordinating their efforts, and maintaining 
the flow of work within a group. 

First degree (18 points) 

Responsible for own work only. 

Second degree (36 points) 

Responsible for instructing or directing the efforts of a maximum of three (3) 
employees. 

Third degree (54 points) 

Responsible for instructing or directing the efforts of a maximum of six (6) 
employees. 

Fourth degree (72 points) 

Responsible for instructing or directing the efforts of a maximum of nine (9) 
employees. 

Fifth degree (90 points) 

Responsible for instructing or directing the efforts of a maximum of twelve (12) 
employees. 

EFFORT 
PHYSICAL DEMAND 

This attribute is measured by the amount of physical effort required. Considera- 
tion is given to the elements of the job which produce physical strain or fatigue 

Figure 153. (Continued.) 



402 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



and the extent to which they are present. Steady work other than machine opera- 
tion such as pencil work, sorting, fiUng, etc., will be rated at 50 per cent of the 
values allotted below to steady machine operation. 

First degree (12 points) 

Exertion is of a varied nature. Little exertion of a consistent nature. 

Second degree (24 points) 

At least 20 per cent of time is spent on steady machine operation, or standing, or 
walking, or handling parcels, supplies, etc. 

Third degree (36 points) 

At least 40 per cent of time is spent on steady machine operation, or standing, or 
walking, or handling parcels, supplies, etc. 

Fourth degree (48 points) 

At least 60 per cent of time is spent on steady machine operation, or standing, or 
walking, or handling parcels, supplies, etc. 

Fifth degree (60 points) 

At least 80 per cent of time is spent on steady machine operation, or standing, or 
walking, or handling parcels, supplies, etc. 

MENTAL DEMAND 

Mental demand relates to the amount or degree of mental application required 
in performing the work. It does not relate to the degree of inteUigence applied, 
but rather to the time and intensity of the mental application. From the two rate 
tables shown below is developed the product of the "net" sensings for each of the 
two elements, time and intensity, and this product determines the degree rating. 





Percentage 


Percentage of Intensity 




of Time 


(Degree of Concentration) 


Extreme 


100 


100 


High 


90 


90 


Medium 


80 


80 


Low 


70 


70 



Example: The degree of time rates on an average basis on one job as medium 
(80%) but the degree of intensity rates as high (907c). The product of the two 
sensings is 72% (80% X 90%) and therefore rates a combined degree of "Third 
degree — 54 points" as indicated in the rate table following. 

First degree (18 points) 

The product of the time and intensity sensings is 49% to 58%. 

Second degree (36 points) 

The product of the time and intensity sensings is 59% to 69%. 

Third degree (54 points) 

The product of the time and intensity sensings is 70% to 79%. 

Fourth degree (72 points) 

The product of the time and intensity sensings is 807c to 89%. 

Fifth degree {90 points) 

The product of the time and intensity sensings is 90% to 100%. 

Figure 153. (Continued.) 



OFFICE AND SUPERVISORY POSITIONS 



403 



WORKING CONDITIONS 

JOB CONDITIONS 

This factor relates to the surrounding or physical conditions under which the 
job must be done over which the employee has no control and which affect his 
mental or physical well-being. 

The following Schedule "A" shows elements to be considered and the degree 
of intensity with a numerical rating for each degree. Each job is to be rated for 
each element and the points totaled. The total number decides the degree rating 
according to the schedule of degrees and points shown following Schedule "A." 



Schedule "A' 



Elements 
Eye strain 
Weather exposure 
Noise 
Vibration 
Dirt 

Monotony 
Clothing maintenance 

First degree (12 points) 

Total number is 7. (Minimum) 

Second degree {24 points) 

Total number is 8 to 10 inclusive. 

Third degree (36 points) 

Total number is 11 to 14 inclusive. 

Fourth degree (48 points) 

Total number is 15 to 19 inclusive. 

Fifth degree (60 points) 

Total number is 20 to 35 inclusive. 



Degree of Intensity 
Extreme 5 

High 4 

Medium 3 

Little 2 

None 1 



PHYSICAL HAZARDS 

This attribute relates to the accident and health hazards to the employee in 
accomplishing the job being evaluated. 

First degree (9 points) 

Accident possibilities or hazards to health are negligible. 

Second degree (18 points) 

Office in which job is located is attached to or in the immediate vicinity of a 
production plant area that constitutes a hazard. 

Third degree (27 points) 

Job requires occasional exposure to production plant operations, weather, or 
vehicular traffic that is hazardous. 

Fourth degree (36 points) 

Job requires frequent exposure to production plant operations, weather, or 
vehicular traffic that is hazardous. 

Fifth degree (45 points) 

Job requires constant exposure to production plant operations, weather, or 
vehicular traffic that is hazardous. 



Figure 153. (Concluded.) 



404 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

little different from those used in some of the plans for factory jobs, 
but the definitions are broader and the scales are specially designed. 
For instance, while four of the scales have arithmetic progression, 
the rest have geometric progression — but not all the same. One 
scale, that for experience, reverses the progression much as the Gen- 
eral Electric Company did for training (see Chapter 6, Figure 34). 
This should give truer measurement than the all-arithmetic scales 
commonly used without any validation. We submit the layout for 
this plan, Figure 154. 

NEMA Plan for Accounting, Clerical, Supervisory, and Tech- 
nical Jobs. This plan was developed from their hourly job rating 
plan and makes no pretense of tailor-fitting but it has been so widely 
used that it deserves ample treatment (see Figure 158). The 
NEMA Manual ^^ lists the following nine basic policies which 
should underlie sound salary administration: 

1. Comply fully with all federal and state legislation with respect 
to hours, overtime, and payment of salaries. 

2. Assume that the company's salary level, considering of course 
other benefits, such as vacations, paid holidays, sick leaves, etc., 
compares favorably with that of other companies in the area 
on comparable jobs. 

3. Establish and maintain fair salary differentials within and 
between jobs in all departments, based on differences in their 
relative job requirements, as reflected by a sound salaried job 
rating plan. 

4. Fix differentials between jobs solely on differences in job 
requirements. 

5. Inform each employee of his job title, grade, rate, or rate range. 

6. Audit job descriptions and duties at least once a year in order 
to determine whether any significant changes in job content 
have occurred. Revise existing descriptions and grades where 
necessary. 

7. Recognize and reward individual ability and merit. 

8. Promote qualified employees from lower to higher grade jobs 
whenever opportunity permits. 

9. Make promotions and award merit increases on the basis of 
performance. 

NEMA wisely advises the analyst to start by making an informal 
organization chart to be approved by each department head con- 

^^ Manual of Procedure for use of NEMA Salaried Job Rating Plan. Industrial 
Relations Department, National Electrical Manufacturers Association, 1949. 












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405 



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406 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



cerned and then used as a check on what the descriptions say re- 
garding who reports to whom, scope of supervisory responsibihty, 
and the hke. NEMA leaves much of the procedure to the local user 
of the plan but it broadly suggests that department heads examine 
their descriptions to see that: (a) assignments are logical, (b) pos- 
sible reassignment of duties would be helpful, and (c) a better 
organization arrangement could be made. In fact, the success of 
this plan is doubtless due in part to this model manual. It includes 
many precautions and even gets down to the styling and wording of 
the descriptions. For examples of NEMA practice see Figures 155 
to 159. 



Points Assigned to Factors and Key to Grades 



Factors 

# 1. Education 

# 2. Experience 

3. Complexity of Duties. . 

4. Monetary Responsibility 

5. Contacts 

# 6. Working Conditions. . . 



1st 

20 

25 

20 

5 

5 

5 



Add for Supervisory Jobs Only 

7. Type of Supervision. . . 5 

8. Extent of Supervision. . 5 

Total Points 



Degrees and Points 



2nd 


3rd 


4th 


5th 


6th 


7th 


8th 


40 


60 


80 


100 


120 






50 


75 


100 


125 


150 


175 


200 


40 


60 


80 


100 








10 


20 


40 


60 








10 


20 


40 


60 








10 


15 


20 


25 








10 


20 


40 


60 








10 


20 


40 


60 






685 



Per 

Cent 



17.50 

29.20 

14.60 

8.75 

8.75 

3.70 



8.75 
8.75 

100.00 



Point Range Grade 

Up to 120 A 



125 - 160. 
165 - 200. 
205 - 240. 
245 - 280. 
285 - 320. 
325 - 360. 
365 - 400. 
405 - 440. 
445 - 480. 
485 - 520. 
525 - 560. 



B 

C 

D 

E 

F 

G 

H 

J 

K 

L 

M 



Figure 155fl. NEMA Job Rating Plan for Salaried Employees in Accolming, 
Clerical, Supervisory, and Technical Positions 



OFFICE AND SUPERVISORY POSITIONS 



407 



GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF NEMA CHARACTERISTICS 



1 . Education 



2. Experience 



3. Complexity 
of Duties 



4. Monetary 
Responsibility 



Responsibility 
for Contacts 
with Others 



6. Working 
Conditions 



This factor evaluates the job requirements in terms of the basic 
education or knowledge which an employee should have ac- 
quired to do the job satisfactorily. In applying the factor, con- 
sider only the requirements of the job. Disregard the indi- 
vidual's formal education or the specific way in which he may 
have acquired the basic knowledge. Rate the requirements of 
the job and not the person's education. 

This factor evaluates the time usually required for a person to 
acquire the necessary ability to do the job. In appraising Ex- 
perience, it should be correlated with Education. Do not con- 
fuse length of service of an individual with experience required 
to qualify on the job. Experience may have been acquired else- 
where, in whole or in part, by the individual on the job. 

This factor evaluates the complexity of the duties in terms of 
the scope of independent action, the extent to which the duties 
are standardized, the judgment and planning required, the type 
of decisions made and the area within which the individual on 
the job is required to exercise discretion. 

This factor evaluates the responsibility for profit or loss to the 
Company as a result of actions or decisions which involve items 
such as equipment, material, labor, cost estimates, prices, fore- 
casts, purchase commitments, investments. Consider the ex- 
tent to which the work is checked or verified, the effect of ac- 
tions or decisions on operating costs or profits, monetary loss, 
production delays or effect on employees or customers. 

This factor evaluates the responsibility which goes with the job 
for working with or through other persons, to get results. In 
the lower degrees, it is largely a matter of giving or getting in- 
formation or instructions. In the higher degrees, the factor 
involves dealing with or influencing other persons. In rating 
this factor, consider how the contacts are made and for what 
purpose. 

This factor evaluates the conditions under which the job must 
be done and the extent to which the conditions make the job 
disagreeable or unpleasant. Consider the presence, relative 
amount and continuity of exposure to conditions such as noise, 
heat, dust, fumes. Since the plan includes no factor for physical 
effort, that phase of the job may be considered under this factor 
where physical effort is involved. 



Supervision Only 

7. Type of This factor evaluates the degree of supervision exercised in 
Supervision terms of the level of the job in the organization and the 

character of the responsibility for directing or supervising other 
persons. 

8. Extent of This factor evaluates the responsibility for supervision in terms 
Supervision of the number of persons supervised. 



Figure \55b. General Definitions of NEMA Characteristics 



408 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



Grade 



Occ. No. 


105-11 


JOB RATING SPECIFICATION 


Division 


Accounting 


Salaried Job Rating Plan 


Dept. or 


Tabulating 


Class 


Plant 





Job Name: TABULATING MACHINE OPERATOR 

Job Description 

Under direct supervision of Supervisor — Tabulating, operate various types of 
electric tabulating machines to analyze, calculate, translate, summarize in- 
formation, represented by punched holes on tabulating cards and print trans- 
lated data on form sheets, reports, or accounting records. Operate machines 
such as interpreter, multiplier, collator, sorter, tabulator, reproducing sum- 
mary punch. Compile and print payroll and earnings statements, payroll 
deductions, accounts payable, sales analyses, billings, miscellaneous reports 
as requested. Change plug boards; wire up boards. Repunch cards which fail 
to pass through machines. Keep machines clean and oiled. 



Promote From. 



to 





Analyst 






Dept. 
Head 


Revised 


Revised 


Revised 


Initials 
















Date 

















This job description is not a complete statement of all the duties and respon- 
sibilities which go with the job. It contains only the facts necessary to rate the 
job fairly. 

Figure 156^. Example of NEMA Description 



J 



OFFICE AND SUPERVISORY POSITIONS 



409 



JOB RATING SPECIFICATION 

Salaried Job Rating Plan 
Class 



Occ. No. 105-11 



Job Name: 

TABULATING MACHINE 
OPERATOR 



Division 


Accounting 


Dept. or 

Plant 


Tabulating 


Grade 


E 


Points 


255 







Rating 


Factor 


Specification 




Deg. 


Pts. 


Education 


Use arithmetic. Work with punched cards, state- 
ments and reports. Knowledge of operation of 
electrical tabulating machines equivalent to gen- 
eral academic education plus specialized training 
up to 1 year. 


3 


60 


Experience 


Over 1 up to 2 years. 


4 


100 


Complexity 
of Duties 


Plan and perform a sequence of semi-routine 
duties working from standard procedures. Make 
decisions which require some judgment to wire 
up boards, check form of data, assure all cards 
are sorted for run, determine action to be taken 
within limits prescribed. 


3 


60 


Monetary 
Responsibility 


Limited monetary responsibility since the work 
is usually checked or verified before it leaves the 
Section. 


2 


10 


Responsibility 
for Contacts 
with Others 


Routine contacts with Accounting, Payroll, Sales, 
to give or get information requiring only 
courtesy. 


2 


10 


Working 
Conditions 


Somewhat disagreeable due to noise from equip- 
ment. 


3 


15 




Factors To Be Added for Supervisory 
Jobs Only 


Type of 
Supervision 




Extent of 
Supervision 





Figure 156d. (Obverse.) 



410 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



Salary Schedule, Monthly Rates 
(20% X 121/2%) 



Rate Ran^e 



Grade 


Minimum 


Mid-point 


Maximum 


Range 


A 


$135 


$148 


$160 


$25 


B . 




150 


165 


180 


30 


C . 




165 


185 


205 


40 


D . 




190 


210 


230 


40 


E . 




215 


240 


265 


50 


F . 




245 


270* 


300 


55 


G . 




275 


305 


335 


60 


H . 




310 


340** 


375 


65 


J . 




350 


385 


420 


70 


K . 




390 


430 


470 


80 


L . 




440 


485 


530 


90 


M . 




500 


550 


600 


100 



* Mid-point actually $272.50. ** Mid-point actually $342.50. 

Note: This schedule is constructed to give a 20 per cent range within each 
Grade (leveled to the nearest $5) with a llVi per cent differential 
between mid-points. 

Figure 157. Example of Rate Tabulation Under the NEMA Salaried Job 

Rating Plan 



600 




100 200 300 400 500 600 POINT VALUE 

Figure 158. Example of Rate Structure Under the NEMA Salaried Job 

Rating Plan 



OFFICE AND SUPERVISORY POSITIONS 



411 



NEMA Plan for Learners. The Learner Progression Schedule 
(Figure 159) is to be applied to inexperienced employees. In the 
case of grades A to C, it would apply to persons with little or no 
previous work experience, such as high school graduates. Beyond 
those grades, the minimum hiring rate has been graduated on the 
basis that persons for such jobs would have had work experience 
though not necessarily in the field for which they were hired. Be- 
yond grade F or G, the schedule is primarily for promotion pur- 
poses. The schedule should be regarded as a minimum progression 
schedule. Supervision should advance employees more rapidly if 
they make exceptional progress. 



Grade 


Hir- 
ing 
Min. 

Rate 


3 
mos. 


6 
mos. 


9 
mos. 


12 
mos. 


15 
mos. 


18 
mos. 


24 
mos. 


30 
mos. 


Range 


A 

B 

C 

D 

E 

F 

G 

H 

J 

K 

L 

M 


$125 
130 
135 
155 
175 
195 
215 
240 
270 
310 
360 
420 


$135 
140 
145 
165 
185 
205 
225 
250 
280 
320 
370 
430 


$150 
155 
175 
195 
215 
235 
260 
290 
330 
380 
440 


$165 
190 

205 

225 
245 
270 
300 
340 
390 
450 


$215 
235 
255 
280 
310 
350 
400 
460 


$245 
265 
290 
320 
360 
410 
470 


$275 
300 
330 
370 
420 
480 


$310 
340 
380 
430 
490 


$350 
390 
440 
500 


$10 
20 
30 
35 
40 
50 
60 
70 
80 
80 
80 
80 



Figure 159. Learner Progression Schedule 



L. O. M. A. Job Element Evaluation Plao.-^ This novel plan was 
evolved several years ago as a means of classifying multiple jobs 
in the smaller insurance offices for which the Bills Classification 
Plan is unsuitable. It is based on the premise that all clerical work 
can be divided into three categories: ( 1 ) doing the work, (2) check- 
ing the work, and (3) supervising the work; and also that each of 
these can be subdivided into a limited number of distinct, not neces- 
sarily uniform, operations (see Figure 160). In other words, the 
real differences among jobs are found in how such distinct opera- 
tions are combined rather than in the variations of the operations 
themselves. This is similar to the practice in factories where re- 

^° See Life Office Management Association, Clerical Salary Study Committee 
Report Nos. 3, 5, and 6; and also Clerical Salary Administration, edited by L. W. 
Ferguson, 1948. 



412 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

corded data for standard elements are selectively synthetized to 
describe in advance any combination of elements that may arise. 
In the shop the conditions and operations are usually standardized 
so that the records represent standard elements and are much more 
accurate; 84 to 90 per cent of all large factories now depend on 
"standard data" for their task setting. Curiously few of them have 
adopted this practice to the more qualitative functions of job anal- 
ysis and evaluation. The Edo and Lockheed Aircraft companies 
did a little experimenting but little application of the principle has 
been made as yet. Nevertheless it seems that L. O. M. A. has found 
a very happy means of evaluating not only clerical multiple dut}^ 
jobs, but all multiple duty jobs. In fact, we think their "job ele- 
ment" plan is most promising for certain higher jobs such as those 
of staff and supervision, which are distinctly multiple in nature. 



Grades Points 

Messenger Work 4 800 to 840 

Sorting 8 800 to 990 

Filing or Pulling from File 7 850 to 1560 

Counting 2 820 to 890 

Posting (including calculating) 26 820 to 2900 

Checking and Reviewing 15 970 to 1470 

Balancing 13 960 to 5000 

Correspondence or Discussion 53 960 to 4710 

Machine and Secretarial 21 840 to 1730 

Figure 160. L. O. M, A. Job Element Plan 

Note: Each of these fundamental operations is expanded by means of pre- 
determined "grade" definitions. See L. O. M. A. Report No. 3, Clerical Salary 
Study Committee, September 1, 1940, pages 40-45. 

Procedure for L. O. M. A. Job Element Plan. The point values 
for the elements are derived by pooled ratings of each distinct oper- 
ation just as each would be if it took 100 per cent of the operator's 
time. For the supervisional operations two dimensional tables are 
set up to combine the number of clerks supervised, the variety of 
the work supervised (on the vertical), the difficulty of the work 
supervised, and the completeness of the supervision (on the hori- 
zontal). See Report No. 3, pp. 46-47. The point values resulting 
from these studies are now recorded (see Figure 161 for sample of 
one). The tabular parts are coded and the two dimensional code 
numbers, such as 60-10 in Figure 161 are entered with the point 
values, such as 970 in Figure 162. From these established opera- 
tions and their values it is now a matter of identifying those described 



OFFICE AND SUPERVISORY POSITIONS 



413 



in any job description which may come up for evaluation. As each 
operation is identified, its estabhshed point value is multiplied by the 
percentage of time it bears to the whole job and the modified value 
is entered on the job description (see Figures 162 and 163). When 
complete these modified operation values are added to give the point 
value for the multiple job. There are, however, two further correc- 
tions, one the use of a complexity multiplier where the number of 
distinct operations is high, and a second disregarding the values for 
a minority of the operations if the majority of time is taken by opera- 
Evaluations of Fundamental Clerical Operations — Table of Values 



Checking or Reviewing 




Operations 
Value (Points) 



Checking for the presence or absence of a few items 
of information 

Checking direct information with reference to au- 
thentic records when the information should be 
identical on two records 

Checking direct informaion with reference to au- 
thentic records when the information on the 
two should correspond but may not be identical. . 

involving a few items 

involving many items 

Checking for internal consistency on work sheet. . . . 

involving a few items 

involving many items 



970 



1000 



1070 
1280 



1170 
1440 



Figure 161. Fundamental Clerical Operations 



tions of relatively considerable difficulty. In such a case the average 
value of the more difficult operations is extended to cover the whole 
job. Eventually such a job should be changed in content on the 
principle of skill conservation. 

Scatter Diagram. Where large numbers of jobs are involved it is 
common to reduce each scatter to a median figure. The several 
medians for a department are then plotted by job classes and the 
resulting curve for the main departments is superimposed on a single 
chart. The Westinghouse Electric Company did not attempt trend 
and limit lines for the whole series but treated each functional group 
separately, curves not shown. The York Ice Machinery Corpora- 
tion followed the more traditional use of separate point scatters 



414 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



Analysis of Job Description 
Based on Fundamental Clerical Operations 



JOB DESCRIPTION 


Evaluation 


JOB NAME 
Loan Calculator 
(Cash Loans — 
Straight) 


JOB NO. 


Code No. 


Value 


Per Cent 
of Time 


Weighted 

Value 


DEPT. 

Policy Loan 


DIVISION 




Checks signature on loan note against 
signature on application. Notes type 
of payment requested on trans- 
mittal form 


60-20 
60-10 

50-40 
50-80 


1000 
970 

980 
1260 


5% 
5 

20 
70 


50 

49 


Checks for completeness of loan note 
and transmittal form. Checks all 
titles 


Figures time from policy issued date 
on application to premium-paid-to- 
date on transmittal. Computes 
from table in application loan value 
for that time 


196 


Calculates annual interest on new loan 
at 6 per cent and initial interest 
figured from present date to anni- 
versary of poHcy except when anni- 
versary comes within two months 
using special interest tables. Copies 
amount of loan, initial interest, and 
annual interest on transmittals 


882 


Total 








100% 


117" 



Figure 162. Job Description, Loan Calculator 



(Figure 164) on which a geometric trend line and ±15 per cent 
limit lines were fitted. The General Electric Company (Figure 165) 
established a set of two straight trend lines and then fixed the hmits 
at ± 15 per cent. Eastman Kodak Company calls its set of geo- 
metric lines "Master Curves," and uses them like a budget to con- 
trol the granting of rate changes. 

Choosing Trend and Limit Lines. Perhaps for clerical work 
alone one set of straight lines can be as well justified as for hourly 
paid jobs, but if the higher salaried positions are to be included then 
a single set of straight hnes will not do. Two sets of straight lines, 



OFFICE AND SUPERVISORY POSITIONS 



415 



Analysis of Job Description 
Based on Fundamental Clerical Operations 



JOB DESCRIPTION 



Evaluation 



JOB NAME 

Mail Clerk 



DEPT. 

Life Accounts 



JOB NO. 



DIVISION 



Code No. 


Value 


10-20 


840 


10-10 


800 


10-10 


800 


30-11 


940 


50-31 


1020 


50-21 


970 


10-10 


800 



Per Cent 
of Time 



Weighted 
Value 



Receives and stamps incoming mail. 
Sorts and passes to units. Collects 
mail from the units and sends it 
out 

Receives checks returned for insuffi- 
cient funds from Unit Head and 
sends to photostat unit 

Gets from file any applications which 
are needed immediately 

Assists File Clerk, filing surrendered 
policies, renewal receipts returned 
for credit and reinstatement records. 

Receives from the units loan repay- 
ment memos. Lists on traveler in 
duplicate. Passes original with the 
loan repayment memo to the Loan 
Division and files the duplicate 
record 

Receives balance sheets from Units 
each month. Passes to Tax Depart- 
ment marking received on agency 
lists 

Receives old and terminated premium 
record cards from Change Unit. 
Passes to File Clerk 

Total 



20% 

1 
14 

20 



35 



100% 



168 

8 
112 

188 



357 



49 



40 



922 



Figure 163. Job Description, Mail Clerk 



to allow for upturn in slope, may be tolerated but it takes three sets 
of them to get at all close to any geometric curve. In Figure 166 
we have plotted a series of 31 rates running from $24 per week 
to $240 per week, $1,248 per year to $12,480 per year.-^ One 

^^ At the time of writing, supervisors who were department heads were receiving 
take-home earnings from $275 a month to $650 a month. N.W.L.B. Foreman 
Panel Report, Jan. 31, 1945. 



416 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



line was set according to the preferred numbers formula, another 
was taken from a semilog plotting of a straight line, and last we 
inserted two straight lines to show how much they overpay inter- 
mediate jobs. The semilog line falls considerably below the pre- 
ferred numbers line through intermediate classes but is very close 
to the latter along both ends. Doubtless the semilog line is liked 
by employees, primarily because it undercuts the preferred numbers 
line but also because it is much easier to derive. After using a log- 





















■/'/ 




















ll 
















/Y-/ 












/ 


/){y 


/ 














. / 




■Xy 


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JOB WORTH IN POINTS (0 to 100) 

Figure 164. York Ice Machinery Corporation, Trend and ±15% Limit Lines. 
{N.A.C.A. Bulletin, XXIII, No. 20.) 



log slide rule half a day to get this one curve we are inclined to 
recommend the use of three straight lines. In practice the lines 
must be set accurately, which means the use of logarithms, from 
tables or by means of a calculating machine, for both trend and 
limit lines if straight lines are not used. Worst of all, very few 
if any of the employees can check the correctness of geometric 
rates; nevertheless, we do insist that the geometric principle is 
the proper one to follow. This can, however, be done for guidance 
only, that is, as a means of locating a set of straight trend lines. 
Three straight lines can give very close approximations; two cannot. 



OFFICE AND SUPERVISORY POSITIONS 



417 















/ 


/ 




/ 










M 


(VXIMUM^ 
■)-15% V/ 


^ 


/ 

/-^^ COMMUNITY 
/ SALARY 


/ 


§1 












^ 


^ 




y^ 


^1 






X 






^ 


'^ ^MINIMUM 
-15% 






y 


/^ 


^ 




^ 












/ 

^ 


y 


^ 















1000 1200 1400 

JOB EVALUATION IN POINTS 



Figure 165. The General Electric Company Trend and Limit Lines for 

Salaried Positions 



Ranges and Ingrades. The design of range boxes is the last and 
most interesting act in fixing any rate structure. The principles and 
techniques are, however, no different from what we have discussed 
and illustrated in Chapter 11. In the case of high-salaried jobs 
these ranges must be authorized by top management. 

Details of a Rate Structure. Figures 167(3, h, and c set up the 

data for an eight-grade structure suitable for hourly paid jobs in an 
office. In this example no trend line was used. The floors and ceil- 
ings were laid out as straight lines on a semilog grid (Figure \(fla) 
and the values transferred to a Cartesian grid, Figure 167/?. This 
gives geometric progression for the two essential limits and saves 
the time of finding the line of mid-points. The latter can quickly 
be approximated by marking half-way points in each box. That 
will not be the true mid-line percentagewise, but if bargaining is on 
the limits it is permissible and entirely practical; in fact it is easier 
to explain because these points will be exactly half way. Notice in 
Figure 1676 that the ceiling of Class No. 1 gave no lapover so that 
one had to be arbitrarily provided by lifting the derived ceiling 
five cents. This structure is tabulated in Figure 167c. For structures 
with more grades see Chapter 1 1 . 



418 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 























/ 






















// 






















// 


210 


















' V 






































// 




















/ / 




















'' // 




















/ // 


180 


















/ // 


















// 
















PREFERRED NUMBERS-^ 


/ >v 




LO 
















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// 




q; 


















/ / 




5 150 
















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o 
















/ /y 


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/ V 






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^/ / 






^ 120 
















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y 






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en 














yv y 






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TWO STRAIGHT LINES 










^ 90 
o 










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V^ 


-yy 










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-^^ 


















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-SEMI -LOG 


























60 








^ -^ 


,^-^^^ 
















^-' 




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--'' 




















^-' 


^^,0*"'^ 








































'^^^iii ^ 














1 


30 




















1 1 


1 1 


1 1 


I 1 


1 1 


1 1 


1 1 


1 1 


' 1 


1 1 



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 3' 

JOB CLASS NUMBERS 

Figure 166. Comparison of Trend Lines 



3.00 



2.50 



[2 2.001- 

i 



I 1.50 



1.00 















/ 


/ 




- 


/ 


/ 




y 


_z 


/ 


y 




y 




_z 


/ 


y 






/ 


y' 




_z 




y^ 


^ 




M 


d 


/ 

H 


y^ 


II II II II II (1 



40 



50 



60 70 

EVALUATION POINTS 



80 



90 



Figure 167a. Structure on Semilog Coordinates 



OFFICE AND SUPERVISORY POSITIONS 



419 



3.00 



2.50 

IxJ 
O 

i 

>2.00 

=D 
O 

X 

1.50 



1.00 













/ 


/ 




y 




/ 




/ 


y 














y 


F-l 




y 




1 1 


1 t , 1 1 



Figure 167^. Structure on Cartesian Coordinates 



Classes 


Dollar Rates 


No. 


Points 


Range 


Floor 
Dif- 
feren- 
tial 


Range 
Limits 


Overlap 

Between 
Ranges 


Ceiling 
Differ- 
ential 


Difference 
Between 
Differen- 
tials 


% 
Limits 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 


38-41 

43-46 
48-51 
53-56 
58-61 
63-67 
69-74 
76-82 


4 

4 
4 
4 
4 
5 
6 
7 


.11 
.11 
.13 
.14 
.16 
.22 
.28 


1.25-1.35 

(lifted to 1.40) 

1.36-1.49 
1.47-1.65 
1.60-1.83 
1.74-2.02 
1.90-2.25 
2.12-2.58 
2.40-3.00 


.04 
.02 
.05 
.09 
.12 
.13 
.18 


.09 
.16 
.18 
.19 

.23 
.33 
.42 


2 
5 
5 
5 
7 
11 
14 


± 3.85 

± 4.56 
± 5.77 
± 6.70 
± 7.44 
± 8.43 
± 9.78 
±11.10 



Figure 167c. Tabular Structure for Hourly Clerical Jobs. (Leon Gleimer.) 

Salary Control. Budgetary control as a means of controlling 
salary costs may not be entirely satisfactory because a budget does 
not necessarily show the causes of salary variance. Confronted with 
this, E. N. Hay ^^ has devised what he calls the Compa-Ratio. For 
any one department the ratio is the sum of all present salaries 
divided by the sum of the mid-points of ranges multiplied by 100. 
Any variation of the ratio from 100 will indicate how much the 
group is above or below the mid-point. In applying this, Mr. Hay 



Control of Salary Expense, A.M.A. Financial Series No. 79. 



420 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

uses the geometric mid-points which run slightly below the arthmetic 
mid-points. For instance, if the allowed spread of the ranges is 33 
per cent and the present total of a group is $572, he multiplies that 
by the square root of the allowable variation, \/T33, and gets a 
mid-point value of $660.08. This shows a Compa-Ratio of 102.1 
per cent. For the spread of 33^/6 per cent the limits of the ratio are 
86 and 115. Discovery that the ratio is above standard may restrain 
the department head from granting further salary increases until 
someone has quit and been replaced by a beginner at a lower rate. 
Personally, we would prefer to establish limit lines and use them 
directly, but where there is no merit rating system it is necessary to 
resist the pressure for increases and this method is effective. If merit 
rating is in operation the increases should be automatic until each 
individual reaches the top ingrade for his classification. In that 
case the correctness of classification is the thing to watch. 

Some Conclusions. We have not attempted to thresh out many 
of the moot questions in this field but we like the "recapitulation"' of 
one who has reported on some of these questions.-'^ 

1. Salary administration must have as its underlying motive a 
sincere desire to achieve equitable salary rates. Systematic methods 
cannot effectively be employed for purposes of payroll reduction. 

2. The "consent of the governed" is essential. It may be possible 
to impose evaluation plans upon unwilling employees, but the act 
of forcing precludes any possibility of genuine acceptance, without 
which real success is impossible. 

3. No single best system exists. The details, and indeed the broad 
general approach, are functions of the particular company. The best 
system for a given firm is the one which harmonizes best with the 
existing relationships. 

4. The system is at most an expression of broad general policy, 
subject to alterations as indicated by its actual administration. It 
must be flexible and adaptable to ever changing human situations. 

5. The system is not a substitute for sound judgment. It is value- 
less without intelligent interpretation and application. By itself, it 
solves no problems. Unintelligent administration may be a source 
of real grief. 

We would add that with job evaluation the supervisors can be 
allowed complete freedom within the structure to award or withhold 
salary increases, and thereby regain the authority and prestige which 
under some managements has been all but lost in recent times. 

^•■^ Frank H. Hall, Jr., Controversial Issues in Salary Determination. Report No. 
4, Sponsored Fellowship Investigations in Industry, Department of Business and 
Engineering Administration, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 



15 



APPLYING EVALUATION TO 

EXECUTIVE AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS 



The benefits to be derived from clear statements of supervisory 
responsibilities and limits of authority are genuine and are 
realized particularly in better results in selection, more effective 
training programs, more accurate and reliable merit ratings, and 
more realistic approach to the problem of salary administration. 

— W. W. Waite 

Jobs Difficult to Fill Need Evaluation. Evaluation plans for 
the jobs of supervisors and department heads sometimes include the 
job of works manager, but they usually exclude top executive and 
single-incumbent jobs such as those of controller, medical director, 
general sales manager and, except NEMA, the professional-tech- 
nical jobs in engineering, metallurgy, and chemistry. These fields 
are now the frontiers and little regarding them has as yet reached 
the printed stage. It is known, however, that applications of job 
evaluation to these hitherto exempt jobs are increasing. For in- 
stance, the NICE survey of 1946 indicated that one third of the 
companies had applied job evaluation to the managerial level. A 
1951 survey made by NICE reported that 123 companies or 55 per 
cent of the 244 firms covered had extended job evaluation to their 
managerial positions. Some of this advance in the use of job evalua- 
tion can be accounted for by the time element; companies which 
began to apply it to hourly jobs in the 1930's have long since com- 
pleted those first applications and have found that they are of value. 
With that in mind and with confidence gained from experience they 
naturally are going on to include all other jobs. There is, however, 
another cause for this last and most difficult extension. Govern- 
ment orders on the one hand and surtaxes on the other hand, plus 
ramifications, have made it more of a problem to secure and retain 
managers and professional technicians, the supply of which is by 
no means abundant. Out of this situation comes an almost new 
anxiety to plan ahead for replacements. One of the first corpora- 

421 



422 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

tions to undertake a formal plan for long-run promotion was the 
Standard Oil Company of California. It began in 1941 and took 
ten years to complete it, if this outstanding accomplishment can be 
called completion. Such a plan usually sets up five steps: 

1. Analyze all operating functions and responsibilities, align and 
chart as an integrated organization. 

2. Write descriptions and manpower specifications of all higher 
jobs, classify and harmonize with Step 1. 

3. Assess performances of present incumbents and appraise 
against the standards. 

4. Prepare a replacement schedule ^ theoretically in terms of 
men who have evinced promotability. 

5. Rotate and train those selected for promotion and if all this 
does not provide understudies for all jobs recruit new persons 
at a level below the jobs needing understudies. 

Notice that Step 2 is job evaluation, Step 3 is merit rating, and 
that the other steps hinge considerably on these two. 

Descriptions of Managerial Jobs. In an earlier chapter we have 
stressed the organizational nature of job descriptions. This becomes 
particularly apparent when we get to the top, or rather as we start 
from the top as General Electric Company has done. In fact we 
are so impressed with the G. E. concept - of job descriptions that 
we cannot resist quoting their "steps" verbatim as follows: 

First Step. The General Manager, working with his superior, and after 
general exploratory talks with all individuals reporting directly to him, pre- 
pares a draft of his position description and a preliminary functional organi- 
zation chart showing his position and the positions of all such individuals 
who will continue to report directly to him. 

If a new organization structure is being established, the General Manager 
will assign functions to positions in the way he believes will best permit him 
to accomplish his over-all management objectives, being sure that all needed 
work is covered, without gaps, overlaps, unnecessary jobs, or effort. If the 
organization structure is already in place, the General Manager will at this 
point further consider how he can eliminate either unnecessary levels or 
unduly short spans of control, and also how he can reassign functions or 
otherwise modify his organization pattern to provide an improved organiza- 
tion structure for the future. 

Second Step. After the General Manager and his superior are in essen- 
tial agreement with respect to organization structure and functions, he will 

^ See "Bring Up the Boss," Fortune, XLIII, No. 6, p. 120. 
^ H. F. Smiddy and B. A. Case, "Why Write a Description of Your Position?" 
G. E. Review, July, 1952. 



EXECUTIVE AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS 423 

call together the incumbents of the positions that are under his direct super- 
vision and discuss with them the draft of his position description and the pre- 
liminary functional organization chart. The important point here is that each 
shall understand clearly his own part of the job and also understand, 
accept, and respect the parts of all the others on the team. 

Third Step. Each incumbent who reports directly to the General Man- 
ager analyzes his own position and prepares lists of the "objectives to be 
accomplished" and the "work to be done." 

Fourth Step. The incumbents of this "team" will discuss their "lists" 
with each other and will endeavor to reach agreement as to how their posi- 
tions should mesh together without overlap or gaps. 

Fifth Step. Each subordinate meets with the General Manager, reviews 
his "hsts," the General Manager's position description, and the functional 
organization chart with him, and then prepares a draft of his position 
description. 

Sixth Step. The General Manager's subordinates hold a series of meet- 
ings, preferably with him present only when his specific counsel is essential, 
and they work together to the end that complete, mutual understanding and 
agreement are reached with respect to organization structure, functional 
organization chart, and all position descriptions. This provides an oppor- 
tunity for teamwork participation and for the consideration of alternative 
solutions before agreeing on which is best for the business and its future, 
with the General Manager still having final responsibility to make decisions 
among alternative solutions or where differences of viewpoint may exist. 

Seventh Step. Each of the individuals reporting directly to the General 
Manager then repeats this procedure with his subordinates, and so on, until 
all position descriptions have been prepared. In this respect, cross-checking 
between individuals in different functional sections and units, at each succeed- 
ing organizational level, needs to be worked out as carefully as between the 
members of the General Manager's staff in the first place. 

As for lower jobs, it is well to develop an orderly outline of mat- 
ters that should go into the job description and eventually standard- 
ize a form or questionnaire. This should, however, be according to 
company conditions, that is, tailor-fitted. For any who wish to see 
how another company has done this we can refer only to one form 
from industry that has so far been published.^ The United States 
Government does publish a "Guide for Writing Position Descrip- 
tions" (see Federal Personnel Manual). 

At the top are the necessary identifying data; then follow three 

to five line spaces for Objective, Scope, and Market (in case of a 

sales manager). Next is a IVi'' space for Volume with column 

headings, Type of Sales, Number of Accounts, and 195- Sales. 

Also in this space are described : Institutional Sales, Premium Sales, 

^ Edward N. Hay and Dale Purves, "The Analysis and Description of High- 
Level Jobs," Personnel, XXIX, No. 4. 



424 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Retail Sales, and Summary. Next is a line headed Budget 195-, 
showing total allotment. Next is a space headed Personnel which 
is subdivided and the number of direct subordinates recorded. 
Finally is space for Evaluation Data subdivided into Know-How, 
Mental Activity, and Accountability, each of which is evaluated in 
points and totaled. The reverse side is divided to describe Organ- 
ization, Policy Formation, Supervision, and Specialization, each of 
which is again subdivided to suit. 

The Basic Abilities Ranking Plan for High-Level Positions. 

Since 1948 the Allen-Bradley Company, of which Mr. R. W. Ells is 
Chief Economist, has been developing a concept of job rating that 
finds a common denominator in terms of abilities and knowledge 
that can dispense with characteristics having to do with performance 
and thereby get satisfactory results in much less time. Mr. Ells 
says: 

We now analyze, grade, and price jobs in five to ten minutes, where we 
formerly spent two to three hours. . . . the terms "abilities" and "'knowl- 
edges" are merely another way of expressing duties, responsibilities, and 
working conditions. And the reason why the use of such terms is advocated 
is their practicability.'^ 

The differences in ability requirements are considered constants 
while the differences in performance requirements are considered 
variables. As Mr. Ells sees it, if an employee has the necessary 
ability to do a job, it is immaterial to what extent that ability is due 
to his mental and physical traits, which he calls inherent, or to his 
education, skill, and experience which he has acquired. In short. 
Mr. Ells considers what is the net requirement regardless of what 
it is due to and would leave specific performance requirements for 
intragrade consideration which does not affect job grading and 
pricing. He claims that with this approach much confusion is obvi- 
ated, but when he says, "Under our former plan if the abilities 
possessed by an individual didn't match the abilities required of the 
job, we had to do a lot of juggling. Now, all we do is change the 
duties and responsibilities of the job to whatever degree is necessary 
to suit the ability requirements," he is of course remaking a job to 
fit the man. While we disavow such an approach for ordinary jobs, 
we see some merit in it for executive and professional positions. 
Mr. E. N. Hay goes so far as to say, "high-level jobs are people," 
or "the man makes the job." 

^R. W. Ells, "Simplified Job Evaluation," A.M. A. Personnel Series No. 140. 
and Wisconsin Commerce Report III, No. 2. 



EXECUTIVE AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS 425 

Partial List of Abilities and Knowledges Used in Vertical Grading 
OF a Salary Schedule 

A. SEMI SKILLS (or those which, if they can be acquired, take from 3 to 6 

months in the acquisition.) 

*L Knowledge of company and departmental procedures. 

=■'2. Ability to get along with people. 

=■=3. Ability to meet the public. 

*4. Ability to handle confidential information. 

"5. Ability to work under unpleasant conditions. 

6. Ability to type. 

7. Knowledge of bookkeeping. 

8. Ability to take dictation. 

9. Ability to transcribe dictation. 

10. Knowledge of mechanical drawing. 

IL Ability to trace. 

12. Ability to operate a bookkeeping machine. 

13. Ability to operate a calculating machine. 

14. Ability to operate address-o-graph equipment. 

15. Ability to operate a key -punch. 

16. Ability to operate a PBX switchboard. 

17. Ability to operate multigraph machines. 

18. Ability to operate tabulating equipment. 

19. Ability to operate a biUing machine. 

20. Etc. 

B. SKILLS (or those abilities which, if they can be acquired, take at least 

12 months or more in the acquisition.) 

tl. Knowledge of company products. 

t2. Ability to organize and direct the work of others. 

t3. Ability to plan the work of others. 

t4. Ability to exercise independent judgment. 

t5. Ability to work under hazardous conditions. 

■\6. Ability to create or design new products. 

t7. Ability to develop new procedures and methods. 

8. Knowledge of accounting. 

9. Knowledge of sales techniques. 

10. Knowledge of engineering. 

1 1 . Knowledge of library techniques. 

12. Knowledge of nursing. 

13. Knowledge of law. 

14. Knowledge of chemistry. 

15. Knowledge of buying techniques. 

16. Knowledge of employment techniques. 

17. Knowledge of traffic rates and tariffs. 

18. Ability to make designs or layouts. 

19. Ability to wire tabulating equipment. 

20. Etc. 

* Upgrading skills. 
t Basic skills. 

Figure 168. Ells's Substitute for Usual Characteristics. (Society for Ad- 
vancement of Management.) 



426 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Figure 168 illustrates Mr. Ells's concepts of abilities and knowl- 
edges which he calls vertical. Beyond the "upgrading skills" of A 
and the "basic skills" of B the items would vary for different divi- 
sions or professions. Perhaps the difficulty in using this plan is to 
identify these requirements as they are brought out in the job 
descriptions as duties, responsibilities, and the like, that is, when 
the duties, responsibilities, working conditions, and other items are 
determined, they must be analyzed to determine the abilities and 
knowledges required to carry out the job. The data are usually 
acquired by questionnaire and on-the-job inspection, but a super- 
visor or manager may fill out a preliminary form to set some of 
the requirements. These sheets are then sent to the job analyst, who 
determines the abilities and knowledges required for each job. This 
is probably the most important step in the entire process, since the 
abilities and knowledges determine the position of a job within the 
hierarchy. 

Next the jobs are sorted according to the abilities and knowledges 
specified. Job classification titles are assigned to jobs; all jobs with 
the same abilities and knowledges have the same classification title. 
This step is entirely separate from job grading. Whereas job titles 
help management set up lines of authority, job classification titles 
help them to arrange jobs with different duties and responsibilities, 
but requiring the same abilities and knowledges. A good example 
of this is the typist (Grade 3), Figure 169. Here the classification 
title is "typist," whereas the job titles are Copy, Record, and Billing 
typists, which constitute subgrades. Mr. Ells calls them horizontal. 
This classification permits job pricing by indirection and simplifies 
grading. Mr. Ells suggests that a permanent classification unit be 
set up since job contents are changing constantly. Therefore, classi- 
fication must be on a current basis. To avoid confusion he also 
suggests the following rules: 

1. If duties, responsibility, and working conditions are the same, 
then the basic abilities and knowledges must be the same. 

2. If the abilities and knowledges are the same, then the classifica- 
tion title must be the same, regardless of organizational classi- 
fication titles. 

3. A job classification title can be used for one set only of abilities. 

The committee should issue quarterly rank-order lists so super- 
visors and managers can review and list those classifications they 
disagree with. This prevents any job from being out of classification 
for more than a few weeks. This fist should be issued at a different 



EXECUTIVE AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS 427 

Level of Salary Typical Job 

Reponsibility Grade Classifications 

Unskilled 1 Messenger 

2 File Clerk 

Semiskilled 3 Typists 

4 Stenographers 

Skilled 5 Steno-Secretary 

6 Nurses 

Specialists 7 Student Engineers 

8 Cost Accountants 

Dept. Head 9 Dept. Manager 

10 Dept. Head 

Division Mgr. 11 Ass't. Div. Mgr. 

12 Division Mgr. 

Executive 13 Vice President 

14 President 

Figure 169. Example of Ells's Job Hierarchy, (Allen-Bradley Company.) 
Note: The number of grades recommended is from six to eight for companies 

with less than 200 employees and from ten to fourteen for companies that are 

larger. 

time from the salary or merit reviews. This keeps abilities and 
knowledge separate from performance in the supervisor's mind and 
helps insure consistency as to grade. 

The grading is done by a permanent managerial committee on a 
periodic basis. It is primarily a matter of judgment, and manage- 
ment must see that the committee is fair and impartial. The grading 
is merely the combined opinions of the committee, but the grading 
determines the position of the job within the hierarchy. For example 
of Job Analysis see Figure 170. 

The Profile Ranking Plan for High-Level Positions. This plan ^ 
switches directly from duties to functions in the original job descrip- 
tions. Only three characteristics are used: knowledge, mental ap- 
plication, and accountability. To aid in determining the relative 
importance of these characteristics as needed in each job, a "pro- 
file" or percentage breakdown for the characteristics is made for 
each job. Extreme precision for the percentage breakdown is not 
claimed but approximate proportions are judged by considering the 
functions. For instance, a typist's job is given the profile of 80 per 
cent K or knowledge, 9 per cent M or mental application, and 1 1 

^ E. N. Hay and Dale Purves, "The Profile Method of High-Level Job Evalua- 
tion," Personnel, XXVIII, No. 2. 



428 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



JOB AND PERSONNEL SPECIFICATION FORM 

Job Classification: Executive Secretary Salary Grade: 7_ 



SECTION A— JOB SPECIFICATION 



Duties, Responsibilities and 
Working Conditions 


Basic Ability and Knowledge 
Requirements 


1. 


Take and transcribe important and 
confidential dictation. 


1. 


Ability to take and transcribe 
dictation. 


2. 


Maintain records and personal files. 


2, 


Ability to type. 


3. 


Make appointments, handle tele- 
phone calls and routine mail. 


3. 


Knowledge of company and de- 
partmental procedures. 


4. 


Prepare and type special reports. 


4. 


Ability to exercise independent 
judgment. 


5. 


Take care of personal mail, records 
and reports. 





SECTION B— PERSONNEL SPECIFICATION 



Physical 
Requirements 


Skill 
Requirements 


Personality 
Requirements 


1. 


SEX Female 


1. 

2. 


typing 60 v^'ords a min. 


1. 

2_ 

3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 

9. 


EMOTIONAL 
STABILITY 

FINANCIAL 
STABILITY 

MATURITY 




2_ 


age 25-40 


stenographic 90 words a min. 


Above Averase 


3. 


HEALTH Average 


Average 




APPEARANCE Neat 


4. 


Average 








motivation 

drtve 






Mental 
Requirements 


Character 
Requirements 


Above Average 

Average 




PERSEVERANCE 

JOB INTEREST_ 

GET ALONG 
WITH OTHERS _ 

LEADERSHIP 


Average 


1. 


intelligence Above Average 


I. 

2. 
3. 


LOYALTY Above Average 


Above Average 


2. 


judgment Above Average 


self-reliance Above Average 


Average 






ETHICS Above Average 


Average 









OTHER DESIRABLE CHARACTERISTICS 



L EDUCATION: 
2. EXPERIENCE: 



College or its equivalent. 



Five years as a stenographer or secretary. 



Figure 170. Example of Ells's Job Analysis. (Society for Advancement of 

Management.) 



EXECUTIVE AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS 429 

per cent A or accountability. When such profiles have been tenta- 
tively determined separately, they are harmonized in relation to 
each other. This approach is supposed to obviate the alleged danger 
that predetermined scales may not be equally appropriate for dif- 
ferent kinds of jobs. It is assumed that all jobs of a given type 
should have profiles similar enough to prove their relationship. 
Thus the Office Supervisor type of job would have a characteristic 
profile of about 41 per cent K, 27 per cent M, and 32 per cent A, 
while an Operations Supervisor, Accounting job would be about 
40 per cent K, 26 per cent M, and 34 per cent A; the Head Statis- 
tical Analysis job about 38 per cent K, 29 per cent M, and 33 per 
cent A, and the Supervisor Field Auditing job about 40 per cent K, 
26 per cent M, and 34 per cent A. Out of these studies are evolved 
basic profiles for the various types of jobs. Individual job profiles 
are found to vary about 5 per cent either way from their bases. 
When all job profiles have been grouped and harmonized the jobs 
are ranked on the knowledge characteristic, that is, with respect to 
the requirements for knowledge (importance and extent). Next the 
analyst or committee must decide how many (if any) intervals or 
steps should be between the jobs. Mr. Hay uses 25 numerical steps 
15 per cent apart, that is, starting with 12 and ending with 200. 
Notice that the values double every five steps. 

The Hay procedure for stepping jobs is so unusual we do not 
trust ourselves to transmit it except in his own words. 

a) If you can see no difference in the knowledge requirements 
of two jobs, they are the same. 

b) If you think you see a difference after thorough study, the 
magnitude of the difference is probably one step (15 per cent) . 

c) If you are sure you see a difference after thorough study, the 
magnitude of the difference is probably two steps (33 per 
cent). 

d) If you see a difference clearly without having to study the jobs 
carefully, the magnitude of the difference is probably three 

steps (50 per cent), or more. Differences greater than three 
steps can best be determined by comparing a chain of jobs 
where the differences between any two jobs are not more than 
three steps. It is difficult to "sense" accurately differences over 
50 per cent. 

Now if a sales manager's job, 33 per cent K, 27 per cent M, and 
40 per cent A finds itself on step 175, and a sales specialist's job 
42 per cent K, 31 per cent M, and 27 per cent A finds itself on step 



430 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

57, the K percentages take the step values 175 and 57 respectively 
and the other percentages are prorated accordingly: 

27/33 X 175 = 143 31/42 X 51 - 43, etc. 

From which the metamorphosed profiles are 

175 iC + 143 M + 213 ^ 57 i^ + 42 M + 37 ^ 

Of these all but the first items are out of step so they are adjusted to: 

175 ii: + 150 M + 200 ^ 57 i^ + 43 M + 38 ^ 

To this point the jobs have been ranked only on their K's so now 
they get ranked on their M's and A's. From which new sums 
appear as follows: 

175 X + 133 M + 200 ^ = 508 57 i^ + 43 M + 43 ^ = 143 

These two totals, which must not be called points, are the job 
worths. 

Straight-Point Plan for Executives Only. S. C. Johnson and Son 
has distinct plans for the several kinds of occupations,'' one of which 
is exclusively for executive positions. It starts where the supervisory 
plan ends — with the jobs of department heads. Ten broad char- 
acteristics are used and for most of these the definitions are divided* 
into two aspects, such as degree and scope, difficulty and complex- 
ity, level and breadth, level and frequency. Thus the table of point 
values provides for combinations of these two aspects. This makes 
a large table but determinations are no more difficult than with a 
smaller number of degrees, perhaps less difficult. We omit this 
table. The maximum of point values is 30 for each of the char- 
acteristics. Within each are weighted values for the combinations, 
which begin with 1 or 2 and rise to 30 in from 4 to 65 choices. 
Some of these within a single scale give different combinations the 
same values. 



FACTOR DEFINITIONS 

I. Policy 

Appraise the position for its level of responsibility in the development, 
final determination, and interpretation of policies and for the importance of 
the policies as indicated by their breadth of application and effect on opera- 
tions and net profits. 

®H. S. Briggs, "Executive Position Evaluation — A Case Study," NICE Man- 
agement Record, XII, No. 7, 



EXECUTIVE AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS 431 

A. Degree 

1. Assist in formulation 

2. Formulation and primary recommendation 

3. Final recommendation 

4. Decision as part of a group 

5. Decision as an individual 

B. Scope {Policies defined in Policy Manual) 

1. Operating policies 

2. Company policies 

3. Corporate policies 

II. Planning 

Appraise the position for its level of responsibility in the original develop- 
ment, final determination, and interpretation of objectives and plans for the 
organization and conduct of the business, and the importance of the plans 
as indicated by the breadth of application and effect on operations and net 
profits. 

A. Scope of Application of Plans 

1. Section, area, or small staff unit 

2. District or group of sections 

3. Region 

4. Department or a portion of company-wide activity 

5. Division 

6. Company-wide 

B. Degree 

1. Assist in development 

2. Development and primary recommendation 

3. Final recommendation 

4. Decision as part of a group 

5. Decision as an individual 

III. Methods 

Appraise the position for its level of responsibility in the development, 
specification, and approval of methods, procedures, and physical facilities 
required for the performance and control of operations to accomplish the 
established objectives and for the complexity of the methods and the breadth 
of application. Consider only methods of doing, not methods of planning. 

A. Scope or Complexity {Difficulty of Development) 

1. Simple methods applying to operations under direct control 

2. Simple methods applying to operations beyond direct control 

3. Complex methods applying to operations under direct control 

4. Complex methods applying to operations beyond direct control 

5. Intricate methods applying to operations under direct control 

6. Intricate methods applying to operations beyond direct control 



432 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



B. Degree 

1. Assist in development or detailing specifications 

2. Development and primary recommendations 

3. Final recommendation or establishment 

4. Decision as an individual 

IV. Administration 

Appraise the position for the amount of management activity required 
in the coordination and direction of personnel, the use of equipment and the 
attainment of results, and for complexity of the operations administered. 

A. Difficulty of Direction and Control 

1. Direct supervision 

2. One level of subordinate supervision within the community 

3. One level of subordinate supervision beyond the community 

4. Two levels of subordinate supervision within the community 

5. Two levels of subordinate supervision beyond the community' 

6. Three levels of subordinate supervision within the community 

7. Three levels of subordinate supervision beyond the community 

8. Four levels of subordinate supervision within the community 

9. Four levels of subordinate supervision beyond the communit>' 

10. Five levels of subordinate supervision beyond the community 

11. Six levels of subordinate supervision beyond the community 

B. Complexity of Function To Be Administered 

1. Single function of a routine nature 

2. Diversified functions of routine nature or a single function involving 
routine but varied work 

3. Diversified functions, routine but varied work, or a single function 
involving nonroutine work 

4. Diversified functions involving nonroutine work 



V. Personnel Relations 

Appraise the position for the importance of handling and development of 
personnel as indicated by the number of personnel involved, the nature of 
their responsibility, and the scope of influence. 



A. Opportunity to Influence Employees 



Grade Frequent 

Collaboration 

1 Under 11 employees 

2 11-50 employees 

3 51-100 employees 

4 101-200 employees 

5 Over 200 employees 

not company-wide 

6 Company-wide 



Functional 
Responsibility 
Under 6 employees 
6-10 employees 
11-50 employees 
51-100 employees 
101-200 employees 

Over 200 employees 
not company-wide 
Company-wide 



Direct 

Responsibility 



Under 6 employees 
6-10 employees 
11-50 employees 
51-100 employees 

101-200 employees 

Over 200 employees 
not company-wide 



EXECUTIVE AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS 433 

B. Scope of Influence 

1. Employees directly supervised only 

2. Through one level of supervision 

3. Through two levels of supervision 

4. Through three levels of supervision or functional influence on a full 
department 

5. Division 

6. Company-wide 

VI. Executive Contacts 

Appraise the position for its importance in influencing and obtaining 
cooperative action of nonsubordinate executives as indicated by the number 
of divisional and nondivisional contacts, number of nondepartmental con- 
tacts, and the level of executives contacted. 

A. Level of Executives To Be Influenced 

1. To department manager level within own division — frequently 

2. To division vice-president level within own division — occasionally 

3. To division vice-president level within own division — frequently 

4. To department manager level outside own division — occasionally 

5. To department manager level outside own division — frequently 

6. To division vice-president level outside own division — occasionally 

7. To division vice-president level outside own division — frequently 

8. To executive vice-president level — occasionally 

9. To executive vice-president level — frequently 

10. To president — occasionally 

11. To president — frequently 

12. To board of directors — occasionally 

13. To board of directors — frequently 

B. Breadth of Contacts at Own Level or Company-wide 

1. Few executives — occasionally 

2. Few executives — frequently 

3. Many executives — occasionally 

4. Many executives — frequently 

5. Continuous company-wide staff contacts 

VII. Outside Contacts 

Appraise the importance of outside contacts as measured by the frequency 
of opportunity to build company prestige through personal relation with the 
public and by the level of individuals seen. 

A. Level 

1. Routine business contacts 

2. Important business contacts 

3. Nonoperating contacts with influential persons 



434 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

B. Frequency 

1 . Infrequent 

2. Frequent 

3. Daily 

VIII. Original Thinking 

Appraise the position for the importance of developing and applying of 
ideas for the improvement of the operations of the business and the degree 
of creativeness, originality, imagination, and ingenuity required. 

A. Degree 

1. Ingenuity in revision or application of methods 

2. Imagination and originality on assigned problems 

3. Creative thinking from established practice 

4. Original thinking 

IX. Analysis 

Appraise the position for the amount and complexity of analysis of factual 
information required for determination of courses of action or for control of 
operations. 

A. Degree 

1. Repetitive or simple analysis 

2. Diversified analysis or decision on repetitive analysis 

3. Decision on diversified analysis 

B. Scope 

1. Occasional 

2. Frequent 

3. Principal effort 



A Weighted-in-Money Plan Applied to Top Management. In 

1946 General Foods developed a simple plan for top management, 
that is, for positions paid $6000 or more per year." This simplified 
plan replaced a straight point plan which gave skill 40 per cent of 
the worth (4 minor characteristics at 10 points each) and respon- 
sibility 60 per cent (6 minor characteristics at 10 points each). 
The plan is indeed simple. Three major characteristics are used. 
They are rated by the characteristic comparison technique and thir- 
teen steps are used rather than the usual grade boxes. 

In starting this plan the Evaluation Board selected bench mark 
jobs, which happened to be 13 in number, ranked them eventually 

"^ B. B. Warren, "Evaluation of Managerial Positions," Personnel Series No. 107. 
Also E. F. Gill, "Management Positions Can Be Evaluated Successfully," Per- 
sonnelJournal, XXVII, No. 11. 



EXECUTIVE AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS 435 

on total worths, and placed them in geometric progression, each 
step 1 5 per cent above the preceding one. The board then evaluated 
100 positions and grouped them according to the six divisions in 
the whole company. This established the framework. 

Each of the remaining positions (500) was described on an eight- 
page set of forms. It was done primarily by the incumbents but 
when desired the assistance of a staff man was available. It is re- 
ported that it took 10 to 12 hours to complete each description. 
Each description is then read and eventually approved by superiors 
on two levels, after which it goes to the "Area Board." There was 
excellent agreement in rating knowledge and there was fair agree- 
ment in rating decisions but they had considerable difficulty in 
agreeing on responsibility. Nevertheless, it was found that the 
executive positions were easier to rate than the staff and service posi- 
tions and the scientific-professional positions were hardest to rate. 

The three characteristics used in this new plan are: 

I. Knowledge — what does the incumbent have to know in general, 
technical, and specialized fields or "areas." 

a) formal training 

b) specific job knowledge — including how to direct people 
skillfully 

c) special knowledge — of the particular company 

Consider in judging this characteristic: 

1. number of different fields of knowledge required 

2. extent of details of each field required, i.e., thorough, working, 
or general acquaintance. 

3. complexity of each field 

The knowledge characteristic was highest for staff and scientific 
personnel. 

II. Decisions — how new and complicated and how difficult are 
the situations to which the incumbent must apply his knowl- 
edge and on which he must form correct decisions and judg- 
ments. 

Consider in judging this characteristic: 

1 . difficulty 

2. complexity 

3 . novelty 

4. limits imposed by higher supervision 

5. extent to which decisions are controlled by precedent, etc. 



436 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Case No- 



MILWAUKEE PLAN JOB SPECIFICATION FORM 

This is an outline of technical job requirements for a particular 
job and title. Indicate below the minimum requirements and 
supplement where and if necessary. 

1. Job Title . 3. Department 



2. Company 4. No. Employees 

5. General description of duties and products dealt with 



6. General fields of activity (indicate approximate time distribution by 9c ) 

a. Research e. Service 

b. Product development f. Install 

c. Industrial engineering g. Sales 

d. Production h. Design 

Others 



7. General nature of work done (indicate approximate time distribution 
by %) 

a. Administration e. Clerical 



b. Negotiation f. Mathematical 

c. Experimenting g. Manual 

d. Testing Others 



8. Indicate minimum educational requirements or their equivalent: 
a. High school graduate 



b. Special vocational training Type and length- 

c. Apprenticeship Type and length. 

d. Technical Institute graduate Type and length- 

e. College graduate — degree and field 



Figure 171. Form for Gathering Job Data. (Engineers' Society of Milwaukee.) 



EXECUTIVE AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS 437 

Case No 



9. Practical experience required in this or related fields ^years- 
Describe — 



10. To what degree is this position supervised: (indicate) 
a. Closely 



b. Generally 

c. Minimum direction 



11. Does position entail supervision of others- 
If so, how many 



12. Nature of work done by people supervised: 
a. Routine 



b. Diversified 

c. Highly complex 



13. Diversity and judgment required: 

a. Diverse and complex work requiring mature and highly 

technical judgment based on much experience 

b. Complex problems requiring independent judgment and co- 
ordination of varied elements 



c. Unusual problems requiring independent judgment- 

d. Some routine, requiring some judgment 



e. Routine or semi-routine, minor decisions only. 



14. Responsibility: 

a. For major expenditures, or major policy decisions and 



action 



b. Involves recommending important expenditures or policy 
actions 

c. Seldom extend beyond department limits 



d. Involves little beyond own personal work 

15. Contacts: 

a. Frequent with customers, government agencies or organiza- 
tions (including labor) with responsibility for conducting 
negotiations 

b. Regular or frequent with others in equal or higher positions, 

or as a representative of management, or with outsiders on 
special assignments 

c. Interdepartmental or routine outside contacts 

d. Casual — within own department 



Figure 171. (Continued.) 



438 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

Case No. 



SUMMARY OF CHARACTERISTIC MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS 

Indicate the amount (by A,B,C,D, or E) required of the characteristic shown 
below for this particular job. The Milwaukee Plan characteristics are listed 
on the attached sheets. Special notes can also be made below. If desirable, 
supplement the characteristic description on the back of this sheet and 
check here . 

PREPONDERANTLY TECHNICAL 

T — 1. Scientific and engineering knowledge 

T — 2. Mathematics 

T — 3. Plans, drawings, diagrams, and codes 

T — 4. Research 

T — 5. Organization of technical work 

T — 6. Clarity of expression in speech 

T — 7. Clarity of expression in writing 



PREPONDERANTLY PSYCHOLOGICAL 

S — 8. Self-reliance and drive 

S — 9. Social intelligence and tact 

S — 10. Emotional stability 

S — 11. Dependability in scientific and engmeering work 

S — 12. Leadership in work direction 



-S — 13. Sales ability and interest 

-S — 14. Professional aims and development 



PHYSICAL AND MANUAL 



-M — 15. Appearance and bearing 
-M — 16. Manual abilities and skills 



Describer of Job — ^Date- 



FiGURE 171. {Concluded.) 



EXECUTIVE AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS 439 

This characteristic includes all duties and functions of a position, 
including those delegated to others. It is high for positions where 
information is complete or involves humans. 

III. Responsibility — what is entrusted to the incumbent that is 
valuable to the company and that may be affected by his 
decisions and judgments. 

a) men 

b) markets and products 

c) assets — money, materials, and equipment (including de- 
sign) 

d) records 

e) methods 

/) outside contacts 

Consider in judging this characteristic: 

1. frequency of exposure to loss 

2. probability of loss 

3. seriousness of loss 

Weighted-in-Points Plan for Technical Positions. This plan, 
developed by the Engineers' Society of Milwaukee, is thorough in 
concept and should give excellent results. Nevertheless sixteen 
characteristics (see Summary at end of Figure 171), five degrees 
each, make it an expensive plan to install and operate. We think it 
is best suited to small professional groups. The degrees A to E, 
defined in one to two lines each, are omitted here, but we have seen 
few sets of definitions that are so brief and at the same time so 
truly definitive. 

Weighted-in-Points Plan for Middle and Top Management Posi- 
tions. Thanks to the liberality of W. J. Pedicord, Administrator 
— Salary and Wages, and that of his company. General Aniline and 
Film Corporation, we are able to describe completely a plan for all 
executive jobs above Assistant Foreman, that is, for middle and 
top management jobs including the president's job. Evaluation of 
these positions is called the "Exempt Salary Administration" be- 
cause these positions do not come under the jurisdiction of the Fair 
Labor Standards Act. This company has three divisions and many 
professional-technical jobs so that this plan has been applied to all 
kinds of situations. Twenty-three grades are used. The descrip- 
tions-specifications are worked out jointly and tentatively evaluated 



440 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

by the Wage and Salary Administrator and the various department 
heads. These tentative evaluations are reviewed by the Division 
Salary Committees (one for each division), consisting of top man- 
agement personnel who report direct to the Vice-president of Oper- 
ations. 

The Division committee submits a final evaluation to that 
Vice-president recommending approval. If he approves, or rather 
when the descriptions and evaluations are such that he can approve 
them, he in turn submits them to the Corporation Wage and Salary 
Administrator, who gives final approval for all evaluations through 
Grade No. 7. For Grade No. 8 and higher the descriptions and 
evaluations must be reviewed by the Corporation Salary Committee, 
consisting of the Vice-president and Controller, the Director of 
Administration, and the Director of Personnel Relations, who serves 
as Chairman of the committee. 

Originally there were 17 characteristics but Accuracy (No. 4), 
which was assigned only 30 points, was later dropped out because 
in the case of high level line positions the details that involve accur- 
acy are mostly delegated to assistants. What remains on the higher 
levels "will receive consideration under Judgment and Policy Inter- 
pretation factors." Hence the number of characteristics was reduced 
to 16 and we have closed up the numbers. 

Policies are summarized as follows: 

1. All position grades have salary ranges with spreads varying 
from 30 per cent in Grade 1 to about 50 per cent in Grade 23. 
These salary ranges are determined by analysis of comparative 
industry, area, and national salary data and, in the lower grades, 
are determined somewhat by the necessity for adequate differ- 
entials between supervisory employees and those supervised. 

2. Employees are generally hired at the minimum of these ranges 
and progress through the range is based upon performance 
evaluation. Our average salary within range is at or about the 
mid-point and only employees exhibiting exceptional or out- 
standing performance may progress to the upper limits of the 
ranges. 

3. Employees are generally performance rated annually on their 
anniversary dates, but performance ratings may be made more 
often if it is felt that unusual performance or progress has been 
demonstrated. 



EXECUTIVE AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS 441 

4. Merit increases are generally limited to 10 per cent of base 
salary but exception can be made with the approval of the 
President. 

Details of the plan are as follows: Figure 172 shows the layout 
of 16 characteristics together with their maximum points, which 
total 1,970 (originally 2,000). Figure 173 shows definitions of 16 
characteristics, degrees, and allotted weights. 



POSITION MEASUREMENT 

Maximum Points 

1 . Knowledge 240 

2. Judgment 240 

3. Planning 60 

4. Creative Work 150 

5. Relationships Inside the Corporation 100 

6. Relationships Outside the Corporation .... 120 

7. Line Control 220 

8. Functional Control 120 

9. Policy Formulation 200 

10. Policy Interpretation 100 

11. Investment of Capital in Fixed Assets 160 

12. Care of Corporation Assets 120 

13. Confidential Information 70 

14. Physical Demand 20 

15. Personal Hazards 30 

16. Surroundings 20 

Total 1970 



Figure 172. Layout of Sixteen Characteristics and Points for the GAF 
"Exempt Salary Positions." (General Aniline and Film Corporation.) 



442 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



FACTOR 1— KNOWLEDGE 

This factor measures the amount of knowledge required by the position holder 
to understand and solve the problems that arise in the discharge of the assigned 
duties and responsibilities. This knowledge represents accumulated mental devel- 
opment acquired both through academic means (basic education) and practical 
experience. In, applying this factor, care must be taken to measure the actual 
knowledge required and not the knowledge held by persons now holding the 
position. 

Consider first the education required and second the experience. 



Education 



Experience (the horizontal dimension) 



Degree ^ 



Requires knowledge and ability to 
use ordinary business mathemat- 
ics; understand and issue verbal 
or written instructions; understand 
blueprints, systems, methods or 
paper work procedures, or a me- 
chanical trade; write or dictate 
ordinary correspondence. Perform 
or supervise activities within a 
section or part of a departmental 
function, for example, shipping, 
inspection, testing, construction 
and repairs, production, clerical 
and/or accounting. 
Requires additional training on- 
the-job, or outside, in technical 
phases of work to qualify for per- 
formance or supervision of some- 
what complex activities of a sec- 
tion or part of a departmental 
function. For example, drafting, 
accounting, laboratory work, pro- 
duction, inspection, testing, etc. 
Requires general academic train- 
ing equivalent to a B.S. or knowl- 
edge of basic principles in a 
particular field to perform or su- 
pervise activities of importance. 
For example, accounting, engine- 
ering, chemistry, production, sales, 
industrial relations, etc. 
Requires additional academic or 
on-the-job training in basic prin- 
ciples in a technical field to per- 
form or supervise activities of con- 
siderable importance. For exam- 
ple, accounting, finance, engineer- 
ing, chemistry, physics, marketing, 
manufacturing, industrial rela- 
tions, budgetary techniques, etc. 



21 



35 



48 



B 



26 



34 



43 



57 



32 



41 



53 



69 



39 



50 



65 



84 



F G 



H 



48 



61 



79 



102 



59 



76 



98 



125 



72 



113 



119 145 



15: 



187 



Figure 173, Definitions of Characteristics, Degrees, and Weights. (General 
Aniline & Film Corporation.) 



EXECUTIVE AND !PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS 



443 



Education 



Experience (the horizontal dimension) 



Degree a 



Requires highly specialized knowl- 
edge of basic principles and fun- 
damental concepts in a science or 
profession and experience in the 
application of this knowledge in 
solving new or highly complex 
problems in such fields as research 
and development, corporate law, 
etc.; or advanced knowledge in 
more than one specialized field, 
and a good working knowledge of 
most major business functions as 
usually required successfully to 
discharge general management re- 
sponsibilities. 



60 



B 



73 



89 



108 



132 



161 



197 



H 



240 



Figure 173. (Continued.) 



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Figure 173. (Continued.) 



444 



EXECUTIVE AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS 



445 



FACTOR 3— PLANNING 

This factor measures the position requirement for developing plans within the 
framework of approved policies for present and future operations; for example, 
scheduling production to satisfy market requirements; planning organization 
changes to meet changing conditions, coordination of different lines of endeavor, 
etc. . . . 

Consider first the scope of application and second the conditions under which 
planning must be done. 

Relative Complexity and Frequency of 
Situations Requiring Planning 



Scope of Application 



Degree 



Only 
occasional 
changes in 
systems, 
volume of 
work, and 
conditions 



Most situa- 
tions routine 



Frequent changes 

in systems, volume 

of work, and 

conditions 



Many situations 
complex 



Sudden 
or continuous 
changes requiring 
continuous 
follow-up in 
systems, work 
volume, programs, 
objectives, opera- 
tions, etc. 

Many situations 
highly complex 



Some planning of a few activities 
and procedures for a section of a 
department. Basic activities and 
objectives usually governed by 
established departmental systems, 
methods and procedures. 

Planning of activities for a de- 
partment of a division. 

Planning activities for a large de- 
partment of a division. 

Planning activities for a whole 
operating division or department 
of a corporate-wide staff. 

Planning total corporate activities. 



13 

17 

22 

28 
36 



17 

22 



36 

47 



22 
28 
36 

47 
60 



Figure 173. {Continued.) 



446 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

FACTOR 3— PLANNING 

Interpretive Bulletin 

There are four conditions under which credit may be given in the Planning 
Factor: 

1. Planning of the activities of others as involved in all line supervisory positions. 

2. Planning of the activities of a single position by its incumbent if the variety 
and complexity are such that prescheduling is impossible. The following two 
examples may help to clarify this interpretation: 

a) in the position of Sales Engineer or Sales Representative, considerable plan- 
ning is involved in order for the sales program to be carried out successfully 
since a variety of problems involving technical service, ordering samples, a 
definite program of call-backs, and a definite plan of any account contacts 
is involved. 

b) in the position of Engineering Equipment Inspector, considerable planning 
must be done in order to coordinate the inspection program with produc- 
tion and production control functions. For example, if a certain type of 
equipment requires inspection twice a month and cannot be inspected un- 
less shut down, the inspection program must be planned to allow for the 
continuance of the production program. 

3. Planning in a service function to relieve line supervisors of certain planning 
responsibilities. Examples of this type of planning are found in Production Con- 
trol, Industrial Engineering. 

4. Planning as required: 

a) in a staff position in situations wherein a major executive has delegated a 
part of his planning responsibility to a Staff Assistant, or 

b) in SL functional position that is required to provide a portion of the plan- 
ning for those operating departments over which the functional control is 
exercised. 

No credit for planning should be given in the following instances : 

1 . To laboratory chemists who are working alone on experiments or projects with- 
out responsibility for supervising other chemists or supervising a project in 
which others may participate. 

2. To salesmen whose itinerary is clearly defined and whose responsibilities such 
as initial contacts, call-backs, issuance of samples, etc., are established by pro- 
cedure or policy. 

3. Cashier, Editor, Draftsman, Junior Engineer, Chemist II — PD. 



Figure 173. (Continued.) 



EXECUTIVE AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS 



447 



FACTOR 4— CREATIVE WORK 

This factor measures the position responsibihty for performing creative work, 
i.e., conceiving, developing, and perfecting products, processes, design, equipment, 
methods, programs, etc. 

Consider first the type of creative work and second the complexity and variety 
of the work. 

Type of Creative Work 







Required to 


Required to 


Required to 


Required to 


Regular per- 




devise im- 


visualize the 


apply imag- 


organize and 


formance of 




provements 


need for, 


inative and 


direct creative 


important 




or shortcuts 


devise, and 


creative effort 


effort. 


creative work 




within 


install new 


to major prob- 




is the prin- 




established 


systems, meth- 


lems in sales, 




cipal position 


Complexity and 


systems. 


ods, and 


marketing, 




requirement. 


Variety of 




procedures. 


engineering, 
human rela- 






Creative Work 






tions, etc. . . . 






Degree 


A 


B 


c 


D 


E 


Somewhat 


1 


7 


10 


15 


22 


32 


complex 














Complex 


2 


10 


15 


22 


32 


47 


Complex and 














somewhat 


3 


15 


22 


32 


47 


69 


varied 














Considerably 














complex and 


4 


22 


32 


47 


69 


102 


varied 














Highly complex 
and varied 


5 


32 


47 


69 


102 


150 



Figure 173. (Continued.) 







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EXECUTIVE AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS 



449 



FACTOR 6— RELATIONSHIPS OUTSIDE THE CORPORATION 

This factor measures the ability required by the position holder to make favor- 
able impressions; to use tact and diplomacy in sales, public relations, 
etc. . . . ; to exchange ideas and discuss problems objectively; to secure from 
others (customers, contractors, etc. . . .) outside the Corporation the proper 
degree of respect, attention, cooperation, and concurrence which will promote the 
interests of the Corporation. 

Consider ifirst the benefit to the Corporation, second the frequency and difficulty 
of contacts, and third the number of persons contacted. 







Frequency and Difficulty of Contacts 






Contacts 
on routine 

trade or 

professional 

matters 


Difficult 
contacts an 
occasional 
requirement 


Difficult 

contacts a 

frequent 

requirement 


Difficult 
contacts a 
constant 
business 
requirement 


Contacts 
on levels 

above 
ordinary 

trade 
channels 


Benefit to the 






Complex 


Varied 

& 

Complex 


Complex 


Varied 

& 
Complex 




Corporation 


A 


B 


c 


D 


E 


F 


G 


Degree 
















Has a minor 


















effect on Cor- 


1 


10 


13 


17 


22 


29 


39 


52 


poration profit. 


















Has a moderate 


















effect on Cor- 


2 


13 


17 


22 


29 


39 


52 


69 


poration profit. 


















Has a substan- 


















tial effect on 
Corporation 
profit. 


3 


17 


22 


29 


39 


52 


69 


91 


Has a major 
effect on Cor- 


4 


22 


29 


39 


52 


69 


91 


120 


poration profit. 



















Interpretive Bulletin 

This factor measures the responsibility required by the position holder frequently 
or regularly to persuade or influence others outside the corporation to undertake a 
a course of action which furthers the corporation's interests and thereby either 
directly or indirectly affects corporation profits. 

Credit should be given positions held by technical consultants and staff specialists 
whose outside contacts are regular, expected, and necessary to the continuing 
favorable operation of the corporation. Such assignments, inherent in the job, 
must obviously appear in the position's job description and must, therefore, be 
recognized as an important element in assessing the position holder's performance. 

In assigning points on the difficulty of contacts, high credit should be given 
where a high order of persuasive powers, ingenuity, tact, and follow-up are neces- 
sary. Routine dealings with vendors of material or equipment or dealings on non- 
controversial matters are not of this order. 



Figure 173. {Continued.) 



450 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



FACTOR 7— LINE CONTROL 

This factor measures the responsibility for the selection and training of per- 
sonnel properly to understand and perform their work; the assignment of the work 
load and the maintenance of follow-up to assure adequate performance. 

Consider only the number of persons supervised. 



Degree 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 



NUMBER OF PERSONS 
SUPERVISED 



From 



16 

31 

65 

126 

217 
344 
513 
729 
1001 
1332 
1729 
2198 
2745 
3376 
4097 
4914 
5833 
6871 
8001 
9261 



To 



Points 



7 


10 


15 


15 


30 


25 


64 


35 


125 


45 


216 


55 


343 


65 


512 


75 


728 


85 


1000 


95 


1331 


105 


1728 


115 


2197 


125 


2744 


135 


3375 


145 


4096 


155 


4913 


165 


5832 


175 


6870 


185 


8000 


195 


9260 


205 


up 


220 



Note: Where line control is shared (as in the case of some assistant department 
heads or revolving assignment of work forces) examine actual delegation of au- 
thority and modify credit on Factor 7 to reflect said delegation. 

Figure 173. {Continued.) 



I 



EXECUTIVE AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS 



451 



FACTOR 8— FUNCTIONAL CONTROL 

This factor measures the position responsibility for exercising "Functional Con- 
trol." This may be defined as the responsibility for determining the adequacy of 
approved policy, method, procedure, or program for either present or future use 
and/or appraising the effectiveness of performance in areas not under the line 
control of the position holder. 

Consider first importance of responsibility and second the nature of follow-up 
required. 

Nature of Follow Up Required 



Importance of Responsibility 



Degree 



Simple to 
follow up, or 
responsibility 
can be dis- 
charged 
through 
infrequent 
checks. 



Difficult to 

follow up, or 

discharge of 

responsibility 

requires 

frequent 

checks. 



Difficult to 
follow up and 
necessary to 
give function 
almost con- 
stant attention 
in discharge 
of the posi- 
tion respon- 
sibility. 



Some Responsibility 
Check performance, methods, and sys- 
tems of some significance to departments 
within a division. 

Moderate Responsibility 
Check application of policy and per- 
formance pertaining to portions of divi- 
sional programs. 

Important Responsibility 
Check application of policy and per- 
formance pertaining to important divi- 
sional or parts of corporate programs. 

Responsibility of Considerable 
Importance 

Check application of policy and per- 
formance pertaining to major divisional 
programs or major parts of major cor- 
porate programs. 

Major Responsibility 
Final recommendations concerning cor- 
poration-wide programs, policies, and 
systems of major importance, with full 
responsibility for execution through 
executives in positions of line authority. 



12 



19 



30 



47 



12 



19 



30 



47 



75 



19 



30 



47 



75 



120 



Figure 173. {Continued.) 



452 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



FACTOR 8— FUNCTIONAL CONTROL 



Interpretive Bulletin 

Functional responsibility is a staff function and can be defined as the respon- 
sibility for determining the adequacy of approved policy, method, procedure, or 
program for either present or future use; or for appraising the effectiveness of per- 
formance in areas not under the line control of the position holder. 

To receive credit on this factor, the functional responsibility: 

a) must be a continuing responsibility for formulating policy, method, pro- 
cedure, or program at its inception or at least having played an important 
part in its formulation. 

b) must be active. It is not enough that an employee observe that a procedure 
is inadequate or substandard. He must also have the responsibility for 
remedying such a condition. This may be done either by recommending 
action to a higher functional position or by making contact with the proper 
level of line authority. 

This functional responsibility is inherent in staff positions set up to guide and 
implement line operations by furnishing technical advice and guidance. 



Figure 173. {Continued.) 



EXECUTIVE AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS 



453 



FACTOR 9— POLICY FORMULATION 

This factor measures the responsibiUty for formulation of policies. These may 
be defined as "Plans of Action" or "Rules" formulated for the purpose of obtain- 
ing consistency in thinking, planning, and execution by personnel throughout the 
Corporation in their attainment of desired objectives. 

Consider first the importance of policies and second the area of application. 

Importance of Policies 





Of minor 
importance 


Of some 
significance 


Of 
importance 


Of con- 
siderable 
importance 


Of major 
importance 


Total 

corporation 

activities 


Area of Application 

Degree 


A 


B 


c 


D 


E 


F 


Policy formulation 
for small parts of a 
function. 


1 


7 


10 


14 


20 


27 




Policy formulation 
for parts of impor- 
tant functions. 


2 


10 


14 


20 


27 


38 




Policy formulation 
for parts of major 
functions or one 
important function. 


3 


14 


20 


27 


38 


53 




Policy formulation 
for one major func- 
tion or several im- 
portant functions. 


4 


20 


27 


38 


53 


73 




Policy formulation 
for several major 
functions. 


5 


27 


38 


53 


73 


101 




Final policy deci- 
sions for all major 
functions. 


6 












200 



Interpretive Bulletins 

This factor measures the administrative or organizational responsibility for the 
development (or contributing to the development) of policies for the administra- 
tion of a given Division, Plant, or function. No credit is given here for the prepara- 
tion of job instructions, procedures, or chemical processes. 

Only those position holders v^hose jobs require that they have sufficient back- 
ground or administrative experience or knowledge of operations are considered 
eligible to make a contribution to the establishment or revision of policies. 



Figure 173. {Continued.) 



454 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 
FACTOR 10— POLICY INTERPRETATION 



This factor measures the responsibility for understanding Corporation policies 
and for correct interpretation of them to associates and subordinates inside the 
Corporation and to suppliers, customers, agencies, and others outside the Corpora- 
tion. Laws, acts, or directives issued by governmental agencies having jurisdiction 
become, perforce. Corporation policy. 

Consider first the importance of policies and second the area of application. 



Area of Application 



Importance of 
Policies 

De 




A small 
group or 
section 


A 

department 
or a small 
section of 
the public 


Several de- 
partments; 
large sec- 
tion of the 
public 


Many de- 
partments or 
wide area 
of public 
interest 


Total Cor- 
poration or 
diverse pub- 
lic bodies 


gree 


A 


B 


c 


D 


E 


Policies of minor impor- 
tance or of little complexity 


1 


7 


10 


14 


19 


26 


or variety. 














Policies of some importance 
and some complexity but 
generally vi'ithin a function. 


2 


10 


14 


19 


26 


37 


One important policy; or a 
variety of policies of some 
importance; or a major 
policy with little variety. 


3 


14 


19 


26 


37 


51 


One major policy or several 
important, diverse policies. 


4 


19 


26 


37 


51 


72 


Many policies of major 
importance. 


5 


26 


37 


51 


72 


100 



Interpretive Bulletin 

Measures the responsibility for understanding broad policies and for the use of 
judgment and decision in the application of such general policies to specific day- 
to-day problems encountered by associates and subordinates inside the corporation 
and to suppliers, customers, agencies, and others outside the corporation. Laws, 
acts, or directives issued by governmental agencies having jurisdiction become per- 
force corporation policy. 

Staff or training positions having only the responsibility for disseminating inter- 
pretations of policies for others will not receive credit on this factor. 



Figure 173. (Continued.) 



EXECUTIVE AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS 



455 



FACTOR 11— INVESTMENT OF CAPITAL IN FIXED ASSETS 

This factor measures the responsibility for the effective use of the Corporation's 
money to invest in buildings, machinery, equipment, furniture, etc. . . . Credit 
is given only to those positions charged with the responsibility for determining 
requirements and approving, or recommending to the appropriate executive for 
approval, the investment of capital in fixed assets. The major responsibility for use 
of capital is found in top-executive positions because normally such positions are 
held responsible for investments affecting quantity, quality, standards, and unit cost 
of production or performance. The top-executive position customarily delegates 
to the supervisors of important areas the responsibility to determine and recom- 
mend for approval necessary investments in fixed assets for expansion, moderniza- 
tion or replacement of buildings, facilities, etc. . . . 

Consider only the scope of application. 



Scope of Application 



Degree 



Points 



Required to make recommendations for substantial re- 
placement or additions to facilities in a section of a 
divisional function, e.g., a laboratory, production center, 
accounting, etc. 

Required to make recommendations for replacement and/ 
or modernization of facilities for an important operating 
function; or an important section of a major divisional 
operation. 

Required to make recommendations for expansion, re- 
placement, or modernization programs for a substantial 
portion of a major divisional operation. 

Required to make recommendations for expansion, re- 
placement, or modernization programs for an important 
divisional operation; or a relatively large divisional plant 
operation. 

Required to make recommendations for expansion, re- 
placement, or modernization programs for a large divi- 
sional plant operation. 

Required to recommend expansion, replacement, or 
modernization programs for a large division; or approval 
from the standpoint of corporation-wide financial and 
operating control of major corporation-wide expansion or 
modernization programs. 

Final approval of recommendations to Board of Directors 
for action on major investments in fixed assets. 



10 



22 



33 



49 



73 



108 



160 



With few exceptions, positions lower than those "line" positions that report 
directly to a Division or a Works Manager will receive no credit on this factor. 



Figure 173. (Continued.) 



456 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 
FACTOR 12— CARE OF CORPORATION ASSETS 



This factor measures the position of responsibility for protecting the Corpora- 
tion's assets. For instance, safe storage of finished products, raw materials, and 
supplies; maintenance of buildings, machinery, and equipment to prevent loss or 
damage beyond normal wear or obsolescence; safekeeping of funds, negotiable 
documents and papers, etc. . . . 

Consider first the importance of assets and second difficulty of protecting assets. 

Difficulty of Protecting Assets 



Importance 
of Assets 

Degree 


Operations 

where assets 

are easy to 

protect 


Operations 
where normal 
safety meas- 
ures, care, 
and main- 
tenance resuh 
in adequate 
protection to 
assets 


Operations 

where fire, 

explosion, 

corrosion, etc., 

hazards re- 
quire extraor- 
dinary care 
to protect 
assets 


Operation 

including 

conditions in 

A, B, and C, 

where assets 

are dispersed 

geographically 

or not a tight 

unit 


A 


B 


C 


D 


Little or no responsibility 
for care of corporation as- 
sets — or assets of very small 
value. 


1 


5 


7 


10 


15 


Responsibility for care of 
corporation assets of minor 
value. 


2 


7 


10 


15 


23 


Responsibility for care of 
corporation assets of sig- 
nificant value. 


3 


10 


15 


23 


35 


Responsibility for care of 
corporation assets of con- 
siderable value. 


4 


15 


23 


35 


53 


Responsibility for care of 
corporation assets of major 
value. 


5 


23 


35 


53 


80 


Responsibility for care of 
all corporate assets. 


6 


35 


53 


80 


120 



Interpretive Bulletin 

Measures the direct and immediate responsibility usually vested in a line super- 
vision for the protection, proper utilization, and maintenance of existing physical 
assets of the corporation, i.e., the safe storage of finished products, the handling of 
raw materials, the maintenance of building, machinery, and equipment to prevent 
loss or damage, the safekeeping of funds, negotiable documents, and papers. 

Staff positions having a functional and, therefore, indirect responsibility for the 
utilization of materials and equipment do not receive credit here. 

Process Development Chemists and Field Engineers receive credit on this factor 
for a limited responsibility for "care of assets." 



Figure 173. (Continued.) 



EXECUTIVE AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS 



457 



FACTOR 13— CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION 

This factor measures the position responsibility for guarding against the dis- 
closure of confidential information to others. "Confidential information" as used 
here means the knowledge of or authorized access to the knowledge of processes, 
formulas, products, and technical plans, the disclosure of which could result in 
financial loss to the Corporation. 

Consider first the importance of confidential information held and second the 
possible damage due to disclosure. 

Possible Damage Due to Disclosure 



Importance of Confidential 
Information Held 



Degree 



Technical knowledge of 
small phases of research 
and/or development proj- 
ects; or administrative per- 
formance of membership 
duties on research com- 
mittees. 

Technical knowledge of an 
entire but restricted re- 
search or process develop- 
ment project, or several 
phases of a large project; or 
knowledge of production 
processes in a section of a 
manufacturing department. 

Technical knowledge gained 
by supervising one or more 
sections of technical per- 
sonnel associated with a 
wide range of research and/ 
or process development 
projects in a related field; 
or knowledge of produc- 
tion processes in one or 
more integrated production 
departments. 

Technical knowledge of 
processes in a large pro- 
duction and/or process de- 
velopment area; or intimate 
knowledge of corporation- 
wide research projects. 



Of 

ignificance 



13 



18 



25 



Of 

importance 



13 



18 



25 



35 



Of 

considerable 
importance 



18 



25 



35 



50 



Of 

major 

importance 



25 



35 



50 



70 



Figure 173. {Continued.) 



458 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 
FACTOR 14— PHYSICAL DEMAND 



This factor measures physical effort required in performing the assigned work 
such as cHmbing stairs, standing for long periods, frequent traveling, etc. . . . 

Consider only the nature of physical effort. 
Degree Nature of Physical Effort Points 



1 


Light Physical Effort: 

Requires some physical exertion, walking or climbing stairs, 
or standing for long periods, in such positions as: 

Supervisors of small production areas 

Laboratory positions requiring considerable movement or 
standing most of the day 


5 


2 


Medium Physical Effort: 

Requires considerable physical exertion (more than one half 
of the work day), walking or climbing stairs, or frequent 
traveling in such positions as: 

Supervisors of fairly large production areas 
Supervisors of construction, maintenance, etc. 
Supervisors of sales 


10 


3 


Heavy Physical Effort: 

Requires almost constant physical exertion (most or all of the 
work day), walking, climbing stairs, or traveling in such posi- 
tions as: 

Supervisors of construction, heavy maintenance work, etc. 

Supervisors of large production areas, viz: one or more 
buildings, etc. 

Sales positions requiring constant traveling and change of 
location and conditions 


20 



Figure 173. {Continued.) 



EXECUTIVE AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS 



459 



FACTOR 15— PERSONAL HAZARDS 

This factor measures the personal hazards that may be involved in the perform- 
ance of the work. 

Consider the possibility of accidents or impairment of health, and the degree of 
attention to established safety measures to protect workers during performance of 
the assigned work. 



Degree 



Points 



1 


Work having little accident or health hazard. 


3 


2 


Possible minor injury, unless simple safety regulations observed. 


5 


3 


Possible lost time accident, unless normal safety regulations 
observed. 


9 


4 


Possible lost time accident, unless strict safety measures observed. 


17 


5 


Hazards, such as fire, explosion, etc. . . . unless rigid safety 
measures and operating instructions observed. 


30 



Credit on this factor is given in proportion to the probable frequency and the 
seriousness of the effects of accidents. 

Highest credit should be given to positions where probability of accident may be 
high in spite of all precaution. Involved in such positions is the element of chance 
against which little or no precautions can be taken. 

Positions in relatively hazardous areas may receive little or no credit here for 
the reason that accident frequency is under rigid control. 



Figure 173. (Continued.) 



460 



JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



FACTOR 16— SURROUNDINGS 

This factor measures the degree of discomfort to which the position occupant 
is exposed, for example, heat, cold, weather conditions, dust, fumes, noise, 
etc. . . . 

Consider only the nature of surroundings. 



Degree 



Nature of Surroundings 



Points 



1 


Occasional exposure to unpleasant conditions such as odors, 
fumes, etc., but generally protected from excessive exposure to 
dirt or bad weather conditions, etc. . . . 


3 


2 


Frequent exposure to unpleasant conditions such as odors, fumes, 
wetness, dirt, or weather conditions. 


6 


3 


Almost constant exposure to disagreeable conditions such as bad 
odors, fumes, dust, wetness, dirt, or bad weather conditions. 


11 


4 


Constant exposure to highly disagreeable conditions such as 
corrosive fumes, excessive wetness, dirt, weather conditions, etc. 


20 



Figure 173. (Concluded.) 



The position specifications and position measurements shown in 
Figures 174, 175, and 176 illustrate the weighted-in-points plan 
for middle and top management positions shown in detail in Figure 
173. In each instance the original fourth characteristic. Accuracy, 
has been retained, making the total number of characteristics sev- 
enteen rather than sixteen, as they are shown in Figure 173. 

Note that the position specification shown in Figure 176 carries 
an additional signature. This is necessary, as was pointed out earlier 
(pp. 439-40), because of the additional review required for all 
positions above Grade 7. The descriptions and evaluations of the 
several specifications, as tentatively worked out and subsequently 
approved or amended by the required officials or committees, por- 
tray so clearly the qualifications to be possessed by the successful 
applicant for each position as to make the selection of the proper 
person relatively free from guesswork. 

It is well to recall also that all grades have salary ranges varying 
from 30 per cent in Grade 1 to 50 per cent in Grade 23. Employees 
are generally hired at the minimum rate, and increases in salary 
are based upon performance evaluations. 



EXECUTIVE AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS 
POSITION SPECIFICATION 



461 



WORKS OR OFFICE LOCATION 

Grasselli 



DIVISION 

GAW 



DEPARTMENT 

Prod uction 

SECTION 

Vanous 



POSITION TITLE 11/22/50 

PRODUCTION FOREMAN 

Intermediates Area 
Vat Colors Area 

Sulphur Color 

& Textile Auxiliaries 



POSITION NO. 



POINTS 



210 



GENERAL RESPONSIBILITIES 

Under the direction of the Production Supervisor, supervise, assign, and coordinate 
the activities of the Assistant Production Foreman, Shift Foremen, and operating per- 
sonnel to produce the requirements scheduled in a section of a production area. Train 
and instruct employees in the performance of their assigned tasks, and in company 
policies and procedures. 

SPECIFIC DUTIES 

1. Supervise, assign, and coordinate the activities of the Assistant Production Foreman, 
Shift Foremen, and operating personnel in the production of an Area Section. Assign 
and schedule necessary personnel to carry out the production program. Assist the 
Production Supervisor in determining personnel requirements. Inspect or supervise 
inspections by subordinates of operating equipment to assure proper condition for 
the next operation. Check and report to the Production Supervisor on the status of 
production operations. Inform Production Supervisor of any irregularities in pro- 
duction, correct such irregularities within the scope of ability and jurisdiction, and 
collaborate with Production Supervisor in determining the cause of the irregu- 
larity. If irregularity occurs at a time during other than normal working hours, give 
instructions to subordinates by telephone or, in cases of necessity, make trip to 
plant and personally supervise the correction of the irregularity. 

2. Recommend to the Production Supervisor improvements and revisions in policies 
and procedures within the scope of jurisdiction. Cooperate with Production Fore- 
men of other production sections to achieve coordination of activities. Coordinate 
work of day employees with that of shift employees. Train and instruct Assistant 
Production Foreman, Shift Foremen, and operating personnel in the performance of 
their assigned tasks. Follow up the efficient use of operating equipment, supplies, 
energies and labor; and maintenance of building. Order repair and maintenance 
work on equipment and building, cooperating and working directly with C&R Trades 
Foremen in the execution of such work. Supervise personally the handling of sen- 
sitive or easily contaminated products. Assign storage space for materials within 
building. 

3. Handle Section grievances; recommend to the Production Supervisor disciplinary 
action, promotions, demotions, transfers, separations, etc.; interpret company policies 
to subordinates; enforce safety and good housekeeping practices; prepare records 
and reports. Maintain frequent contacts with Warehousing supervisors. Chemists, 
Field Engineers, and C&R Trades Foremen. 




Figure 174. Position Specification, Production Foreman. 

and Film Corporation.) 



(General Aniline 



POSITION MEASUREMENT 


POSITION TITLE 

PRODUCTION FOREMAN- 


— TntprmpHintPC Arpa 


POSITION 
REQUIREMENTS 




Vat Colors, Sulphur Colors & Tex. Aux. 


BASIS OF MEASUREMENT 


1 
DEGREE : POINTS 1 


1, KNOWLEDGE 


Thorough experience in the safe operation of 
chemical process equipment, such as kettles, 
dryers, stills, filters, etc. Detailed knowledge of 
the process requirements of intermediates, 
chemicals and auxiliaries. Experience in super- 
vision of chemical production, in training and 
instructing personnel, and in following up re- 
sults of subordinates. 


ID 


39 


2. JUDGMENT 


In the selection of personnel and assignment of 
work to carry out the production schedule; in 
decisions necessitated by mechanical failure of 
equipment; in correcting irregularities in pro- 
duction; in handling or preventing grievances. 


IB 


30 


3. PLANNING 


Assist Production Supervisor in scheduUng pro- 
duction. Coordinate work of day employees 
with that of shift employees. Maintain proper 
operating conditions to assure standard quality 
and economy. 


IB 


17 


4. ACCURACY 


In preparing daily production reports, check- 
ing daily time and equipment occupancy re- 
ports, temperature control charts, etc. 


lA 


7 


5. CREATIVE WORK 


In organization of efficient working force and 
improvements in operating techniques. Make 
emergency repairs in order to permit uninter- 
rupted operation. 


lA 


7 


6. RELATIONSHIPS 

INSIDE 


Maintain frequent contacts with Warehouse 
supervisors, Chemists and Field Engineers, and 
C & R foremen. Cooperate with Production 
Foremen of other sections to achieve coordina- 
tion of activities. 


IB 


13 


7. RELATIONSHIPS 

OUTSIDE 


None. 


•• 


•• 



Figure 174. {Continued.) 



EXECUTIVE AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS 



463 



POSITION MEASUREMENT 


POSITION TITLE 

PRODTirTIDN FORFMAN- 


TntormoHio + oc A roo 


POSITION 
REQUIREMENTS 




Vat Colors, Sulphur Colors & Tex. Aux. 


BASIS OF MEASUREMENT 


DEGREE 


POINTS 


8. LINE CONTROL 


Supervise the activities of approximately 51 to 
73 employees. 


4 


35 


9. FUNCTIONAL 
CONTROL 


None. 






10. POLICY 

FORMULATION 


Recommend to Production Supervisor im- 
provements and revisions in policies and pro- 
cedures within area of jurisdiction. 


lA 


7 


11. POLICY 

INTERPRETATION 


Interpret company policies to subordinates. 


IB 


10 


12. INVESTMENT OF 
CAPITAL IN 
FIXED ASSETS 


None. 






13. CARE OF 

CORPORATION 
ASSETS 


Responsible for losses of material in process, 
or damage to equipment through carelessness. 
Responsible for the proper identification of 
products. 


IB 


7 


14. CONFIDENTIAL 
INFORMATION 


Access to processes, production methods and 
development of new products in assigned area. 


lA 


8 


15. PHYSICAL 
DEMAND 


Walking, standing; some desk work. 


2 


10 


16. PERSONAL 
HAZARDS 


Operations involve utilization of corrosive 
chemicals. Many processes are carried out at 
high temperatures, under pressure, and under 
vacuum. 


3 


9 


17. SURROUNDINGS 


Exposure to dyestuff factory conditions, fumes, 
steam, wetness, etc. 


3 


11 


GRADE 5 


TOTAL POINTS 


210 



Figure 174. {Concluded.) 



464 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

POSITION SPECIFICATION 



WORKS OR OFFICE LOCATION DIVISION 

Grasselli I GAW 



DEPARTMENT 

Accounting 



SECTION 

General Accounting 



POSITION TITLE 



GENERAL ACCOUNTING 
SUPERVISOR 



7/26/50 



POSITION NO. 



204 



GENERAL RESPONSIBILITIES 

Lay out and supervise, under the direction of the Assistant Plant Accountant, the 
compilation, maintenance, and coordination of accounting records and reports. Recom- 
mend and set up changes in general accounting procedures and personnel. 

SPECIFIC DUTIES 

1. Supervise, lay out and schedule the activities of the General Accounting Section 
personnel. Supervise the preparation and assembly of monthly journal vouchers 
for accounting operations from the following sources: daily cash receipts and dis- 
bursements, weekly and semi-monthly payrolls, invoices forwarded daily to Hudson 
Street Office, Home Office, and Rensselaer. Other journal vouchers provide for 
accrual of expenses, distribution of repair and maintenance expense, auto truck 
operations, etc. Supervise the posting of these vouchers to the plant general and 
operating expense ledgers, from which monthly financial statements are prepared 
for Hudson Street Office. 

2. Supervise the distribution of monthly operating expenses; the preparation of operat- 
ing expense statements, and monthly, semi-annual and annual reports on Research 
and Development expense. Determine the basis for distribution of expense. Verify 
cash receipts and disbursements; maintain and reconcile Works and Payroll Bank 
Accounts. Personally reconcile the Supervisory Payroll. Make daily requests to the 
National City Bank, New York, for transfer of funds to the Linden Trust Company 
to cover payroll checks. 

3. Supervise the Accounts Payable section and approve invoices for payment. Prepare 
a daily transmittal listing of approved invoices and forward to Hudson Street Office 
for payment. Issue and receive General Office Settlements to and from Hudson 
Street Office to effect transfers of items between the plant and general office. 

4. Recommend to the Assistant Plant Accountant changes in General Accounting Sec- 
tion organization and procedures which are designed to facilitate or improve the 
work of the section, or to meet new situations. Interpret and enforce company 
policy. Train new employees in general accounting procedure. Recommend to the 
Assistant Plant Accountant disciplinary action, promotions, demotions, transfers, 
terminations, and salary treatment. Coordinate activities of section with those of 
other sections of the Accounting Department. 




'M^^J^£M^n^ 



Figure 175. Position Specification, General Accounting Supervisor. (Gen- 
eral Aniline and Film Corporation.) 



EXECUTIVE AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS 



465 



POSITION MEASUREMENT 


POSITION TITLE 






POSITION 
REQUIREMENTS 




GENERAL ACCOUNTING SUPERVISOR 


BASIS OF MEASUREMENT 


DEGREE 


POINTS 


1. KNOWLEDGE 


High school education plus at least four years 
of higher accountancy. Several years of actual 
accounting experience. 


3C 


53 


2. JUDGMENT 


Advise Assistant Plant Accountant on per- 
sonnel requirements. Interview, recommend 
for hiring, train new personnel. Decide within 
framework of company policy, personnel prob- 
lems such as grievances, disciplinary action, 
etc. Recommend action on personnel changes 
such as layoff, promotions, demotions, wage 
and salary changes. Recommend solutions of 
operational and clerical difficulties. 


2B 


37 


3. PLANNING 


Schedule burden distribution, accounts payable 
operations, journal entries, and manpower 
utilization, with a view toward meeting sched- 
ules for the preparation of financial statements. 


IB 


17 


4. ACCURACY 


Responsible for the processing of invoices for 
payment and the preparation of a variety of 
detailed accounting reports submitted to the 
Plant, Hudson Street and the Home Office. 


3C 


19 


5. CREATIVE WORK 


Use ingenuity and resourcefulness in fully 
utilizing existing office equipment. Keep in- 
formed on newly available equipment and 
latest methods of accounting operations. 


2A 


10 


6. RELATIONSHIPS- 
INSIDE 


Contact supervisors of Cost, Property and 
Payroll Sections of the Accounting Depart- 
ment on data supplied by each for balancing 
purposes. Contact supervisors in Accounting 
Department, Hudson Street Office. 


2B 


17 


7. RELATIONSHIPS— 
OUTSIDE 


Contact Treasurer's Office, National City Bank, 
New York, for transfer of funds to Linden 
Trust Company to cover payroll checks. 







Figure 175. {Continued.) 



466 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 






POSITION MEASUREMENT 


POSITION TITLE 

GENERAL ACCOUNTING SUPERVISOR 


POSITION 
REQUIREMENTS 




BASIS OF MEASUREMENT 


DEGREE POINTS 


8. LINE CONTROL 


Supervise 9 employees. Constantly check on 
their performance, institute training and in- 
struct in operations. Select new personnel. 


2 . 15 


9. FUNCTIONAL 
CONTROL 


Responsible for reporting on the adequacy of 
data forwarded regularly from all departments 
and which is necessary in the preparation of 
General Accounting reports. 


lA 


7 


10. POLICY 

FORMULATION 


On basis of knowledge, recommend changes in 
accounting policies (operational and per- 
sonnel) to the Assistant Plant Accountant. 


IB 10 


11. POLICY 

INTERPRETATION 


Responsible for interpretation of company 
policies to all employees in the General Ac- 
counting Section. 


2C 19 


12. INVESTMENT OF 
CAPITAL IN 
FIXED ASSETS 


None. 




• • 


13. CARE OF 

CORPORATION 
ASSETS 


None. 




14. CONFIDENTIAL 
INFORMATION 


Minor. 




1 


15. PHYSICAL 
DEMAND 


Very light. 






16. PERSONAL 
HAZARDS 


None. 






17. SURROUNDINGS 


General office. 


•• 


•• 


GRADE 5 


TOTAL POINTS 1 204 

I 



Figure 175. {Concluded.) 



EXECUTIVE AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS 
POSITION SPECIFICATION 



467 



WORKS OR OFFICE LOCATION 

Grasselli 



DIVISION 

GAW 



DEPARTMENT 

Engineering 



POSITION TITLE 



FIELD ENGINEER 



10/10/51 



POSITION NO. 



289 



GENERAL RESPONSIBILITIES 

Under the direction of the Chief Field Engineer, organize, plan, schedule, and func- 
tionally supervise, through Master Mechanic — Areas, Assistant Master Mechanics, and 
finally through Trade Foremen, all maintenance, repairs, and construction work in the 
plant, preparing the necessary estimates, sketches and other engineering and cost data. 
(Each Field Engineer is assigned to a specific area and therefore the duties described 
herein apply only to the area assigned to the engineer involved.) 

SPECIFIC DUTIES 

1. Consult with Department Managers, Area Superintendents, Plant Chemists, and 
Supervisors so as to organize and plan all construction, repair and maintenance work 
in the respective area. Schedule such work economically and consistent with pro- 
duction requirements and orderly plant operations, collaborating closely with the 
Master Mechanic — Areas, Assistant Master Mechanics, and Trade Foremen in 
scheduling and in reviewing the work performed. 

2. Prepare cost estimates on new construction, equipment replacement or rebuilding. 
Determine which expenditures are to be charged against capital assets in accordance 
with established accounting procedures. 

3. Determine most effective, efficient and economical methods of effecting maintenance, 
repair and construction work consistent with sound engineering principles and 
practices. 

4. Recommend to Department Managers or Area Superintendents, equipment suitable 
for specific production requirements, incorporating in such recommendations ma- 
terials of construction best suited for chemical handling. 

5. Investigate existing equipment and method of mechanical handling to determine if 
such equipment and methods are efficient and economical or whether they war- 
rant improvement. 

6. Consult and cooperate with Chief Project and Design Engineers in design and layout 
of proposed new processes, and on proposed alterations in existing facihties. 

7. Determine, through periodic building and facilities inspections and after consulta- 
tion with Department Manager or Area Superintendent, Master Mechanic — Areas, 
and Assistant Master Mechanic, the need for preventive maintenance work. Schedule 
such work in a manner that will not interfere with orderly operation of the area 
involved. 

8. Prepare sketches and drawings of maintenance work for the guidance of Assistant 
Master Mechanics and the Trade Foremen. 



iiT^rJu'-MMjca^s^^p^/i-^/ [j j]f\ fjJ^ 



'Uk 






^PPROVED B> 



»PPROVED 



^. 7- /<i<^t-^^ DATE /^-^^-^^VaPPROVE. 




/-J^o-.i 



'^pji^cU,.,^ JL^/2'fL^ 



Figure 176. Position Specification, Field Engineer, (General Aniline and 

Film Corporation.) 



468 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 



POSITION MEASUREMENT 


POSITION TITLE 




1 


POSITION 
REQUIREMENTS 




FIELD ENGINEER ! 


BASIS OF MEASUREMENT < DEGREE 


POINTS 


1. KNOWLEDGE 


Engineering degree plus practical on-the-job 
experience in chemical and mechanical en- 
gineering. Understanding of basic accounting 
procedures, knowledge of the various trades. 
Knowledge of safety regulations and govern- 
mental codes. Knowledge of materials of 
construction. 


3D 


65 


2. JUDGMENT 


Must use judgment with respect to extent, 
methods and materials used in construction 
and repair to effect maximum savings. Judg- 
ment in determining capital expenditures. 
Determine sequence of work in accordance 
with plant requirements and plant operations. 


2C 


1 

45 


3. PLANNING 


Schedule and plan all C & R work in a specific 
area of the Plant in accordance with require- 
ments for preventive maintenance work, con- 
struction and repairs, economically and with 
a minimum of inconvenience to normal plant 
operations. 


IC 


22 


4. ACCURACY 


Accuracy required in estimating costs, prepar- 
ing engineering data, bids and estimates. Ac- 
curacy required in checking work performed 
under his functional jurisdiction. 


3B 


15 


5. CREATIVE WORK 


Required in improvising, improving and invent- 
ing new procedures, methods and apparatus 
for existing or new facilities and equipment. 


2C 


22 


6. RELATIONSHIPS 

INSIDE 


Coordinates activities with Production Depart- 
ment and C & R Trade Foremen, Assistant 
Master Mechanics, Production Area Super- 
visors, Department Heads, and other Plant 
supervisory personnel. 


2C 


23 


7. RELATIONSHIPS 

OUTSIDE 


Occasional contact with outside contractors 
and suppliers. 







Figure 176. (Continued.) 



J 



EXECUTIVE AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS 



469 



POSITION MEASUREMENT 


POSITION TITLE 








POSITION 
REQUIREMENTS 




FIELD ENGINEER 


BASIS OF MEASUREMENT 


DEGREE 


POINTS 


8. LINE CONTROL 


None. 




•• 


9. FUNCTIONAL 
CONTROL 


Exercise strong functional control over Assist- 
ant Master Mechanics and Trade Foremen do- 
ing construction, repair and maintenance work 
in the area. 


2C 


30 


10. POLICY 

FORMULATION 


Recommend to the Chief Field Engineer, 
policies and procedures concerning methods 
and general handling of all construction, re- 
pair and maintenance activities, cost estimating, 
preventive maintenance, etc. 


2B 


14 


11. POLICY 

INTERPRETATION 


Interpret engineering standards and safety regu- 
lations to Assistant Master Mechanics and 
C&R personnel. 


2B 


14 


12. INVESTMENT OF 
CAPITAL IN 
FIXED ASSETS 


None. 






13. CARE OF 

CORPORATION 
ASSETS 


Responsible for care and maintenance of all 
Engineering equipment and facilities in as- 
signed area, and for the care of Plant build- 
ings and equipment while under construction. 


3A 


10 


14. CONFIDENTIAL 
INFORMATION 


Has technical knowledge of some phases of 
research and development in a specified area, 
the divulging of which may cause damage of 
some importance. 


lA 


8 


15. PHYSICAL 
DEMAND 


Requires considerable physical exertion, such 
as frequent walking, climbing stairs, and stand- 
ing during long periods of time. 


2 


10 


16. PERSONAL 
HAZARDS 


Possible injury unless normal safety precau- 
tions are taken. 


2 


5 


17. SURROUNDINGS 


Frequent exposure to unpleasant conditions 
such as odors, fumes, dirt, mud and weather 
conditions of dust and heat. 


2 


6 


GRADE 8 


TOTAL POINTS 


289 



Figure 176. (Concluded.) 



16 

INCENTIVES VITAL TO MAN-JOB 
UNIT CONTROL 



Human incentives are simple, and relatively few in number. 
Most of us derive personal satisfaction from a knowledge that 
we have done our best, and some would consider this inner 
satisfaction as adequate reward. Some strive for the prestige 
success will bring, for the admiration and respect of their fellow- 
men. Some work for power and the influence so obtained over 
the lives and activities of others. But for most of us, I think we 
will agree that the strongest and most desirable incentive of all 
is financial gain — not, of course, in money itself, but because of 
what one can do with it. Much has been said about the vulgarity 
of the money motive, but I doubt one could find a cleaner or 
more honest basis for rewarding high performance. A desire for 
power is surely less worthy, and I cannot believe that efforts 
simply to win the admiration of the crowd are ethically more 
desirable. 

— Crawford Greexewalt 

Incentives in General. As may be seen in Figure 1 a wage in- 
centive plan belongs to the quantitative side of job control, is oper- 
ational in character, i.e., it can be effective in keeping operation at 
the optimum level, and with the tasks set for it, allows real control. 
Either subfunction, Job Evaluation or a Wage Incentive, can be 
applied without the other and no one can say in general where 
either may expediently be omitted. Certainly Job Evaluation pro- 
vides the base rates which need to be justly derived for all jobs, but, 
as a prime force in production, "payment by results," as the English 
call the extra financial incentive, may be equally vital. That some 
incentive is basic to good performance no one would deny, but a 
few otherwise smart managers seem to forget how much extra 
performance can be obtained by using extra incentives. 

For all animate life nature has related results to foregoing actions, 
so that in natural relationships there is always appropriate incentive 

470 



INCENTIVES TO MAN- JOB UNIT CONTROL 471 

to do or not to do things. "Self-interest is the first law of life." For 
social beings this needs judicious self and governmental restraint but 
without strong positive and negative incentives our early ancestors 
would soon have damaged themselves, perhaps starved, and prob- 
ably ceased to have offspring. Certainly progress would never have 
arisen. We leave such preposterous considerations to the imagina- 
tion — but it would be well to pause and do the imagining, because 
taking for granted the tie-in of incentives leads, in artificial relation- 
ships, to neglect of the prime mover which must function properly 
to activate the most carefully planned operations. In other words, 
the pains and expenses of acquiring the best machines and methods 
may be half wasted if the operational incentive is deficient. 

Incentive Management. Undoubtedly the outstanding large- 
scale achievement in applying incentives to employees has been 
made by the Lincoln Electric Company of Cleveland, Ohio. In 
December of 1952 its 1208 employees received in total a year-end 
bonus of $5,131,810 and had $498,000 added to their retirement 
annuities. Nearly all these employees had also been receiving piece- 
rate payments at high efficiency. Their productivity per man 
measured in dollar sales was $35,600. Lesser but steadily increas- 
ing results have been regularly achieved at Lincoln's for nineteen 
years. All that time productivity has been increasing, selling prices 
have been declining, markets have been expanding, and company 
profits have been gaining. This case has been much publicized and 
there are two little books which tell the story ^ officially. 

We cannot do justice to the Lincoln achievement in the space 
allowed but we wish to explain that "incentive management" means 
more than any one device, such as the piece-rate plan, the annual 
bonus, the retirement plan, or all these monetary benefits. Mr. Lin- 
coln's management develops the latent abihties of all the employees. 
"All men would be geniuses if they should develop to the extent 
they can." He believes that "The feeling that we are outstanding 
and are so recognized by our fellows ... is the primary drive on 
which all successful effort to increase man's efficiency in any human 
effort must be based." To that end he creates dynamic leadership 
and develops every employee to think in terms of improving every- 
thing. In effect it is an all-plant league comprising many teams 
through which contributions come voluntarily from all individuals. 
This is vastly different from a plant-wide group task on which a 
single efficiency is credited. In fact a merit rating system is used to 

^ J. F. Lincoln, Lincoln's Incentive System (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 
Inc.); J. F. Lincoln, Incentive Management (Cleveland: The Lincoln Electric Co.). 



472 JOB EVALUATION METHODS 

see that each individual is rewarded proportionately to his self-made 
credits. 

The Scanlon Plan. The plant-wide group task as a base for bonus 
payment, tried in desperation during World War II, was not very 
successful because the task was always crude and attention to part- 
nership possibilities was rarely or incompetently undertaken, but 
both of those matters can be improved and such improvement is 
intended in the Scanlon plan. In fact the plan at best seems to 
approach the goals of Lincoln Electric's "incentive management" 
and in one respect the Scanlon plan is superior, in that it officially 
draws the union into constructive cooperation. Lincoln has no 
unions. 

In 1936 Joseph Scanlon, temporarily an open-hearth worker, but 
previously an accountant, was elected president of his local in the 
newly organized Steel Workers' Organizing Committee. His em- 
ployer was a marginal producer of steel and losing money by 1938. 
Scanlon and other union officers persuaded this employer to visit 
CHnton S. Golden, the union vice president in Pittsburgh. Golden, 
long an advocate of cooperation, advised them to devise a plan of 
joint action and try to save the enterprise. The resulting plan did 
save that enterprise and in no uncertain terms, so Golden got the 
late Philip Murray to put Scanlon in S.W.O.C. National head- 
quarters where he could spread the new "union-management pro- 
ductivity" plan. The largest of the plants which promptly followed 
this "principle of participation" was one of the basic steel units 
employing 4,000, the smallest one a water-heater company employ- 
ing 150. All gained extraordinary success.- Soon the Adamson 
Company of East Palestine, Ohio, installed the plan and it was 
written up in Life.^ The spectacular results at the Adamson plant 
attracted the attention of Douglas McGregor, then head of the 
industrial relations section of M.I.T. (now president of Antioch 
College). McGregor succeeded in bringing Scanlon to M.I.T., 
where he became professor of industrial relations. 

The plan itself is based on the observation that for any one kind 
of manufacturing business, or at least for a particular plant, the 
total labor cost will over the years bear a constant ratio to the total 
production value. Thus a normal labor cost is established for a 
particular plant and labor saving can be measured against that 
"norm." When the products are too diverse to allow the establish- 
ment of this labor cost, an equivalent norm may be a calculated 

^ See The Dynamics of Industrial Democracy by C. S. Golden and H. J. 
Ruttenberg. 

^ "Every Man a Capitalist," by John Chamberlain, December 23, 1946. 



i 



INCENTIVES TO MAN-JOB UNIT CONTROL 473 

percentage of operating profits. Good accounting is, of course, 
necessary. For instance, the monthly value of product should be 
corrected for inve